As each and every one of us is different, so too is our skin.

The various combinations are normal, dry, oily, combination, and sensitive and aged skin. In normal skin, the oil glands produce moderate sebum, whereas dry skin is caused by under or inactive glands that do not produce enough sebum to keep the skin naturally lubricated. Oily skin is due to too much sebum, resulting in skin that has a greasy texture and appears shiny. Combination skin is the most common as most people have dry parts & oily parts; known as the T-Zone. The sensitive skin is felt to be more of a skin condition rather than a skin type as it refers to the delicacy of the skin rather than its type as it is a reaction to certain cosmetics and other materials. (Facial Skin Types, 2003-2008).

When treating skin it is very important to analyze what the skin type is beforehand. In determining the best course of action to take, clinical research has shown that genetics, hair color, eye color, ethnicity, and true skin color all play into the skin’s response to injury, including some treatments such as dermabrasion and microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing and chemical peels. The aesthetician is able to determine which clients may have a greater or lesser risk of complications, including scars or pigmentation problems from treatments by typing their skin. (Hill, 2007).
Along with skin types, there are a few divisions and subdivisions that can affect the skin; acne, psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea. All of which can be partially treated but care has to be taken when using cosmetics and facial creams.
SHAPES (D = Vitamin D), (S= Secretion), (P= Protection), (S= Storage), (E= Excretion), (H= Heat).
Skin conditions like, acne and rosacea are very different from each other. Acne is caused by an inflammation of the skin resulting in eruptions on the surface, i. e. whiteheads, blackheads, pimples, even cysts. The acne is classified into three categories; comedonal, inflammatory, and nodulocystic. Acne vulgaris has three factors in common, too much facial oil, hormones, and bacteria. Poor hygiene is not the cause of acne. (Luxuries, 2003-2008) The skin condition, rosacea is caused by varying degrees of redness due to enlargement and dilation of blood vessels beneath the surface of the skin. (Rosacea Care – Symptoms and Treatment, 2003-2008). Unlike acne vulgaris, the skin does not erupt when suffering from rosacea.
The shedding of the outer layer of skin, known as desquamation has its benefits, like exfoliation it rids the skin of flaky, old skin, making way for fresh new cells to make new skin. Certain treatments can accelerate this process, a chemical peel is one of them.
Facial steaming is an excellent method of caring for your skin. As it only involves placing your face into the steam from water, there is the added bonus of it being natural. Opening and cleansing the pores, the skin will feel softer and cleaner with less visible pores.
Collagen and elastin are both fibers found in our dermis, the deeper layer of skin. They are both proteins but collagen and elastin differ significantly in their content of basic amino acids. (Fluorescence microscopic distinction between elastin and collagen, 2004)
Using a magnifying lamp is useful as it enables a higher level of sight than the naked eye and clearly shows any imperfection, making it a simple task when analyzing skin. (D’Angelo, 2002).
The Wood lamp is similar to a magnifying lamp, only with a Wood lamp you are able to see even deeper into the skin.
Erythema is a name applied to redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. Edema is the pressure of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body. A papule is a small, superficial elevation of the skin. A Macule is a spot. A Pustule is an elevation of the cuticle containing pus. A Comedone is a plug of sebum. A Milia is a small subepidermal cyst which is usually multiple, referred to as milium. Eczema is a thickening and scaling of the skin. (Education, 1997-2007).
Moisturizing face masks will improve the skins moisture levels. The mask works as a moisturizer but is more intense and quick. A mud or clay face mask is good for oily skins as it absorbs excess impurities and grease. A gel face mask is particularly good if you have irritated skin or have suffered too much heat from the sun. (Facial Masks).
Using different ingredients in setting masks have differing qualities; Kaolin is used for acne-prone and oily skin because of its absorbent properties. Fullers Earth is similar to Kaolin but also has deep cleansing properties. Rose Water is more suited to dry and sensitive skin because of its mild toning effects and Calamine is useful for aging or sensitive skin because it has a cooling, soothing effect. 14. If your face has never shown an oily shine and you’ve never suffered from pimples or acne, chances are you were born with normal to dry skin. If that’s the case, you’ll want to keep it sufficiently moisturized and use skin-care products specially formulated for dry skin. If on the other hand, your pores are visible, especially on your chin, nose, and between your eyebrows, you’re prone to breakouts and clogged pore, but your skin looks scaly and dry in places, you’re dehydrated. (New Skin Oasis, 2005 & 2006)
Hyperhidrosis is excessive perspiring. Anhidrosis is an absence of sweat. Bromhidrosis is foul-smelling perspiration (body odor). (Education, 1997-2007)
Two disorders of the sebaceous glands are milia (whiteheads) and comedones (blackheads).
An eccrine gland is a tubular gland that occurs in the skin on almost all parts of the skin. An apocrine gland is a droplet of sweat. (Education, 1997-2007)
Client consultation is important because of all the different skin types and skin conditions. Analyzing a client’s skin before treatment of any type will ensure the correct products or treatments are used.
The acid mantle is a fine film with a slightly acidic pH level that protects the skin from the sun. (Gil Yosipovitch, 2003).
Skin Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer.
Eczema – itchy and flaky. Dermatitis – itchy, blotchy, and flaky. Psoriasis – thickening of the skin, flaky, itchy, usually only affects the joints and isolated areas. Acne – eruptions underneath the surface of the skin. Rosacea – reddening of the skin, blotchiness.
The meaning of allergy is to be allergic to something. Your body or skin reacts letting you know that what you have come into contact with disagrees with you.
Albinism – a total lack of melanin in the skin. Melasma – dark brown, symmetric patches of pigment on the face. Vitiligo – smooth white patches on the skin. Port-wine stain – a flat, pink, red, or purple birthmark. Strawberry hemangiomas – a slightly raised, red birthmark.

Reference

Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Skin Care Tips Online: http://www. skin-care-tips-online. com/Facial-Masks. Facial Skin Types. (2003-2008).
Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www.herballuxuries.com/skin_types. Fluorescence microscopic distinction between elastin and collagen. (2004, December
From SpringerLink: http://www.SpringerLink.com/content/kr21x1633687171q/ Gil Yosipovitch, M. a. (2003).
The Importance of Skin pH. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from CWI Medical: http://www.cwimedical. com/incontinence-skin-ph.
Hill, P. (2007, May Wednesday). Professional Aesthetics Series: The Importance of Skin Typing Before Treatment. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Pamela Hill Institute: http://pamelahillinstitute. com/95/professional-aesthetics-series-the-importance-of-skin-typing-before-treatment/Luxuries,H.(2003-2008).
Acne Causes and Treatments. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www.herballuxuries. com/acne.New Skin Oasis. (2005 & 2006).
Retrieved March 16, 2008, from New Skin Oasis: http://www. newskinoasis. com/skin_care_tips. asp? skin_care_tip=14 Oily and Acne-Prone Skin. (2007).
http://www.preventable.com/mall/Preeventacne/Oily%20and%20acne-prone%20skin.
Rosacea Care – Symptoms and Treatment. (2003-2008).
Retrieved March 16, 2008, from Herbal Luxuries: http://www.herballuxuries. com/rosacea.

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