Chronically Ill Populations

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HCA 430 Special Populations

This week’s second discussion forum focuses on the populations of the chronically ill and the disabled. 

You may be familiar with the common quote “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” In reality, however, you may know of a person, family, or group who is not receiving adequate preventive or medical care due to a lack of resources and funds. 

· Choose one specific chronic illness or disability of your choice.

· Select two resources in your community that address issues related to the chronic illness/disability and describe the services offered.

· Select two national resources that address issues related to the chronic illness/disability and describe the services offered.

· Analyze whether or not the continuum of care services are adequate for the population with the chosen chronic illness/disability.  Explain why or why not.

Your initial contribution should be 250 to 300 words in length. Your research and claims must be supported by your course text and at least one other scholarly source.  Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Writing Center.

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts.  Provide a substantive response (minimum of 100 words) to at least two of your peers. Are there any similarities and/or differences between your communities or states? Do you agree or disagree with your peers’ findings on adequacy?

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 ReplyReply to Week 2 – Discussion 2

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COLLAPSE SUBDISCUSSION Rebecca Wilson

Rebecca Wilson 

Jun 1, 2022Jun 1 at 8:22am

Manage Discussion Entry

Hello Class,

Welcome to your second discussion for week 2.  I am eager to get the discussions going!

Many people assume all dementias are Alzheimer’s related but, in fact, there are a number of different types and causes. You can learn more about these at www.Alzheimers.gov (Links to an external site.)  if you are interested. 

There are a number of services that are somewhat helpful but none of them provide low-cost in-home care for those who don’t wish or are not ready to move to a nursing home. In 2013, Medicare and Medicaid began providing in-home coverage because it helps keep people out of nursing homes for a longer period of time which means less money is spent caring for the people who need a little bit of help but not at the level offered in nursing homes.   Some of the services are Hospice, which requires the person to have a terminal diagnosis with a life expectancy of no more than six months, and there has to be clearly defined declining health.  It is my understanding that Hospice has people who may help with activities of daily living, but I am not positive of that. It’s certainly worth pursuing. Medicaid is the state aid healthcare program.  Nearly all of that person’s financial resources have to be used first and the application process is a bit challenging.  Medicaid will allow a person’s funeral expenses to be kept if the funeral has been pre-paid.  The funeral home where the pre-planning occurred has to provide documentation to Medicaid which can also complicate the process. In my state, Medicaid allows the living spouse to remain in the home till they pass away.  A lien is put on the estate of the person who went to the nursing home so that Medicaid can recover some or all of the money spent on that person’s care.  If the estate does not cover the full cost, the money paid for a Medicaid recipient’s healthcare and nursing home costs is derived from our taxes.  Steps you can take in advance of needing care yourself are to prepare legal documents, such as:

· durable power of attorney which allows someone to handle your finances if you are incapacitated

· medical power of attorney which allows someone to make medical decisions for you if you are incapacitated

· living will which clearly defines what kind of care you do and do not want if you are in a terminal health situation

· final will

Other steps you may want to take are to purchase long-term care insurance before you turn 50.  You may also want to pre-plan and pre-pay for your own funeral.

When answering the questions be sure to use your critical thinking skills, be sure to use and cite references to give your response merit.  Also, be sure to respond to at least two peers.

Here is to a great discussion.

Dr. Rebecca

Strategic Market Planning

Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, read Chapters 1 and 2 from our textbook and the instructor guidance along with the following resource:  The Definitive Guide to Strategic Market Planning  (Links to an external site.)

Choose one of the organizations from the list below or identify a nonprofit hospital in your community to research. Review the Mission, Vision, and Values (MVVs) statements from the organization. If the values statement is not available, please indicate that in your initial post. Please note, this same list of organizations is provided for the  Week 3 assignment  and the  Week 5 final paper . You may want to review multiple organizations to determine which one you would like to use for those assignments. While you are not required to use the same organization in the Week 3 assignment as you this activity, you are expected to use the same organization for both the Weeks 3 and 5 assignments:

· CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Health System

· Cleveland Clinic

· Henry Ford Health System

· Lutheran Services in America

· Mayo Clinic

· Medtronic

· Shriners Hospitals for Children

· Jude Children’s Research Hospital

· Stanford Medical Center

· Trinity Health

· UC Davis Medical Center

· University hospital or other nonprofit hospital in your community

· University of Texas Health (UT Health)

· Veteran’s Health Administration (VHA)

Information search tips:

Search the organization’s name on the internet. Open the homepage of the organization. Select the links for the different pages, usually located at the top of the webpage or in the footer section at the bottom of the page. In addition, you can enter the organization’s name and the topic in the search box. For example, Cleveland Clinic Mission, Vision, and Values

For additional guidance, review the following resources:

· What Is CRAAP? A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources  (Links to an external site.)

· Advanced Internet Search Techniques  (Links to an external site.)

· Keywords Are Critical  (Links to an external site.)

In your initial post,

· Identify the organization and provide a URL to the Mission, Vision and Values page.

· Explain why the Mission, Vision, and Values are linked to the strategic plan.

· Briefly discuss two goals you would expect to find in the strategic plan for the chosen organization and include your rationale for the choices.

· Examine why it is important to include the marketing department in the strategic plan.

Your initial post must be at least 250 words and use a minimum of two credible sources to support your discussion content. The supporting resources can be the textbook as well as the required or recommended resources provided in this course, the University of Arizona Global Campus Library, or credible websites.

The  Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources  (Links to an external site.)  table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. All referenced materials must include citations and references in APA format. Please see directions for including APA Style elements on these Writing Center pages:  APA: Citing Within Your Paper  (Links to an external site.)  and  APA: Formatting Your References List  (Links to an external site.) .

Discussion 2 Response 2

Submit a meaningful reply of 400 – 450 words to the below post. Synthesize course material and  demonstrate critical thinking, graduate-level writing skills, and reflection.

 Cite the textbooks and scholarly articles from professional accounting and business  journals.   Use you textbook (attached) and at least 3 journal articles as references  Include Biblical integration in response to each question posed and in the analysis of  each peer’s post demonstrate analysis, synthesis of all course materials, tact, and insight. 

Opinion is worth little unless it is supported by quotes and/or paraphrases from the textbooks and  professional journals. Adhere to current APA format in all posts.

Abstract

         In the time that business has been around, so has the idea of cost and profit. According to research from Codjia (2017), cost pertains to money a business spends to acquire materials for resale or inclusion in its production cycle while profit equals total revenues minus accounting costs. Simply put, cost is what a business pays to work on a project while profit is the money they make minus expenses. The company selected for this research is Whole Foods. Whole Foods uses both cost estimation and profit planning to successfully execute its projects.

         Keywords: cost estimation, cost management, profit planning, strategy

Cost Estimation and Profit Planning: Whole Foods

         Cost estimation is a statement that gives the value of the cost. According to research from Blocher et. al. (2021), it is the development of a well-defined relationship between a cost object and its cost drivers. The purpose of the cost estimation is to predict cost. It helps predict future costs, identify key cost drivers, and is useful in planning and decision making. In research from Suwanjang and Prompoon (2012), cost estimation is one of the most challenging works to do because the information on cost is not known until the final stage of the project. However, the cost of a project needs to be estimated at the initial stage of the project to calculate a total amount that determines a project’s budget. Although cost estimation can be challenging, it is an essential part of the project that helps to manage all a project’s affiliated costs to keep the project on budget and deliver on time.

         Profit planning is the set of actions taken to achieve a targeted profit level. According to research from Blocher et. al. (2021), it is a method of analyzing how various operating and marketing decisions affect profit. It is based on an understanding of the relationship between variable costs, fixed costs, unit selling price, and output level. In research from Parajuli and Shrestha (2020), profit planning is an income calculation. It is a pre-determination of the expenditures of a project. It predicts how much revenue will be generated and how it should be spent to meet the criteria for investment and profit. Profit planning is looking at the potential return on the investment into the project.

         Cost estimation and profit planning are important aspects of managing resources that Whole Foods uses to successfully execute projects. According to research from Robertiello (2011), Whole Foods Market’s Midwest Region division uses a software recipe and inventory management control program. The purpose of the software is to value the costs related to its growing volume of food service and deli business. The software helps the division of the natural-food chain increase deli efficiency through margin controls and recipe information. It looks at the relationship between cost and cost drivers. The software helps in profit planning by calculating margin and food-cost information, leading deli officials to eliminate products when specific ingredients sometimes temporarily with fluctuating prices become too expensive. By looking at how operating and marketing decisions affect profit, Whole Foods is increasing profit by controlling margin and food cost.

         Cost estimation and profit planning are a technique to count the cost. In the scriptures, it talks about counting the cost as well. In Luke, it says, “For which of you, desiring to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, whether he has enough to complete it? Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him, saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish’ (Luke 14:29-30, ESV).” This scripture helps us to see that proper planning is important before we agree to a task or project. We need to analyze what is required and calculate the cost if we should accept or reject a task or project. For Christians, this is an important aspect of discipleship as we need to consider what it would cost and what is involved to become a disciple of Jesus. Business leaders would do well to incorporate counting the cost in business. Before investing time and resources into a project, a business should count the cost by estimating the cost and establishing a target profit.

References

Blocher, E., Juras, P., & Smith, S. (2021). Cost management: A strategic emphasis (9th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Codjia, M. (2017, November 21). Difference between accounting costs & accounting profit. Small Business – Chron.Com. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-accounting-costs-accounting-profit-26278.html

Parajuli, D., & Shrestha, P. (2020). Strategic profit planning and organizational performance in public sector commercial banks of Nepal. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting11(22). https://doi.org/10.7176/rjfa/11-22-01

Robertiello, J. (2011, December 31). Whole Foods cooks up cost management for deli with software. Supermarket News. https://www.supermarketnews.com/archive/whole-foods-cooks-cost-management-deli-software

Suwanjang, H., & Prompoon, N. (2012). Framework for developing a software cost estimation model for software modification based on a relational matrix of project profile and software cost using an analogy estimation method. International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, 129–134. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijcce.2012.v1.36

HICK

Elaborate on:

· An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child 

· Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.

· Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.

· Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.

· Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

Discussion 2 Response 1

Submit a meaningful reply of 400 – 450 words to the below post. Synthesize course material and
demonstrate critical thinking, graduate-level writing skills, and reflection.


 Cite the textbooks and scholarly articles from professional accounting and business
journals.
 Use you textbook (attached) and at least 3 journal articles as references
 Include Biblical integration in response to each question posed and in the analysis of
each peer’s post demonstrate analysis, synthesis of all course materials, tact, and insight. 

Opinion is worth little unless it is supported by quotes and/or paraphrases from the textbooks and
professional journals. Adhere to current APA format in all posts.

Introduction

Each and every company that there is must sit down at one point and decide what is the best way that the company should go about their cost estimation and profit planning. Costing is defined as “the process of accumulating, classifying, and assigning direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead costs to cost objects, which most commonly are products, services, or projects” (Blocher, E. J., Stout, D., & Smith, S. 2021). There are two types of costing systems that companies tend to use, job costing and process costing. Depending on the functions of the company, it depends on what systems are best used.

Description of Each System

Job costing is a system that is used when companies need to be able to be more adaptable with their spending and need flexibility depending on what materials and labor that they need (Fayek, A. R. 2001). Process costing on the other hand is used when companies do not need to have adaptable processes and instead can use the same processes, supplies, and amount of labor every time in order to get their products financed and finished (Drury, C. 1992). The specifics from each costing system helps each company to decide what costing system is the right pick for them. Some of the characteristics of job costing include the fact that each factor of the process has a specific cost that has been adapted to best fit that certain project or contact (Blocher, E. J., Stout, D., & Smith, S. 2021). Process costing on the other hand is used when companies can mass produce their product because they are not selling several different services or contacts that need to be adapted. A couple of examples for companies that use a job costing system would be Cenvar Roofing, which is a local roofing company in Lynchburg, Virginia. Another company that uses this system would be Spectrum Cable. These companies have different packages and products one can purchase that are adapted based on the needs of the customer. Companies that use the process costing system would include Coca-cola or Little Debbie. Both of these companies use assembly line processes that are fixed in order to make and distribute their product. This leads to each product being a flat rate, such as a snake cake being one price and a bottle of coke being one price and the same everywhere you go, instead of it being customizable for the customer. 

Biblical Integration 

In terms of how the christian faith can be implemented into this discussion board, it can be tied into the biblical idea that seeking wisdom on how to design one’s business is ultimately the best thing to do. In life, it is important to gain insight from others and prayerfully consider the paths that God wants each person to take in their own individual lives, including their businesses. James 1:5 says “If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.” This is guidance that if one does not know what they are doing in business and is not sure what model they should choose for their business, they should seek out the guidance and then make their decision from there.

References:

Blocher, E. J., Stout, D., & Smith, S. (2021). Cost Management: A Strategic Emphasis, (9th 

edition). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9781307687811

Drury, C. (1992). Process costing. In Management and Cost Accounting (pp. 131-160). Springer, 

Boston, MA.

Fayek, A. R. (2001). Activity-based job costing for integrating estimating, scheduling, and cost 

control. Cost Engineering43(8), 23.

King James Bible. (2008). Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1769)

Criteria Ratings Points

Management Technique

4 to >3.0 pts

Advanced

Thread clearly specifies the company, the industry, and the management technique to be analyzed

3 to >2.0 pts

Proficient

Thread clearly specifies the company and industry but not the technique

2 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Company identified but not the industry

0 pts

Not Present

4 pts

Evaluation Appropriateness of Technique

12 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

Technique appropriate for company, description developed and includes adequate details detailed correlation between technique and company

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

Technique described but not in a detailed manner. Few details and no correlation

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Technique identified but no detail as how it applies to company

0 pts

Not Present

12 pts

Synthesis Positive Force of Technique

12 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

Thread describes how the technique selected will be a positive force for the company and provides appropriate examples. One or two examples provided

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

Description of impact of technique to company but incorrect examples

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Description of impact of technique to company but no examples

0 pts

Not Present

12 pts

Originality Overall Content

28 to >25.0 pts

Advanced

Thread conforms to the instructions. Content is well developed. Included originality of thought. Paragraph structure and flow is excellent. Analysis of the technique selected is provided. Questions are answered thoroughly and supported using substantial research data

25 to >23.0 pts

Proficient

Thread conforms to the instructions. Content is developed but lacks originality of thought. Too many direct quotations. Paragraph structure and flow is excellent. Analysis of the technique selected is provided. Minimal research sources used

23 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Content is organized based mainly on text little collaborating research data

0 pts

Not Present

28 pts

Discussion: Cost Management, Strategy, Technique Grading Rubric | BUSI601_B02_202230

Criteria Ratings Points

Replies: New Information

10 to >9.0 pts

Advanced

Reply introduces new and relevant information to the discussion of management technique

9 to >7.0 pts

Proficient

Introduces new information with little relevance management techniques

7 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Introduces new information with no relevance to management technique

0 pts

Not Present

10 pts

Replies: Evaluation Research support and originality

30 to >27.0 pts

Advanced

Synthesis of research data Reply is well supported with the referenced sources and expounds on discussion of technique

27 to >24.0 pts

Proficient

Minimum analysis of researched data Reply minimally referenced with research sources

24 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Researched provided but no analysis of information

0 pts

Not Present

30 pts

Thread: Grammar, Spelling and APA formatting

13 to >11.0 pts

Advanced

No grammar or spelling errors

11 to >10.0 pts

Proficient

Only one minor error and 1 APA error

10 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Two grammar errors and at least 2 APA errors

0 pts

Not Present

13 pts

Thread: Text and Journal Support

11 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

Thread contains appropriate word count and content supported with text and relevant scholarly research data

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

Thread contains appropriate word count and content not supported with text and relevant scholarly research data

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Thread had irrelevant scholarly sources and unsubstantiated opinion statements

0 pts

Not Present

11 pts

Replies: Grammar/Spelling and APA formatting

20 to >17.0 pts

Advanced

No grammar or spelling errors

17 to >16.0 pts

Proficient

Only one minor error and 1 APA error

16 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Two grammar errors and at least 2 APA errors

0 pts

Not Present

20 pts

Discussion: Cost Management, Strategy, Technique Grading Rubric | BUSI601_B02_202230

Criteria Ratings Points

Replies: Text and Journal Support

10 to >9.0 pts

Advanced

Thread contains appropriate word count and content supported with text and relevant scholarly research data

9 to >7.0 pts

Proficient

Thread contains appropriate word count and content not supported with text and relevant scholarly research data

7 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Thread had irrelevant scholarly sources and unsubstantiated opinion statements

0 pts

Not Present

10 pts

Total Points: 150

Discussion: Cost Management, Strategy, Technique Grading Rubric | BUSI601_B02_202230

Engineering Ethics

You are a team leader for the Grantham Inc., a consulting firm for security solutions.  Your team is working on a project that involves a governmental project at a nuclear power plant.  The information is extremely sensitive, and involves following many regulations.  This is giving your team a negative disposition. You found out that John is not paying attention to the details of the regulations like he should.  Ebony is an environmentalist and is against working on the contract, but has been assigned the project so the team has a representative that is worried about the environment.  Finally, Ibrahim has been very vocal about his opinions of the federal regulations.  Your report is due in a week.  Using some of the methods learned so far in the class, and some discussed in this week’s lesson, how would you compare and contrast personal and business ethics in this case to get the job done correctly and on time?  Be sure and articulate ethical issues in societal and global contexts

For your submission, you will need to provide your own thoughts on the assignment, but in third person. Apa format

 

  1. Write a one-to-two-page paper (not including title page or references, submit as a Word document).  Use Times New Roman or Calibri, font size 12, one-inch margins, double-spaced.  Don’t forget to cite inside the paper.  Be sure to include references at the end.

Statistics

On an APA formatted paper that demonstrates your understanding of the hypothesis test. Think of an organization (real or fictitious), state an organizational problem (develop a problem statement), as a result of the problem statement – state three research questions, develop real or fictitious data, and then demonstrate three hypothesis test. State your conclusion for each hypothesis and one general overall conclusion for the paper. At least one textbook, journal, or article as a Reference. About 5 – 6 pages. 

Week 11 Finance

  • Rate the three most important concepts that you have learned in this course in order of importance (1 being the most important; 3, the least). Provide a rationale for your rating scheme.

Financial Accounting for Managers

Reflection (MB)

4. According to the text, the focus of Title VII was blacks. The amended Title VII bans racial discrimination in employment matters and racial harassment and provides some sources of assistance to those who are targeted. (Bell (2017). There is a great deal of prejudice, stereotypes, and state-sponsored discrimination against African Americans, with those with darker skin faring worse than those with lighter skins, or when their names sound black. (Bell (2017). In addition, civil rights activists, researchers, and concerned government officials have been concerned about racial profiling by law enforcement.

5. Based on diverse backgrounds, workplace discrimination, and harassment are common. There is evidence that Hispanics are discriminated against regarding access and treatment. In a study, whites and Hispanics participated in a test. Their educational background and experience were the same. The company told applicants that they would not be interviewed if their names sounded Hispanic. As a result, white people were offered the position with less training and experience. (Bell (2017).

6. Among the ten largest ethnic groups in the United States, Asians and Latinos have the fastest growth rates. This is largely due to immigration from Asia. Many come as workers. The state of California has around 6 million Asians living there. (Bell (2017)

7. U.S. non-Hispanic Whites make up 63% of the population. Organizations have become more interested in diversity since the U.S. population has become more diverse. A low rate of participation in the workforce is observed among non-Hispanic whites. Researchers found that white individuals identified themselves as such. Minorities are being compared to white since white is considered the norm. Study findings indicate that minorities have lower-incomes, promotions, evaluations of their performance, opportunities, and work-related attributes than whites. (Bell (2017).

Ted Talk question: With the TedTalk, the speaker basically explains that you can learn how to understand and address racism in America. It is not just about blacks. We learn acceptance and how to put it into practice. We learn how to be inclusive of all people.

References:

Bell, (2017). Diversity in Organization (3rd ed.) Cengage.

Write 200 words of reflection on this work?

Assignment due

Throughout the RN-to-BSN program, students are required to participate in scholarly activities outside of clinical practice or professional practice. Examples of scholarly activities include attending conferences, seminars, journal clubs, grand rounds, morbidity and mortality meetings, interdisciplinary committees, quality improvement committees, and any other opportunities available at your site, within your community, or nationally.

You are required to post at least one documented scholarly activity by the end of this course. In addition to this submission, you are required to be involved and contribute to interdisciplinary initiatives on a regular basis.

Submit, by way of this assignment, a summary report of the scholarly activity, including who, what, where, when, and any relevant take-home points. Include the appropriate program competencies associated with the scholarly activity as well as future professional goals related to this activity. You may use the “Scholarly Activity Summary” resource to help guide this assignment.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Week 6 51586 Assignment

300 word 2 references

Should parent voice be a major consideration in determining where students attend

school? 

Perioperative Assessment

Surgery for Herniated Disc

Patient Profile

J.A., a 68-year-old female with a herniated lumbar disc at L4, is scheduled to have an L4 lumbar laminectomy using a posterior approach. She has a history of low back pain, osteoarthritis in the left hip, and hypertension. She is taking the following medications:

  • Metoprolol (Lopressor) 50 mg PO BID; last dose last night
  • Ibuprofen (Motrin) 600 mg TID; last dose yesterday morning
  • Garlic supplement daily; last dose yesterday morning

Subjective Data

  • Has low back pain that radiates down her right leg
  • Has pain in left hip which worsens with activity
  • Has not had anything to eat or drink since midnight last night
  • Smokes one-half pack of cigarettes per day for past 47 years
  • States that she is allergic to sulfa and latex

Objective Data

Physical Examination

  • Blood pressure 140/82, pulse 84, temperature 98.6° F, respirations 20
  •  Height 5’ 5”, weight 195 lbs, BMI 32.4 kg/m2

Diagnostic Studies

  • ECG normal sinus rhythm
  • Lab values
    • Sodium               139.0 mEq/L
    • Potassium           3.4 mEq/L
    • HCO3                25.4 mEq/L
    • Chloride             99.5 mEq/L
    • BUN                  10 mg/dL
    • Creatinine           1.1 mg/dL
    • WBC                 7,000/µL
    • RBC                  4.3 million/µL
    • Hematocrit         36%
    • Hemoglobin        12 g/dL
    • Platelets              164,000/µL
    • Glucose              98 mg/dL

Discussion Questions

1. After reviewing J.A.’s chart with the above data, what information should the perioperative/circulating nurse make the operating room staff, surgeon, and anesthesia care provider aware of?

2. What position should J.A. be positioned in on the operating room table and what should be considered when positioning her for the surgical procedure?

3. Just prior to bringing J.A.to the operating room, the surgeon comes to talk to her and marks the surgical site. You then put a hair-cover over J.A.’s hair, similar to that worn by the rest of the operating room staff and hang the ordered preoperative IV antibiotic. What is the purpose of the surgeon marking the operative site, the hair cover, and the administration of the antibiotic on the way to the operating room?

4. What is involved in a surgical time-out?

5. What is the circulating nurse’s role in the operating room?

6. Describe a plan for J.A.’s anesthesia during surgery.

Reflection

I 100% agree there is still discrimination against blacks to this day. The only way discrimination could truly be eliminated is through moral action. There is a difference between not doing something because I am told versus being willing to choose not to because I know it is wrong. 

Access and treatment inequities still occur in the workplace towards Hispanics of their education, language fluency, and appearance (Bell, pg. 162). Many times Hispanics get turned down because of stereotypical thinking that has been passed down for generations. Things like Hispanics only want to receive government assistance and not work or that they are all criminals is what some people to this day believe. More often than not, Hispanics are willing to work anywhere in any position regardless of the pay to provide for their household.

Chapter 6 explained that Asians are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the United States because of their birth and immigration rates (Bell, pg. 195). Which is like my Latino community. In many ways, Asians and Hispanics are alike for instance, the importance of family and traditions. There is a tendency of creating a big family to continue the family bloodline and for one day their children to grow up and take care of the elderly in the family because it is their responsibility and duty.

As time passed, the term “white” would refer to people that originate from Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa (Bell, pg. 239). I believe the growth of non-Hispanic Whites is declining due to two things, more diverse categories that one might identify as and lack of knowledge. Before that, there was not many “categories” one could check off that they identified as however, now there are. This might have an economic impact because there is still racial bias in the world, whether we choose to see it or turn a blind eye.

Lastly, as I watched this week’s TED talk the speaker pointed out the need for racial diversity to be applied in every single corporate and higher-up position to promote diversity and shut down ignorant beliefs that have been passed down. She explained that society needs to start being comfortable with having uncomfortable conversations about race. I think everyone has become too sensitive. Everyone is scared to speak up but when they do, it is for the wrong things.

Reference 

Reference: Bell, M. (2017). Diversity in Organizations 3rd ed. Cengage.

Hobson, M. (n.d.). Color blind or color brave? Mellody Hobson: Color blind or color brave? | TED Talk. https://www.ted.com/talks/mellody_hobson_color_blind_or_color_brave?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

Write 200 words of reflection on this work?

Operations Management Applications

Module 3: Process Flow Diagram

11 unread reply.99 replies.

This discussion is designed to give you practice creating a process flowchart and also to get you started thinking about  a possible process to use for the group capstone process analysis project.

For this discussion, you need to create  a  process flowchart of a specific company’s service or manufacturing process that you might consider using for your group process analysis project.  In addition to including the required tasks to complete the process, your flow diagram must use the proper formatting (i.e. correct shapes) of a flow diagram, and include at least one “decision point”, along with the subsequent tasks based on the results of this “decision”. 

What you submit must be different than any other posts to receive credit.  It is designed to be your own work, based on your own experience of a particular company process, and not taken from a pre-made flow-chart that you found on the internet or other source.  You encounter processes everyday so you have numerous options to use for this assignment.    Note: This version of the flowchart does not need to be detailed at this point. I want you to start thinking about a possible process for the capstone process analysis project and this will help you decide on a good process to use for the project.  Good options include:

1) a process that is easily observable,

2) you have access to management to gain more detailed information,  (not as important for this discussion, but something to consider for the project)

3) the process has flaws/ inefficiencies from a customer or employee point of view (not as important for this discussion, but something to consider for the project). 

Discussion

post an explanation for how you think the cost-benefit analysis in terms of legislators being reelected affected efforts to repeal/replace the ACA. Then, explain how analyses of the voter’s views may affect decisions by legislative leaders in recommending or positioning national policies (e.g., Congress’ decisions impacting Medicare or Medicaid). Remember, the number one job of a legislator is to be re-elected. Please check your discussion grading rubric to ensure your responses meet the criteria, especially the part about needing two resources. 

Suggested APA headings for the initial post: 

Cost for Legislators Repealing the ACA 

Legislators Decisions in National Policies

Week1

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:  

  • Reflecting on your current or past employer, discuss the role of the auditor in the auditing process. Do not disclose the name of the organization. 

Career Counseling

You are a professional career counselor. Your manager want to make a speech to other  career counselors on how globalization impacts career counselling, right now, and how it will affect it in the future.  She thinks that transitions will be more frequent in future, partly related to globalization. But she is too lazy to write it, so she has asked you to write a 7 to 10 minute speech. She also wants you to add at least 5-6 Powerpoint slides with important information.

Assignment due in 24 hours

Review the assignment Unit 8 template to read each communication scenario

Choose from the provided list or an alternative mode of communication to effectively resolve each scenario.

Justify your choice of mode by explaining how it is most appropriate in this circumstance. Each communication mode explanation response should be a minimum of 100 words.

The paper is required to include an introduction, conclusion and be at least two double-spaced pages in length, using 11-point Georgia font. For assistance writing a paper or formatting a reference list in APA format,

Financial Regulation

I need One page writing on below topic. Half page paragraph on “Duty of Due Care” and Half page paragaraph on “Duty of disclosure”

The case study pdf is attached in the file.

In 2007, the Lehman Brothers board supported management’s decision to take on increasing levels of risk. Did the Lehman Brothers Board of Directors fulfill their fiduciary obligations and responsibilities?

Please answer with reference to the specific Fiduciary Duties assigned to your team:

1) Duty of Due Care  

2) Duty of Disclosure

Risk Analysis & Accounting Quality

Questions

1. Identify economic characteristics and competitive dynamics in the industry.

2. Identify the main strategies of the two companies.

3. Assess the quality of the financial statements (Income Statement and Balance Sheet).

4. Analyze profitability and risk. Calculate at least three profitability ratios and three risk ratios for FY 2011 to support your discussion.

5. Discuss from an investor’s point of view why you would rather invest in one company over the other one.

INSTRUCTION:

Length: The analysis should be about three pages long (no strict minimum or maximum length).

Name:

Section:

Date:

M3 Homework

Overview

The purpose of this assignment is to gain a deeper understanding of the learning objectives in Module 3. Please write your answers on this document. Save the completed document as a PDF and submit it on the course website by Sunday, 11:59 pm PT.

Grading Criteria

Homework is graded. You are not required to answer questions correctly to receive full credit, but you are highly encouraged to do it.

Financial Statement Analysis Assignment

Steps

a. Read Srinivasan, S., & Rossano, P. (2012). Ahold versus Tesco—Analyzing performance. 113040-PDF-ENG. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing

b. Conduct a performance analysis based on the first four steps of the textbook’s “Six Interrelated Sequential Steps in Financial Statement Analysis” (p. 3).

Format

· Length: The analysis should be about three pages long (no strict minimum or maximum length).

Questions

1. Identify economic characteristics and competitive dynamics in the industry.

2. Identify the main strategies of the two companies.

3. Assess the quality of the financial statements (Income Statement and Balance Sheet).

4. Analyze profitability and risk. Calculate at least three profitability ratios and three risk ratios for FY 2011 to support your discussion.

5. Discuss from an investor’s point of view why you would rather invest in one company over the other one

Urgent help is needed with the assignment

In your initial post, include the full rough draft of your research essay as an attachment. Be sure to attach your paper as a Word file. In the body of your message, write a short memo to your classmates providing two pieces of information:   

1. Where are you in the drafting process? What are your known struggles?  

2. What specific areas would you like a peer reviewer to focus on in your essay?  

Health Assessment & Promotion Assignment

Module 1/ Health Assessment & Promotion

Overview

Think about a recent patient that you have provided nursing care. How can the health history relate to clinical prevention for that specific patient? How can you as the nurse advocate for your patient to receive effective, efficient, cost-effective and equitable care?

Your initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) references, in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic. The goal is to make your post interesting and engaging so others will want to read/respond to it. Synthesize and summarize from your resources in order to avoid the use of direct quotes, which can often be dry and boring. No direct quotes are allowed in the discussion board posts.

Post a thoughtful response to at least two (2) other colleagues’ initial postings. Responses to colleagues should be supportive and helpful (examples of an acceptable comment are: “This is interesting – in my practice, we treated or resolved (diagnosis or issue) with (x, y, z meds, theory, management principle) and according to the literature…” and add supportive reference. Avoid comments such as “I agree” or “good comment.”

Points: 30

Due Dates:

· Initial Post: Fri, Jun 17 by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) of the US.

· Response Post: Sun, Jun 19 by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) of the US – (the response posts cannot be done on the same day as the initial post).

References:

· Initial Post: Minimum of two (2) total references: one (1) from required course materials and one (1) from peer-reviewed references.

· Response posts: Minimum of one (1) total reference: one (1) from peer-reviewed or course materials reference per response.

Words Limits

· Initial Post: Minimum 200 words excluding references (approximately one (1) page)

· Response posts: Minimum 100 words excluding references.

Note: Since it is difficult to edit the APA reference in the Blackboard discussion area, you can copy and paste APA references from your Word document to the Blackboard discussion area.  Points will not be deducted because of format changes in spacing.

Using T Test And ANOVA With Sun Coast Remediation Data Set

Using t Test and ANOVA With Sun Coast Remediation Data Set

Using the Sun Coast Remediation data set, perform an independent samples t Test, dependent samples t Test, and ANOVA, and interpret the results. 

 You will utilize Microsoft Excel Toolpak for this assignment.Example:

  • Independent Sample t Test
    • Restate the hypotheses.
    • Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak.
    • Interpret the t Test results   
  • Dependent Sample t Test
    • Restate the hypotheses.
    • Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak.
    • Interpret the t Test results   
  • ANOVA
    • Restate the hypotheses.
    • Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak.
    • Interpret the ANOVA results.

Insert Title Here

Insert Your Name Here

Insert University Here

Course Name Here

Instructor Name

Date

Data Analysis: Hypothesis Testing

Use the Sun Coast Remediation data set to conduct an independent samples t test, dependent samples (paired samples) t test, and ANOVA using the independent samples tab, paired samples tab, and ANOVA tab in the Sun Coast data file. The statistical output tables should be cut and pasted from Excel directly into the final project document. Delete instructions and examples highlighted in yellow before submitting this assignment.

Independent Samples t Test: Hypothesis Testing

Restate the hypotheses from Unit II here.

Ho4:

Ha4:

Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak here.

Interpret and explain the independent samples t test results below the Excel output here. Include alpha level, p value, and accept or reject the null and alternative hypotheses.

Example:

Ho4: There is no statistically significant difference in mean values for the DV between Group A(IV1) and Group B (IV2).

Ha4: There is a statistically significant difference in mean values for the DV between Group A (IV1) and Group B (IV2).

testing-testresults

The results indicate that the mean values are lower for Group A; however, the results also indicate a p value of .37627 > .05. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted that there is no statistically significant difference in mean values of the DV between Group A (IV1) and Group B (IV2).

Dependent Samples (Paired Samples) t Test: Hypothesis Testing

Restate the hypotheses from Unit II here.

Ho5:

Ha5:

Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak here.

Interpret and explain the dependent t test results below the Excel output here. Include alpha level, p value, and accept or reject the null and alternative hypotheses.

ANOVA: Hypothesis Testing

Restate the hypotheses from Unit II here.

Ho6:

Ha6:

Provide data output results from Excel Toolpak here.

Interpret and explain the ANOVA results below the Excel output here. Include alpha level, p value, and accept or reject the null and alternative hypotheses.

References

Include references here using hanging indentations.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). SAGE.

I Need Help With My Homework On Why Study Hate Crime, School Shootings Or State Crime And Identifying Sources & Annotated Bibliography Assignment

Please review the attached assignment .. all details are included include readings and videos.. must follow exact.. 

Part 1 Discussion ONLY 300 words

Why Study Hate Crime, School Shootings or State Crime?

PROMPT: After reviewing the Alvarez and Bachman readings and recorded lecture materials for the week,

Required Reading: Alvarez & Bachman, “Mass Murder In School” pp. 114-16; Chapter 8, “Hate Crime,” pp. 229-254 (provided below).

post a discussion that makes the case for the importance of studying one of the three topics examined in this module: mass murder (or shootings) in school, hate crime or state violence. Provide a specific example (with page number) from the Alvarez and Bachman chapter or from my powerpoint that backs up your assertion to examine one of these three topics, e.g., commenting on its prevalence and changes over time (incidence), issues of social harm, victims or assailants involved. etc. Respond to others about the concerns they identify.

Note: Although it sounds to be an obvious question about the need to study the kinds of violence identified here, consider the federal Dickey Amendment that has been in place since the 1990s in the U.S., and has limited the ability of federal agencies to funds studies that examine gun violence, especially if policy recommendations advocate any kinds of limits on gun availability. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dickey_Amendment. The Dickey Amendment is still in force, athough it was recently liberalized in response to a number of high profile mass shootings.

*** REFERENCE ALL PAGE NUMBERS USED IN THE WORK***

Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (2021). Chapter 1 Defining Violence. In Violence: The enduring problem (4th ed., pp. 229-254). essay, SAGE Publishing, Inc.

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Chapter 8 Hate Crimes

I was a brand-new sheriff. I didn’t even know the definition of a hate crime. What I knew was that somebody had been murdered because he was black.

—Sheriff Billy Rowles, Jasper, Texas1

We pass hatred and prejudice on to our children, as though they were heirlooms of humanity. We cling to traditions that keep us bound to a way of life that no longer works and arguably never has.

—L.M. Browning2

Violent Hate Crimes

Squirrel Hill is a quiet, predominantly Jewish residential neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In fact, it is one of the largest Jewish communities in the United States.3 On the morning of October 27, 2018, the tranquility of this district was shattered when Robert Gregory Bowers, a 46-year-old white man who lived on the outskirts of Pittsburgh, perpetrated the deadliest hate crime against Jewish citizens in the United States. At 9:45 a.m., Bowers entered the Tree of Life Synagogue where Shabbat morning services were underway. Armed with a semiautomatic rifle and a number of handguns, Bowers immediately opened fire, killing two brothers who were standing next to the main entryway

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He then began roaming through the rooms and floors of the synagogue, shooting at anyone he saw.4 Within 15 minutes, police officers arrived at the scene in response to multiple calls from those trapped inside the building. As they were heading in, Bowers appeared to have been on his way out of the synagogue and opened fire on the police from the entryway. When the officers returned fire, he retreated back inside. After another 30 minutes, members of a special weapons and tactics (SWAT) team entered the Tree of Life and exchanged gunfire with Bowers. Both Bowers and several members of the SWAT team were wounded before Bowers retreated deeper into the synagogue. Eventually, Robert Bowers surrendered to law enforcement at 11:08 a.m. In his wake, Bowers left eleven individuals dead, another seven wounded, and a community devastated and stunned at the violence unleashed against them.5

What motivated Bowers to perpetrate this attack? The evidence strongly suggests that it was a clear-cut and straightforward case of anti-Semitism, which is why this particular mass murder is reviewed in this chapter, rather than in Chapter 4. In other words, it was a hate crime.

Starting out as a strong conservative, Bowers transitioned into a white nationalist and frequented online websites and social media that promote conspiracy theories and hate, especially anti-Semitic views.6 He supported the white genocide theory that suggests white Americans and western civilization are being destroyed through immigration. The ostensible culprits behind this fictional genocidal plot are Jews.7 Bowers also subscribed to another conspiracy theory that argued that the widely reported migrant caravans heading to the United States from Central America in 2018 were actually part of a Jewish plot aimed at undermining and weakening the United States.

Conspiracy theories such as these, as we will discuss later in this chapter, have long been a feature of anti-Semitism. Shortly before perpetrating the assault, Bowers had posted that “HIAS likes to bring invaders in that kill our people. I can’t sit by and watch my people get slaughtered. Screw your optics, ‘I’m going in.’”8 HIAS in this quote refers to the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, an organization that works with the U.S. government to resettle immigrants. HIAS has also worked to mobilize Jewish communities against the Trump administration’s efforts to block Muslim refugees and those from Central America. During the attack itself, it was reported that Bowers shouted, “All Jews must die.”9 In addition to murder charges at the state level, Robert Bowers was also charged with multiple violations of federal civil rights law prohibiting hate crimes.10

While the attack on the Tree of Life Synagogue represents a particularly horrific example of hate crime that shocked the nation, recent years have unfortunately seen many examples of this particular form of violent crime. In fact, over the last several years, hate crimes have been the rise in the United States, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). In Chapter 1, we pointed out that violence is often interconnected in various ways; this is certainly the case when looking at hate crimes. Six months after the Tree of Life Synagogue shooting, for example, another shooting took place at a synagogue in Poway, California, on April 27, 2019. There, 19-year-old John Earnest entered the Chabad of Poway Synagogue armed with an assault rifle and killed one person and wounded another three.

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Apparently, Earnest had posted an online manifesto, which explained that he had drawn inspiration from similar attacks, including the Tree of Life shooting and the Mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, a month earlier that killed 50 people and wounded another 50. As these examples illustrate, previous hate-filled violence can inspire further violence, and this is clearly the case in these mass shootings.12

We can also see such connections when we examine the actions of Dylann Roof on June 17, 2015. On that summer day, Roof, a 21-year-old white supremacist from South Carolina, went to a historic Black church in Charleston, South Carolina, and killed nine members of the congregation during a prayer service. One week prior to the shooting, he had reportedly told a neighbor that “he was looking to kill a bunch of people on Wednesday.”13 His threat wasn’t taken seriously, but exactly one week later, he entered the Charleston Methodist Episcopal Church, sat down and participated in a prayer meeting for a while, and then opened fire on the congregants. During the shooting, he proclaimed that he was there to “shoot black people,” and when one individual pleaded with him to stop, he answered, “You rape our women and you’re taking over our country. And you have to go.”14 Roof was eventually caught and pled guilty to nine counts of murder at the state level and was subsequently the first person ever sentenced to death at the federal level for a hate crime.15

In response to the huge public outcry that erupted in the wake of the Charleston church shooting, a number of communities began to remove the confederate flag, statues, monuments, and other memorials from public property that were seen as glorifying the confederacy and, by extension, slavery and white supremacy.16 These actions were met by further protests and resistance from various individuals and groups who saw in these removals a rejection of their history and heritage. One protest, the Unite the Right Rally, was held August 11–12, 2017, in Charlottesville, Virginia. The participants came from a variety of far-right groups that included white supremacists, neo-Nazis, and militias.17 Even though they were ostensibly there to protest the removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee from Emancipation Park in Charlottesville, the marchers’ broader agenda was clear. They chanted racist and anti-Semitic slogans and wore a variety of Nazi and neo-Nazi symbols.18 The rally quickly broke out into violence, with marchers fighting opponents of the rally. Before it was over, one white supremacist drove his car into a crowd, killing a young woman (Heather Heyer) and injuring many more. The driver, James Alex Fields Jr., was later arrested and convicted of a number of crimes, including first-degree murder.19 Fields also faces federal hate crime charges.20 Here again, we see the ways in which individual acts of violence are connected with the Charleston church shooting leading to the rally and the violence in Charlottesville.

It may surprise you to know that for all of the recent examples of hate crime prosecutions, these laws, both state and federal, are fairly new. Until recently, such crimes were typically prosecuted as ordinary offenses based on the underlying behavior rather than the motivating element of bias or hatred of a group.21 Sometimes, individuals would be prosecuted for civil rights violations, a federal crime since 1871, when congress passed the Civil Rights Act.22 A good example of this is the 1994 prosecution of four Los Angeles Police Department officers who were caught on video tape beating Black motorist Rodney King (see Chapter 9 for a discussion of this case).

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Beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), an organization founded to fight anti-Semitism and other forms of prejudice, began a successful lobbying campaign to pass hate crime legislation based on a model statute that they developed. Assisted by other organizations such as the Southern Poverty Law Center, the National Institute for Prejudice and Violence, and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, these organizations began a campaign to get laws against what they first termed ethnic intimidation (later renamed bias-motivated crime) enacted into law. Beginning at the state level and enjoying a fair bit of success, they soon began advocating at the federal level.24 Their work was instrumental in the adoption of hate crime laws for many states and the federal government. Despite these legislative efforts, these hate crimes were still not widely known, understood, or enforced. In the late 1990s, however, two cases in particular rocked the nation and helped change popular and legal consciousness around this issue. In many ways, these two cases have come to be synonymous with modern American hate crime: the James Byrd case in 1998 and the killing of Matthew Shepard that same year.

James Byrd Jr. and Matthew Shepard: Catalysts for Modern Hate Crime Legislation

One night in June 1998, James Byrd Jr., a 49-year-old African American, declined a ride home from a friend during a party and decided to walk home alone on Martin Luther King Boulevard in Jasper, Texas. A gray pickup truck driven by Shawn Berry, the 23-year-old manager of a local movie theater, and two other men Byrd did not know pulled up. Berry asked Byrd whether he wanted a ride. When Byrd climbed into the back of the truck, Berry gave him a beer. Byrd’s decapitated body was found the next morning; his head and one of his arms were found over one mile away from the rest of his body. At the scene where an obvious struggle had taken place, cigarette butts and a lighter with the symbols for the Ku Klux Klan and the word Possum etched in the dirt were later found by investigators. Subsequently, Berry’s written confession detailed the facts: He and two other men, Bill King and Russell Brewer, had picked Byrd up on Martin Luther King Boulevard; they then drove him up to Huff Creek Road, beat him up in a clearing, spray-painted his face black, and then dragged him with a logging chain tied to his ankles about three miles before they dumped his body at the side of the road. Byrd’s head and arm had been cut off when his body was pulled over a sharp metal culvert.25

The nation, the state of Texas, and the town of Jasper were all outraged that such a horrific crime could have taken place and provided an outpouring of support for Byrd’s family in particular and for the African American community of Jasper in general. To demonstrate their support, thousands wore yellow ribbons, and at Byrd’s funeral, speeches about reconciliation and healing were given by dignitaries, including Jesse Jackson and Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison, and a letter from then–President Bill Clinton was read. For their crimes, King and Brewer were sentenced to die, and Berry was sentenced to life in prison. In the end, however, James Byrd Jr. was buried on the black side of the Jasper City Cemetery, “still segregated in 1998.”

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Brewer was executed by lethal injection in 2011, and on Wednesday, April 24, 2019, John William King was similarly put to death by the state of Texas.27

The brutal murder of James Byrd Jr. was the first time that the term hate crime came to the forefront of public consciousness in the United States. Unfortunately, within four months, the nation would again be shocked by another brutal murder motivated by hate—this time against someone because of his sexual orientation. The victim in this case was a 21-year-old college student named Matthew Shepard, who attended the University of Wyoming. On the evening of October 7, 1998, Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney went to a known gay bar with the intent of targeting a gay man for robbery. They met Shepard there and offered him a ride home. Instead of taking him home, however, they took him to a remote area, tied him to a fence post, pistol-whipped him in the head to unconsciousness, and left him there to die. Shepard was found more than 18 hours later by a cyclist. He never regained consciousness and died four days later on October 12. Subsequently, Henderson and McKinney were found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.28

At the time of both Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr.’s deaths, most states did not have hate crime statutes. Today, 46 states and the District of Columbia have some sort of bias crime legislation, the exceptions being Arkansas, Georgia, South Carolina, and Wyoming. Generally, these statutes add additional time onto sentence lengths for those convicted of hate-motivated offenses. For example, after the Tree of Life Synagogue mass murders, federal prosecutors charged Robert Bowers with many crimes, including the following:

11 counts of obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs resulting in death;

11 counts of use and discharge of a firearm to commit murder during and in relation to a crime of violence;

2 counts of obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs involving an attempt to kill and use of a dangerous weapon and resulting in bodily injury;

11 counts of use and discharge of a firearm during and in relation to a crime of violence;

8 counts of obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs involving an attempt to kill and use of a dangerous weapon, and resulting in bodily injury to a public safety officer; and

1 count of obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs involving use of a dangerous weapon and resulting in bodily injury to a public safety officer.29

Similar to all crime statutes, however, there is a great deal of variability in how and when offenses fall under the rubric of a hate crime. For example, in April 2019, a white supremacist named Russell Courtier ran over and killed Larnell Bruce, a 19-year-old black man, with his Jeep after an argument in Oregon.

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Although the crime was clearly hate-related, prosecutors could not charge Courtier with a felony hate crime because the state statute only allowed this when offenders acted with an accomplice. As a result, Courtier was only convicted of a misdemeanor hate crime along with this murder charge and was sentenced to 28 years in prison.30 This case mirrors an earlier one from May 2017, in which a man stabbed two people to death and wounded another on a Portland commuter train. Jeremy Christian had been yelling anti-Muslim epithets at two women on the train, one of whom was wearing a hijab.31 The three victims attempted to intervene and calm Christian down, but he attacked them with a knife, killing two of them. Christian was subsequently charged with murder, assault, and weapons charges, but because he acted alone, the hate crimes charges were misdemeanors, not felonies. This quirk of Oregon’s hate crime statutes has meant that these laws do not always result in sentence enhancements. This variability in hate crime statutes across states makes them difficult to define. We turn to this issue now.

What Is a Hate Crime?

In previous chapters, we have highlighted legislation designed to combat and prevent particular kinds of crime. However, the hate crime statutes enacted across states and at the federal level are necessary to discuss first in this chapter because they help us understand exactly what a hate crime is. A hate crime is not a specific kind of offense but an existing offense that is perpetrated because of some underlying prejudice or hatred perceived by the offender(s). Essentially, an ordinary crime becomes a hate crime when offenders select a victim because of some characteristic, such as the victim’s race or religion. Of course, similar to intent, it is difficult to prove underlying prejudice or hatred. Instead, prosecutors must typically demonstrate that a victim is targeted because of their group affiliation. In other words, hate crimes involve victims who are targeted because of their religion, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or any other group identity that is targeted because of bias, prejudice, and intolerance.32 As one scholar points out, the specific victim is not necessarily chosen because of who they are or what they did but simply because they belong to a particular group.33 This quality of impersonal victimization is something that hate crimes share with genocide (Chapter 11), and in a very real sense, genocides can be considered an extreme, systematic, and collective type of hate crime. In terms of specific legal definitions of hate crimes, we can start with the one used by the FBI:

A hate crime, also known as a bias crime, is a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin.34

Many states include other characteristics within their hate crime statutes, including age, gender, political affiliation, and transgender status or gender identity. As the language of the FBI definition suggests, bias crime is sometimes used as another term for hate crime.

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The first major hate crime legislation passed at the federal level was called the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990. The law directed the attorney general to collect data “about crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity.” In September 1994, Congress passed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, which amended the Hate Crime Statistics Act to include both physical and mental disabilities.

The most recent law enacted at the federal level against hate crimes is called the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act; it was signed into law by President Obama in March 2010. The law expanded federal hate crime legislation to include violence based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and disability in addition to the existing criteria based on race and religion. After signing the legislation, President Obama stated, “After more than a decade of opposition and delay, we’ve passed inclusive hate crimes legislation to help protect our citizens from violence based on what they look like, who they love, how they pray, and who they are.”35

Although most offenders are prosecuted for hate crimes at the state level, hate crime charges are also brought against offenders at the federal level, as the federal conviction and sentencing of Dylann Roof on federal hate crimes charges illustrates. Moreover, hate crime prosecutions are successfully being made for victimizations not typically thought of as motivated by hate. For example, on September 20, 2012, Samuel Mullet Sr., a leader of a so-called renegade Amish sect, and 15 of his followers were convicted in federal court of hate crimes for terrorizing another Amish community in eastern Ohio by forcefully shaving the beards of men and cutting the hair of both men and women. While the crimes themselves constituted assaults, the jury convicted the renegade sect members of hate crimes because they were attempting to “suppress the victims’ practice of religion.” The U.S. attorney described the incidents quite graphically: “The defendants invaded their homes, physically attacked these people and sheared them almost like animals.” This is a significant victimization in traditional Amish communities, because “men’s long beards and women’s uncut hair are central to religious identity.” One female victim recounted how the attackers forcefully entered her home at night and how several of them held both her and her husband down, shaved her husband’s beard with clippers and cut his hair while he repeated prayers, and then cut her hair with shears used to cut a horse’s mane.36

How Frequently Are Hate Crimes Carried Out?

Because the category of hate crimes is relatively new, collecting data on their prevalence is also relatively recent. In 1996, the U.S. Congress enacted the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996, which mandated the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program to begin collecting statistics on offenses motivated by bias against physical and mental disabilities in January 1997. Remember, however, that the UCR collects data only on those incidents that are reported to the police. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) did not start asking victims about whether they perceived they were targeted because of bias until 2003.

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As with the vast majority of interpersonal violence, data from the NCVS is more valid and reliable than police report data because only a fraction of victimizations are reported to police. For example, one analysis by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that less than half of hate crimes (44%) are reported to law enforcement.37 Figure 8.1 displays the breakdown of 7,106 single-bias crime incidents reported to the police in 2017 by the type of bias. As can be seen, the largest percentage of these crimes were based on racial and ethnic bias, followed by both religious and sexual orientation bias. The least common types of hate crime reported to law enforcement concern disabilities, gender identity, and gender bias.

We also should remember that any one particular criminal incident may involve multiple offenses. Figure 8.2 highlights that of the 7,106 incidents in 2017, there were 8,437 specific offenses reported. When broken down by type of offense, Figure 8.2 reveals that while the single largest category reported to police in 2017 were property offenses (27.6%), most of the hate crimes reported to the police involved violent offenses. Specifically, according to the FBI, of the 8,437 offenses reported, just over 60% were crimes against people, while 36.9% were crimes against property. Of those interpersonal offenses, most consisted of intimidation, followed by simple assault.

Figure 8.1 Percentage Distribution of 7,106 Single-Bias Incidents Reported to Law Enforcement in 2017 by Bias Type

Source: “2017 Hate Crime Statistics,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports.

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Keep in mind that the above figures reflect only those hate crimes that were reported to police. To understand why some hate crimes are not reported to police, the NCVS asks victims why they did not report their victimizations. The reasons given for not reporting were that many victims handled it privately or referred the matter to a non-law enforcement official such as a teacher or staff member at a school or an apartment manager.38 Almost a quarter of victims, however, simply did not report because they felt that the police wouldn’t be interested or willing to respond or because they felt that it would cause more trouble for them from the perpetrator or friends of the perpetrator. From both of these sources of data, we now know more about the characteristics of hate crime victimization in the United States.

Figure 8.2 Percentage Distribution of 8,437 Hate Crime Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement in 2017 by Offense Type

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Source: “2017 Hate Crime Statistics,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports.

The NCVS defines hate crimes as those incidents in which victims believe the offender selected them for victimization because of one or more of their personal characteristics, including race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and disability. This definition also includes incidents in which the offender perceives the victim as belonging to or associated with a group largely identified by one of these characteristics or perceives the victim as associating with people having certain characteristics. Before a crime is classified as hate related, corroborating evidence of hate motivation must also be found to have been present at the time of the incident, including at least one of the following:

The offender used derogatory language.

The offender left hate symbols.

The police confirmed that a hate crime had taken place.

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Based on these three forms of evidence, the vast majority of cases were believed to be hate crimes because of the use of derogatory language (98.7%). Not surprisingly, the NCVS estimates many more hate crime victims compared to police report data. The most recent data available indicate that there were 207,880 hate crimes in 2015, of which 192,020 were violent crimes and 14,160 were property offenses.39 The most common form of violent hate crimes were simple assaults (61.6%), followed by aggravated assault (17.7%). For property offenses, the most common type of hate crime consisted of thefts.

You may be surprised to learn that just over half (55%) of violent hate crimes reported to the NCVS were perpetrated by known offenders—that is, offenders who were acquainted with the victims—and about 61% of offenders were male. Violent hate crime is also more likely to involve multiple offenders than other violent crime. For example, about 30% of violent hate crime incidents involved more than one offender compared with only 17% of violent victimizations that were not motivated by hate. As we will see in Chapter 9, people will often engage in behavior in a group they would not otherwise engage in if alone.

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Between 2011 and 2015, the most likely type of bias, according to victims’ perceptions in the NCVS data, was directed against a person’s race (48.1%), followed by ethnicity (35.4%), which includes a person’s ancestral, cultural, social, or national affiliation.40 These first two categories of bias were followed in descending order by gender, association (used to refer to victimization because of a relationship with someone from the targeted group), sexual orientation, religion, disability, and perceived characteristics (victimization because of looking or acting according to some biased perception, such as when a person is attacked because the perpetrator thinks they look Jewish or is acting effeminate). These results are fairly consistent with the FBI data reported above in Figure 8.1.

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Race-Based Hate Crime

As both the UCR and NCVS data illustrate, hate crimes perpetrated because of race are overwhelmingly targeted against African Americans. While there are many ways in which anti-Black violence has been historically carried out, perhaps the most well-known and infamous example of such an offense is known as lynching. Lynchings were typically carried out by a lynch mob and could therefore comprise a form of collective violence, which will be discussed in Chapter 9. However, we review lynchings here because of its historical role in suppressing and victimizing African American populations. While lynchings sometimes targeted other groups, including Mexicans, Chinese, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives, it most commonly was perpetrated against Blacks. Furthermore, on December 18, 2018, after almost 100 years of failing to pass similar measures, the U.S. Senate unanimously approved legislation defining lynching as a federally prohibited hate crime.41 The law, which is called the Justice for Victims of Lynching Act of 2018, provides a federal sentence of life in prison for two or more people convicted of killing someone because of their actual or perceived race, color, religion, or national origin. It should be noted that at the time of this writing, this bill has not passed in the U.S. House of Representatives or been signed by President Trump.

Lynching is an imprecise term and has been used and misused in many ways. However, it can roughly be defined as an extralegal execution by a mob. This, of course, is not what Supreme Court justice Clarence Thomas was referring to when he called his nomination hearings a “high tech lynching.” Lynching is a type of collective violence in which a group of individuals circumvent the law and punish individuals for real or imagined crimes. Initially nonlethal in nature, it usually involved punishments such as whippings and tarring and feathering, but over time, it evolved to become a much more lethal form of social control—one that typically included torture, mutilation, hanging, and burning.

While there are a couple of possible contenders, the origin of the term lynching most likely comes from Judge Charles Lynch, who fought against the Tories during the Revolutionary War.42 Tories were colonists who supported the British against the revolution. A Virginia magistrate, legislator, and colonel in the militia, Lynch and his sympathizers rounded up and punished Tory sympathizers, even though they had no jurisdictional authority to do so. As Lynch himself reported after one extralegal expedition, “Shot one, hanged one, and whipt [sic] several.”43 Because of the relatively high social status of those perpetrating the acts and a superficial adherence to formality and impartiality, many people felt that the actions of Judge Lynch were legitimate and carried the force of law, even if the technical legality was missing. This type of violence soon became known as Lynch’s law, later shortened to Lynch law, and then still later to the verb lynching.

After the revolution, lynching began appearing on the frontier as the newly formed nation began its inexorable expansion westward, but in character and tone, lynching remained largely unchanged and was a relatively infrequent occurrence. Lynching at this time, it should be noted, was rarely perpetrated against Blacks but was instead perpetrated against various other groups that were perceived as threatening some established order. There was no need to lynch slaves, since the laws and customs of slaveholding states and territories provided many legal mechanisms intended to keep Blacks in their place and under control. This all changed, however, after the end of the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction.

On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox courthouse and ended the American Civil War. In December of that same year, Congress ratified the Thirteenth Amendment and officially abolished slavery, completing the process begun with President Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. African Americans were finally free to participate in the economic, social, and political life of the nation. Unfortunately, many White Southerners resented and hated the newly won rights of their former slaves Under slavery, Whites had enjoyed a privileged position that was protected by the laws and institutions of the slaveholding states. The Civil War and Reconstruction put an end to that and, as one historian of lynching asserts,

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The conclusion of the war and the subsequent abolition of slavery unleashed an unprecedented wave of extralegal violence. Many white southerners, embittered by defeat and unsettled by the turmoil of Reconstruction, responded by expanding antebellum customs of communal violence to meet new conditions. . . . At the root of the postwar bloodshed was the refusal of most whites to accept the emancipated slaves’ quest for economic and political power. Freed from the restraints of planter domination, the black man seemed to pose a new and greater threat to whites.44

Lynching, then, was a way for White Southerners to reassert control over the African American population—in other words, it was a tool for protecting certain traditional values that placed Blacks in a subordinate role to Whites. This extralegal means of social control was also buttressed by a host of legislative initiatives in the Southern states known as the “Black Codes” that were intended to limit the rights of African Americans. Congress attempted to hamper these codes by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866 that gave African Americans citizenship and full rights—even overcoming a presidential veto to do so.45

In short, in the aftermath of the Civil War, Southern Whites began relying on violent and repressive tactics, of which lynching was the most lethal manifestation, in order to protect their privileged way of life relative to that of Blacks. Although there were many organized groups that fought to retain White supremacy during this time, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is probably the most well-known. The KKK was founded in 1866, its main purpose being to fight Reconstruction efforts. Today, the number of members in various organizations related to the KKK has dwindled; however, the Klan is still alive and well, holding annual rallies and marches across the country. You can even order Klan jewelry and figurines from various Klan websites. The organization’s scope of intolerance has widened since the time of Reconstruction following the Civil War, and the Klan now professes to be anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-gay, anti-immigration, and anti-Muslim.

As a tool for maintaining social control, lynchings in U.S. history were not isolated incidents. In fact, lynchings by small groups of Whites were so prevalent between 1880 and 1930 that Stewart Tolnay and E. M. Beck have referred to these years in U.S. history as the “Lynching Era.”46 Tolnay and Beck found that there were 2,805 people lynched between 1882 and 1930 in ten Southern states.47 While the vast majority of these victims were African Americans, other victims were those from the North who came to the South to assist the Black population during Reconstruction, and White Southerners who sympathized with Reconstruction and efforts to integrate Blacks into Southern society. In the view of Tolnay and Beck, these nearly 3,000 victims represented only the tip of the iceberg of the violence and intimidation faced by Southern Blacks on a daily basis. It is therefore a mistake to see lynchings as spontaneous eruptions of communal violence, although they were often portrayed as such—especially by many Southern newspapers.48 Instead, we must recognize that lynching often served some very real social, political, and economic goals.

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When examining the patterns of lynchings in the South, we find that, up until World War I, most lynchings of African Americans were concentrated in the areas in which cotton was the dominant crop. In fact, the number of lynchings at any given time has been found to be influenced by fluctuations in the price of cotton. Specifically, lynchings against Southern Blacks increased during tougher economic times in those regions of the South where the dominant cash crop was cotton. Keep in mind that cotton cultivation depended heavily on cheap African American labor. While never overtly about labor conditions, the violence against African Americans certainly helped reinforce White domination over the African Americans and helped maintain the plantation owners’ supply of cheap labor. Lynchings also varied by time of year, and this seasonality also reflected the needs of the planters. As Tolnay and Beck assert,

Although plantation production was extremely labor intensive, the demand for labor was not uniform throughout the year. It is likely that landlords and planters perceived greater need to maintain control over workers during periods of peak labor demand. . . . Although the manifest function of lynchings might well have been to rid the white community of offending blacks who violated the moral order, the latent function was to tighten the reins of control over the black population, especially during times when whites most needed black labor to work fields of cotton.

In many ways, then, we can see lynching as operating on a number of different levels. One of the primary purposes was to strike fear into the hearts of Blacks in the post-Reconstruction period as they were attempting to integrate into White society and assert their economic and political independence. Lynchings helped intimidate the Black population and made them easier to control within the labor force. This reign of terror also made many Blacks hesitant about speaking up or advocating for higher wages and/or better working conditions. It also served as a means to maintain White supremacy over the Black population, because it helped to discourage African Americans from challenging the status quo of White privilege more generally. In addition, some have suggested that as the prices of cotton fell and Southern Whites were under more economic stress, Blacks were more likely to be scapegoated for the problems and economic misfortunes of Whites, who lynched Blacks out of frustration and misplaced anger.50

This is not to suggest that these instrumental reasons were articulated overtly. Instead, we find a whole host of rationales and justifications used to paint the lynchings in a positive light. The victims of lynchings were almost always portrayed as dangerous and brutish offenders who had called down the righteous wrath of the community by their actions. Perpetrators of violence, we must remember, almost always portray their behavior as justified and righteous, and in this, the lynch mob was no different. Local newspapers, for example, often portrayed the actions of a lynching in the best possible light. After one lynching in 1886 in Louisiana, for example, this opinion appeared in the local paper: While we deplore the necessity for mob law, we must commend it in this instance, for if the accused had been convicted of an “attempt at rape,” the penalty would only have been two years in the Penitentiary, which is worse than farce. . . . The action of the mob is approved by the best people in the parish. As we have said before, “the will of the people is the law of the land,” and all such monsters should be disposed of in a summary manner.

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Ostensibly, African Americans were lynched for a variety of real or alleged crimes, such as murder, theft, or rape, or for appearing to challenge their position within society by being uppity, insolent, or rude. The image of Black men defiling White women was a particularly potent symbol and was often used to justify violence against African American males. One Texas editorial even went so far as to write,

Almost every day some negro brute assaults a white woman in this state, and often one to a half-dozen murders are committed in an effort to hide the crime. . . . If rape and murder by brutish negroes are to become common, the negro must expect extermination.52

Some may be tempted to argue that lynchings were simply a form of popular justice—lynch mobs were simply making sure that justice was served in cases where a crime had been committed. However, this premise is almost impossible to justify, since the majority of lynching victims were taken from jails or some other form of law enforcement authority.53 As such, most victims were already facing legal sanctions in some form or another, even though many victims had not been tried or convicted of an offense. Moreover, a significant number of lynchings involved more than a mere hanging; many involved symbolic mutilations, burning, and torture of the body, which was always displayed in a place that was easily visible to the Black community. In sum, the purpose of lynching was to create a reign of terror over the African American community and to make a political statement that Blacks who did not submit to White rule would be severely dealt with.

Another peculiar element of lynchings was the often carnival-like atmosphere that frequently accompanied these murders. Hundreds, if not thousands, of spectators, often including children, came out to watch and even participate in lynchings. Spectators sometimes came from miles around to join in the festivities, and the crowd would often pose for photographs with the bodies of the victims; these pictures would sometimes even be turned into postcards. After the lynching, spectators would often fight for scraps of clothing, rope, and bone to take home as souvenirs. As repellent as this is to us, it should be noted that this kind of behavior was often seen at legal executions performed in public and was part of a long tradition of public conduct.

Unfortunately, ritualistic lynchings have not disappeared entirely, as the case of Michael Donald illustrates. In Mobile, Alabama, in 1981, the trial of an African American man charged with the murder of a White police officer resulted in a hung jury. The KKK believed that the jury was unable to convict the defendant because some of the jury members were African American. To avenge the policeman’s death, two Klan members, Henry Hays and James Knowles, went to Mobile to seek revenge. After cruising for victims, they found 19-year-old Michael Donald walking home from the store after getting his sister a pack of cigarettes.

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At the time, Donald was attending a vocational school and working part-time at the local newspaper. Hays and Knowles forced him into their car and drove him to the next county, where they beat him with a tree limb, slit his throat, and then hanged him from a tree. Donald’s death was originally attributed to a drug deal gone bad, but Donald’s mother fought tirelessly to get her son’s murder investigated. It took two-and-a-half years, but the FBI finally linked Hays and Knowles to the murder and both were ultimately convicted; Hays was sentenced to death and Knowles was sentenced to life in prison. The Southern Poverty Law Center also filed a wrongful death suit against United Klans of America on behalf of Beulah Donald, Michael’s mother. The jury ruled that the Klan was responsible for Donald’s death and awarded his mother $7 million.54

Photo 8.1 The noose still represents a symbol of threat and intimidation

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iStock.com/madsci

While lynchings are not as prevalent as they once were, they nevertheless remain potent manifestations of collective violence perpetrated outside of the boundaries of official governmental authority. Moreover, while ritualistic lynchings by hanging and burning have faded, we know that hate-motivated killings remain an ever-present part of all societies. We also know that the primary purpose of lynchings is not to seek some form of popular justice but to instill a climate of terror in marginalized populations. This reality continues into the present day. In 2018, for example, nooses were left hanging outside of the Mississippi capitol building ahead of a racially charged special election.55 Similar kinds of incidents with nooses left hanging as a potent symbol of hate have appeared at schools and businesses in the last few years and remind us that the specter of lynching is still very much with us in 21st-century America.

Religion-Based Hate Crime

As we noted above (Figure 8.4), the most common form of religious based bias crimes is anti-Semitic in orientation. Anti-Semitism refers to derogatory speech and action targeted against Jews and relies on very old images and prejudices. In fact, anti-Semitism has sometimes been referred to as the longest hatred.56 While other groups are also sometimes targeted, and while Islamophobia has been on the rise in recent years, it is anti-Semitism that represents the most pervasive form of religious-based hate crime (Figure 8.5). While the majority of the anti-Semitism tracked by the ADL occurred in public places, a surprisingly high amount occurred in K–12 schools and college campuses, which one would think would be largely resistant to such kinds of intolerance.

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Because anti-Semitism has been around such a long time, many people are at least somewhat familiar with the negative images and stereotypes associated with the Jews, even if they are not anti-Semites themselves. This means that when times get tough or tragedies happen, these old ideas are easily resurrected to explain what happened and why. Globalization, for example, and all of the resulting economic and social changes and dislocation are not always easily understood or explained. They are scary phenomena for many people who see their jobs or way of life being threatened by the changes. This was worsened by the 2008 financial collapse and the widespread anger directed against Wall Street and the banking industry. An easy way to make sense of what happened and to have a target to focus anger against is to scapegoat a group for the economic downturn. Scapegoating can be used by political, social, and religious leaders in order to capitalize on old prejudices and further their own goals, whatever those might be. One anti-Semitic theme, for example, that has been relied on in recent years portrays the Jews as rich and exploitative industrialists and bankers responsible for our economic problems.

Figure 8.5 Anti-Semitic Incidents in 2018 in the United States by Location

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Source: Adapted from “2018 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents,” Anti-Defamation League.

After the collapse of Lehman Brothers and other large investment banks, a rumor spread across the Internet that just prior to the collapse, $400 billion was secretly transferred to Israeli banks. Similarly, in the wake of the Bernie Madoff scandal in 2008, a great number of anti-Semitic postings appeared on various Internet forums.57 The fact that Bernie Madoff is a Jewish businessman who created a $50 billion Ponzi scheme allowed for a great deal of anti-Semitic comments to be voiced, including

Just another Jew money changer thief. It’s been happening for 3,000 years. Trust a Jew and this is what will happen. History has proven it over and over. Jews have only one god—money.

and in a similar vein,

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Madoff is another Jew banker. . . . The [Securities and Exchange Commission] is filled with Jewish gatekeepers who routinely turn a blind eye to Jewish financial bandits. . . . It’s no conspiracy that the Jews are the source of all the financial troubles in the world.”58

It’s no accident that the ADL tracked an increase in anti-Semitic hate crime in the wake of the 2008 downturn. The fear and economic anxiety produced by the recession helped spark a rise in anti-Semitism as many people relied on old prejudices and stereotypes to help explain the situation and as people used Jews as a focal point for their anger, fear, and resentment. In 2017, a surge in anti-Semitic acts in the United States once again reappeared as the ADL documented 1,986 incidents of anti-Semitism, a number that represents a 57% increase in anti-Semitic incidents. This was the largest single-year increase on record.59 Over 60% of these events occurred in a handful of specific states, notably New York, California, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Florida, and Pennsylvania.

In 2018, the ADL found that anti-Semitic acts in the United States remained at near-record highs. Even though the total number of incidents were not as high as in 2017, it was the deadliest year for Jews in the history of the United States.60 In fact, 2018 saw a 105% increase of physical attacks on Jews in the United States over the 2017 figure. Such lethal anti-Semitic violence was not limited to the United States; 2018 was also the deadliest year in many decades for Jews around the world.61 Anti-Semitism was on the rise in many places such as Italy, which saw a 60% increase; the United Kingdom, which had a 16% increase; France, with a 74% increase; Australia, with an increase of 59%; and South Africa, with an increase of 25%.62

We like to assume that we have progressed and become more tolerant and civilized over time. So why are we seeing such increases in bias crimes during these last few years? One possible explanation has to do with the rise of hate groups in the United States and around the world and the ways in which they have coalesced and marketed themselves online around a number of issues.

Hate Groups

According to a variety of sources, the number of active hate groups in the United States has been increasing in recent years. Figure 8.6 reveals that the United States has experienced significant growth in active hate groups; in fact, 2018 saw the highest number of organized hate groups in 20 years. Much of this dramatic increase is driven by what may be described as white nationalist groups, which were formally more commonly known as white supremacist groups. The Southern Poverty Law Center, for example, tracked a 50% increase in white nationalist groups in 2018.63 While there are a number of hate groups in the United States from different racial, ethnic, and religious groups, the bulk of the growth has revolved around groups and organizations intent on maintaining or regaining a position of power and privilege for whites.

Figure 8.6 Hate Groups in the United States, 1999–2018

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White nationalist groups are organizations whose beliefs center on the ostensible superiority of the white or Aryan people over other races. Such thinking is not new. Ideas about intellectual and physical differences between various racial and other populations have been in wide circulation for a long time and have, over the years, justified racism, genocide, sexism, slavery, colonialism, and other policies and practices based on exploitation and oppression. These beliefs have often been buttressed by a host of pseudo-scientific beliefs such as Social Darwinism, which suggests that the various racial groups are in a life-and-death struggle for survival and that those races that are most fit, genetically speaking, must protect themselves from the dangers posed by different racial groups. Not only is this a misreading of Darwin’s ideas of natural selection, but it also ignores the reality that all human beings are 99.9% identical and of that .1% difference, 94% of that variation is between individuals from the same population.64 Racial differences, in other words, are largely about imagined difference rather than real difference. Race is a social construct. Yet for racists, these differences are real and powerful and of central importance to their worldview and, consequently, shape much of the violence that they carry out. Many nations have dark histories of how this unscientific doctrine has been used to create unethical and sometimes genocidal policies.

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Based on the pseudo-science of Social Darwinism, the eugenics movement became active in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century and emerged in the United States in the early 20th century (see Chapter 2). The word eugenics comes from the Greek roots for good and origin and essentially misapplies principles of genetics for improving the human race. The term eugenics was first used by Francis Galton, an intellectual from England. While his work focused primarily on obtaining desirable human traits through breeding, in the United States, the movement quickly turned to more sinister policies, including the elimination of negative traits.65 As we have continued to note in this book, policies such as these are usually directed at those we don’t consider us but instead consider them. The movement drove legislation across many states for forced sterilization of many people, including those who were mentally or physically challenged and others from the ranks of marginalized subgroups. As we will see in Chapter 11 on genocide, Hitler and the Nazis believed in eugenics and used these ideas to justify a euthanasia program targeting the mentally and physically handicapped as well as the Holocaust. Only after the horrors of Nazi Germany came to light did the eugenics movement lose power in the United States.

Despite empirical evidence proving that race is a social construct and that all humans are virtually identical, albeit with different skin colors, white supremacist groups continue to exist. In the United States, these groups have included such organizations as the KKK, Posse Comitatus, White Aryan Resistance, and various other neo-Nazi, skinhead, Christian Identity, Christian Patriot, and militia groups. Some are highly organized and structured, while others are much looser.66 All, however, share the belief that the white race—meaning primarily those from northern Europe—are superior to other races, are responsible for the greatest achievements in culture and civilization, and are threatened by the increasing presence of nonwhite peoples in this country. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, which tracks such groups, white nationalist organizations grew from 100 in 2017 to 148 in 2018.67 The ADL documented a 182% increase in the distribution of white supremacist propaganda and of the number of rallies held.68 These facts still beg the question of what is behind such a dramatic growth.

A big part of the reason appears to revolve around the issue of power. As we noted in Chapters 5 and 6, perceptions of power (or a lack thereof) are related to other forms of interpersonal crime, including rape and intimate partner violence. It is believed that the resurgence in white supremacy in today’s society represents a reaction to the perceived loss of power felt by some white men. In a country in which whites, and especially white men, once held all the reins of power and enjoyed economic, social, and political superiority and control over other groups, that equation has been changing. Increasingly, the demographic composition of our society has altered and power has become more diffused among various racial, ethnic, religious, and gender groups. Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld, a scholar of hate crime, puts it this way:

White supremacists believe the power that is rightfully theirs, by virtue of their superior race, is being stolen by others. They believe Jewish bankers and media moguls conspire with a corrupt government to take that power. They believe blacks take it by force through their criminal behavior. They believe nonwhites in general take it by immigrating to the United States in great masses and by reproducing when they get here, thereby eventually taking power through sheer force of numbers. They believe race traitors take it by interbreeding with nonwhites, thus contaminating the superior Aryan gene pool. Over and over in white supremacist writings appear these words: “We must take our country back.”69

While economic uncertainty and anxiety have certainly factored into white supremacy, it is the changing face of America that seems to have become a primary focal point for much of the fear and intolerance that we have seen in the last few years.

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Immigration and Hate

According to census projections, by 2045, whites will, for the first time, become a minority population in the United States.70 As the composition of the United States population continues to evolve, fears of the “other” have become a potent source of anger, resentment, and hostility on the part of some whites who see their society changing around them in ways that are alien and uncomfortable. Our society, culture, traditions, and values are constantly evolving and changing, and this is always difficult. For some, it represents a transition from all that is familiar and comfortable to a world that seems foreign and confusing. Research has found that as immigration and ethnic diversity increases in a society, trust, altruism, and community cooperation are correspondingly diminished.71 The notion of white genocide, which we referenced at the beginning of this chapter, perfectly captures this sense of loss and threat perceived rightly or wrongly by some whites.

This is one reason why immigration has become such a hot-button topic in the last couple of years, not only in the United States but also in many European countries. For example, beginning in 2015, Europe experienced a dramatic increase in the number of refugees seeking admittance to European Union nations. Fleeing conflict and war zones and hoping for economic opportunity, millions of refugees risked the hazardous journey across the Mediterranean to reach Europe. While a number of western European nations embraced these new arrivals, it wasn’t long before attitudes and opinions began hardening. These same nations have since seen a significant reaction against this influx with negative rhetoric and stereotyping and anti-immigrant violence increasing in frequency and severity.72

Here in the United States, anti-immigrant ideas have often been a main concern of white supremacist groups, which is why they are also sometimes referred to as nativists . Nativism refers to the practice of protecting the interests and prerogatives of native citizens over immigrants. Ironically, such sentiments ignore the reality that, unless you are an American Indian, we all came from immigrant stock at one time or another. Ignoring such inconvenient truths, white supremacy has embraced and been buoyed by those who have defined immigration as a national emergency and a crisis. Phyliss Gerstenfeld cites a KKK website that asserts that “America is being overrun by illegal immigrants mostly from nonwhite countries who do not share the Christian European Values of our nation’s founders.”73 One study looking at the websites of hate groups found that these sites often portrayed immigrants in various dehumanizing and threatening ways because they “steal jobs” and are labeled as violent criminals and rapists.74 We will see in Chapter 11 that this type of hate-filled propaganda often fuels the fire for genocide.

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These arguments have become common, despite the empirical evidence that shows immigration has had no effect on crime in rural communities between 1990 and 2010 and that during the same time period, immigration was actually linked with lower crime rates.75 One study in Texas even found that immigrants had lower crime rates than native-born citizens.76 And finally, a new study by the Pew Research Center found that between 2007 and 2016, violent crime slightly decreased across areas in general, regardless of whether the number of undocumented immigrants rose of fell in these same areas.77 Despite such research, the image of the violent criminal immigrant remains widespread. This leads us to the role played by President Trump in helping create a climate in which these nativist attitudes and prejudices have been given free rein and even amplified.

Text  Description automatically generatediStock.com/Jorge Villalba

There is no question that the number of bias-related groups and crimes have increased, but has the U.S. population really become more prejudiced? Recent research suggests that hatred and intolerance haven’t really increased, but what has changed is that more people feel empowered to express those sentiments in an increasingly polarized nation. Some have called this the “Trump Effect,” a term coined originally to refer to an increase in bullying in schools attributed to the divisive rhetoric used by Donald Trump in his successful 2016 presidential campaign. This effect has been subsequently expanded to include religious and racial bullying by adults as well as misogyny and sexual assault.78

How was the Trump Effect created? During his presidential campaign and while in office, Donald Trump has repeatedly used the language and imagery of white nationalism in public speeches. He has frequently dehumanized and objectified immigrants as animals, vermin,79 criminals, rapists, and invaders.80 Trump has also repeated the claims of white genocide81 and has pointedly refused to condemn acts of violence carried out by white supremacist groups, whether the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, the shootings at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, the Christchurch Mosque shooting, or the Chabad of Poway shooting in California. Each was carried out by a white supremacist, and in each case, white supremacy was not condemned by the president. On the contrary, in cases such as the Charlottesville rally, Trump defended the white supremacists by asserting that they included “some very fine people.”82

In case you think that we are being unduly partisan in assessing the influence of Donald Trump on hate groups, we should point out that prominent white supremacists, such as David Duke, a former grand wizard of the KKK, and Richard Spencer, a neo-Nazi who coined the term alt-right and was the featured speaker at the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, have publicly acclaimed President Trump as an inspiration and ally. Richard Spencer explicitly argued that “the alt-right found something in Trump. . . . He changed the paradigm and made this kind of public presence of the alt-right possible”; he then went on to suggest that “there is no question that Charlottesville wouldn’t have occurred without Trump.”83 Further afield, but expressing much the same ideas, the Australian man who perpetrated the shootings in

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Christchurch summarized this viewpoint when he asserted that Donald Trump was a “renewed symbol of white identity.”84 Furthermore, a study by The Washington Post using data from the ADL found a very large spike in hate crimes in counties that had recently hosted a Trump rally.85 While these points are certainly not definitive, they are very suggestive of the role that Donald Trump has played, whether intentionally or unintentionally, in supporting and fostering white supremacy and giving legitimacy to their views.

The silver lining in this dark cloud is empirical evidence indicating that prejudicial attitudes in the U.S. population have actually decreased since President Trump was elected. Based on a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults taken both before and after the 2016 presidential election, researchers have found that prejudiced attitudes against minority groups have actually declined.86 The key author of the study noted that it was “quite conceivable that Trump has simultaneously galvanized a small number of highly prejudiced white Americans while also pushing millions more to affirm that they are not as prejudiced.”87

How Can We Combat Hate Crime?

At some level, all violence is the result of an us versus them mentality. Perpetrators usually see their victims as being different and somehow of lesser worth or value. They also tend to perceive their victims as having brought on their own victimization. Remember back to Chapter 1, when we pointed out that many who commit violence tend to understand their actions as being necessary or justified. This is a common tendency among many different kinds of offenders, whether the bully in the schoolyard, the genocidal killer, or the hate criminal. The victims are typically seen as having caused the violence against them because of what they’ve done or said or perhaps simply because of how they look. In their own minds, these offenders are being violent only as a kind of righteous payback or retaliation. We can certainly see this in action when we look at the connection between economic conditions and xenophobia, the tendency to have contempt for foreigners or other strangers, which is particularly likely in times of economic hardship, when resources are scarce.

Researchers have found that groups tend to develop much more reactive and punitive attitudes during uncertain economic times, periods of high crime rates, and eras of social and cultural change.88 Uncertainty and fear, in other words, tend to breed and strengthen hostility and anger against those defined as being dangerous, threatening, or different. Thus, although hate crimes may not be directly linked to economic needs (as are many robberies), tougher economic times do increase the likelihood of hate crimes and other forms of violence. We find, for example, that in the United States, negative stereotypes of immigrant populations and crimes against them have been shown to increase during times of economic depression. For example, during the depressions of 1893 and 1907, the latest immigrants from Italy were the targets, while the depression of the 1920s set the stage for the recent immigrants from the Mediterranean and Slavic nations to become the scapegoats.

Page 252

During more recent economic hard times, Latin American immigrants, both legal and illegal, have become the target of the moment. This correlation between economic hardship and xenophobia has been observed at other times in the United States and in other countries around the world.89 In many ways, then, certain kinds of hate crimes are motivated by the fear surrounding economic uncertainty and cultural change. Ironically, perpetrators of this kind of violence often define themselves as being the victims, and the groups they target are seen as being the perpetrators because of the social, cultural, and demographic changes they represent.92 This tendency is made easier by preexisting prejudices and stereotypes against minority groups. One particularly potent example of this concerns anti-Semitism.

In Focus 8.1 The Internet, Hate Groups, and the Emergence of the Lone Wolf

The Internet is providing society with a host of new possibilities, but not all of them are positive. Unfortunately, the Internet’s promise of anonymity provides many hate groups with the visibility often denied them in regular media channels and allows them to introduce their propaganda to thousands. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the number of websites devoted to hate group propaganda continues to increase at a rapid pace. The Internet has also allowed hate groups to recruit through mass e-mailing and to establish a sense of community through cyber bulletin boards and chat rooms for people hundreds of miles apart. Of course, this visibility has also allowed researchers access to the worlds of these hate groups. Through the messages and images presented on hate sites, we now have more information about how they recruit new members, how they build a sense of community, and how they compel individuals to action.90

The list below includes five reasons (delineated by Teaching Tolerance [http://tolerance.org]) why hate groups and hate speech can flourish online. All of these conditions have increased the effectiveness of recruiting so-called lone wolves, individuals who take part in a movement but remain largely anonymous. Many hate groups encourage lone wolf action by telling their members, “Don’t keep membership lists, don’t go to rallies or meetings where you can be observed, and, should you decide to break the law, be sure not to tell anyone about it.”91

Privacy: Even though many sites remain open for anyone to post information or participate in a chat room, many are now requiring a screening and approval process for participants, thereby allowing greater privacy from public scrutiny.

Persuasion: Open discussions on the web allow extremists to more personally talk with individuals who may feel alienated from the rest of society but may not be convinced that an affiliation with a hate group is the way to go. The immediate availability of this communication makes such propaganda much more persuasive.

Anonymity: Although access to Internet traffic has the potential to be subpoenaed in a court of law, most people do not perceive that this will ever happen to them. Most people believe their interaction on the Internet will remain anonymous. This perceived anonymity serves to increase participation in hate groups. Obviously, having to attend a meeting, such as a KKK rally, to get involved in an organization would be perceived as more of an obstacle to reluctant participants compared to chatting over the Internet.

Planning: The Internet allows groups to organize and plan activities, such as rallies, concerts, and lectures, more effectively than traditional methods of communication.

Support: All of us feel the need to be part of a community. Internet chat rooms facilitate this formation of community for their participants and provide reinforcements for extremist ideas that would not be tolerated in the larger society.

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The problem with the kind of stereotypes and prejudices that lead to hate crimes is that they are remarkably enduring. In many ways, they are similar to a forest fire that, after the flames have been doused, continues to smolder underground for a long time. You think it’s been eradicated, but given the right conditions, those smoldering embers can burst into flame again—so too with prejudice. Education, legal changes, and tolerance training can all be used to combat intolerance and hatred so that it goes underground. But given the right economic, social, and political conditions, those old prejudices can quickly be resurrected. There are many reasons why these ideas persist.

One explanation relates to a deep-seated instinct among groups to distinguish between who is and who is not included. The tendency to separate ourselves into in-groups and out-groups is very strong. Jack Levin and Gordana Rabrenovic state,

If no ethnic or religious differences exist, humans will invent them to set up a hierarchy of those of us who are the richest, most intelligent, most morally superior, best hunters, and so on.93

However, this predisposition to divide the world into us versus them does not inextricably result in hate. Levin and Rabrenovic conclude,

Hating “the other” is learned behavior, pure and simple. . . . Haters learn such ideas either early in life from their parents or later in life from their friends, classmates, teachers, religious leaders, and the mass media.94

As such, the elements responsible for socialization—including family, school, religious organizations, and society as a whole—each play a role in creating hate. In fact, we all play a role. It is important to remember that everyday acts of prejudice and bigotry are also related to acts of hate-motivated violence. When we allow bigoted comments and jokes to be told without comment, we are acting as bystanders to hate. When a classmate makes an anti-Semitic comment; when your roommate insults something by saying, “That’s so gay”; when a coworker uses racial and ethnic slurs in casual conversation; when the coach of a child’s baseball team tells a player that he throws like a girl—each of these seemingly small instances helps to foster prejudiced environments where hateful attitudes and behavior are more likely to flourish. Each presents an opportunity to step out of the role of a bystander and into one of action. We will have more to say about the role of bystanders in Chapter 11 on genocide.

In U.S. society, the First Amendment protects a citizen’s right to free speech, including hate speech. This is a fundamental right that we believe should never be jeopardized. Nevertheless, there are ways in which communities can respond to events that promote hate, such as rallies and other gatherings. The Southern Poverty Law Center has published methods that have been successfully used by communities to combat hate groups.

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For example, if a hate group such as a white supremacist organization plans a demonstration, an alternative event can be organized that encourages multiculturalism. Hate crime victimizations should also be responded to by the community, not only by law enforcement. This is important not only to show unity within the community against hate but also to send a message to the hate crime victims that their community cares about them.95

Conclusions

In this chapter, we have examined how society can respond and combat violent crime by increasing the penalties associated to victimizations that target subgroups of the population simply because they are members of that group. In this way, hate crimes differ from other interpersonal crimes that result from conflict situations between known individuals and from economically motivated crimes against strangers, such as robberies. The term hate crime is relatively new, but crimes motivated by hate have a long history. While they have always existed, they tend to increase during times of economic downturn and/or when those in power perceive a real or imagined threat to their hierarchical status.

Part 2 ***DO NOT PLAGARIZE NOR PARAPHRASE!!! USE THIS TO DO THE 550 WORD WRITING!!! ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTION FROM THIS AND REFERENCE THE PAGE NUMBER & TEXTBOOK

Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (2021). Chapter 1 Defining Violence. In Violence: The enduring

problem (4th ed., pp. 368-378). essay, SAGE Publishing, Inc.

**** USE AMERICAN SCHOLARLY REFERENCES ONLY ****

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

OVERVIEW: The objective of this assignment is to build skills on how to identify research sources, construct an annotated bibliography and identify key similarities or dissimilarities among articles. To do this, choose ONE OF THREE topics covered in this module: Mass Murder (Shootings) in Schools, Hate Crimes/Violence OR or State Violence. These are three distinct areas of research, but my intention is that you pursue an area of inquiry with which you have the most interest.

Learning how to identify and comprehend research sources is a key skill required for learning how to conduct and analyze social scientific and scientific research. Such research by necessity relies on previous research work that establishes knowledge about “what we know” about a particular phenomenon. Relying on published research that goes through academic peer review or that is published in credible scholarly books or research monographs avoids the problem of misinformation, i.e. one has to establish their basis of knowledge by referencing credible and verifiable sources. For example, the Alvarez and Bachman book claims to summarize credible and verifiable information on the topic of violence by referencing sources of primary research (see their endnotes and endnote references). Further, credible research sources are usually subject to verification by academic institutions, government agencies, policy organizations or other researchers that may challenge another’s research finding (e.g., peer review).

For this assignment, the research sources you use must be academic articles published in research journals, i.e., not written by a journalists (who often synthesize primary research done by others) or social media commentators who often post personal opinions not backed up by credible and verifiable data (see module link “Scholarly Versus Journalistic/Popular Press Articles” linked here to learn more about these distinctions). To assure that you use only academic articles you are instructed to use the Criminal Justice Database, which contains articles from hundreds of journals, to complete this assignment (see below). In having you rely on academic research articles, I am not diminishing the important scholarship and research done in published books or high quality media journals such as The New Yorker or The Atlantic, but using research articles is the most efficient way to serve the objectives of this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: The first task of this assignment is to identify the three articles you want to use for the assignment. The articles must be on U.S.-based research and written in last 20 years, and be similar in research focus (e.g., measurements of violence, typical victims and offenders, causal circumstances or conditions, policies and prevention, etc – see below and my posted video for completing this assignment). Also, you should be able to comprehend the study for purposes of summarizing and presenting it, i.e., it should not be too sophisticated in its use of analytic techniques (such as the use of complicated quantiative methodologies) or theoretical principles. 

To locate articles, access the  “Criminal Justice Database” described earlier at https://www-proquest-com.libproxy.library.wmich.edu/criminaljusticeperiodicals/advanced?accountid=15099. This link should take you to the “Advanced Search” option for the database (see screenshot below). Be sure that you are logged onto your Wmich account to gain access. See sample screenshot below for what the page should look like (Note: if the link provided does not take you directly to the database, go to the WMUlibrary website at  https://wmich.edu/library , and click on the “databases” tab – left side about mid-page. The link takes you to a page listing “A-Z Databases.” On the right you will find a “find a database” request option, where you should write “Criminal Justice Database.”) 

Searching the Criminal Justice Database: Once on the database you will find several command lines where you can put in key words and phrases for your search. As an example (see screenshot below), I put in “hate crime” for the primary search and “religious” on an additional line to narrow the focus. You also should make sure that you choose to search “anywhere” in text to maximize results, and choose the “full text” option for what you want your search to provide for your viewing. In addition, to make sure you adhere to the parameters of the assignment, be sure to do the following before conducting your search: a) Under the option “specific date range,” choose 2002 to 2022; b) Under the text box labeled “Source Type,” scroll down & click “Scholarly Journal”; c) Under the text box labeled “Document Type,” scroll down and choose “Article”; d) Under the Language text box, choose “English.” These steps will assure that you will adhere to the directions of the assignment, and YOU WILL BE GRADED DOWN especially if you choose sources that are not articles from scholarly journals. See the screenshot below that provides a visual for the steps I am describing here.

Now you can start searching for relevant articles. Note that you will want to refine your search by subtopic with the objective of finding three articles with a similar research focus. For example, perhaps you are interesed in finding articles on hate crimes that are directed at likely victims and offenders. Then you can designate key words or phrases that pertain to the specific groups that you surmise are most likely to be victims of hate crimes, and confine your search along these lines (e.g., hate crimes directed at specific religious groups, etc.). Other subtopics guiding your search might include that key words or phrases that pertain to the characteristics of assailants, prevalence and rates of change (incidence) over time, methods of perpetrating violence (e.g, do assailants use arson, guns, some other method??), etc. If examining mass shootings in schools or state violence, search subtopics might include prevalance and incidence, policies and prevention, characteristics of those caught up in such incidents, etc. If searching for articles on state crime, you should be specific and search under police use of force, police shootings or police killings. 

You should use the Alvarez and Bachman or my lecture/powerpoint to help identify key words and phrases. For example, Alvarez and Bachman begin their chapters going over the scope of a specific problem (data on prevalence and incidence) and then explore specific subtopics. They also identify common victims and offenders associated with hate crimes and school shootings. For the material on state violence, most of this discussion will be from my lecture where I examine police excessive force and related matters that can help you designate key words or phrases for identifying key themes tying articles together and narrowing your searches. 

After you have identified the three articles WITH SIMILAR THEMES that you want to examine, you may proceed to the second task of this assignment, constructing your annotated bibiography. An annotated bibliography needs to include the following: 1) Full Reference (name of article, authors, journal in which article is published with showing volume, number, & year published – See “Sample Annotated Bibliography” or “Quickguide Chicago Manual of Style” linked below to find samples of acceptable formats for referencing sources. NOTE: PROQUEST OR OTHER SEARCH ENGINES ARE NOT JOURNALS – journal titles are listed with articles themselves; 2) Research Question (what is the article about)? 3) Research Method (what is the data source and how was data collected??); 4) the “so-what” of the research, i.e., a couple of sentences outlining key findings, conclusions or causal arguments, including key concepts or theories identified and applied. See the attached “Sample Annotated Bibliography for Sociology” posted in this module (below) to get a sense of how an annotated bibiography should look (either APA or MLA format). You must also link the URL showing the online location of your article so I can view it if need be.

Task three: End your assignment with paragraph that addresses the ways in which the pieces you chose for your annotated bibliography are similar or disimilar to one another in terms of their findings or theoretical perspectives (do not comment on less distinctions such as site of study or method used unless these are central to the findings of the research). If there are key disagreements or disputes among the researchers, point these out.

KEEP IN MIND THAT YOU MUST USE YOUR OWN WORDS IN RESPONDING TO THE PROMPT – NO CUTTING & PASTING!!

Unit 6 Ethics Assignment

Instructions

For this assignment, you will read a case and answer a series of questions concerning an analysis of ethical considerations governing marketing practices, as leaders are responsible for such endeavors. Begin by reading the following case, which can be located within the Business Source Ultimate database of the CSU Online Library. Data monitor. (2010, July). Ambush marketing case study: Successfully leveraging high-profile events to raise brand profile. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsu&AN=59543529&site=ehost-live&scope=siteThen, draft a two-page paper by addressing each of the following items:

  • In your own words, how would you describe “ambush marketing”? Include two examples with your description.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages (risks and consequences) of ambush marketing?
  • What was Bavaria Beer hoping to achieve through its ambush marketing tactics?
  • Would you consider Bavaria Beer’s ambush marketing an unethical practice or simply a competitive strategy? Explain.
  • Can ambush marketing be both intentional and unintentional? Explain.
  • As a leader of an organization, would you allow the practice of ambush marketing? Explain.

Be sure to demonstrate a clear analysis as you address each question. Use APA style to format your assignment. For assistance in formatting your paper, refer to the Citation Guide. You are not required to complete additional research for this assignment; however, if you do, use APA Style to cite your sources. 

Case Study Assignment

****PLEASE FOLLOW DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY****

****PLEASE FOLLOW RUBRIC CAREFULLY****

****DUE JUNE 18TH****

Case Study Analysis: Roger and Annette

Roger is a 43-year old husband and father. He has been married for 11 years and has two children, eight and five. Currently, he works as a middle manager for a large engineering firm. The office is located almost an hour away and it is an extremely stressful work environment because of bidding competition and project deadlines. The company has mentioned a possible downsizing of the workforce due to ongoing economic pressures and middle management is seen as being the most vulnerable. Roger has been with the company for seven years now.

Annette, Roger’s wife also works. She is an office manager for a local pediatrician but may have to leave due to recurring back problems and other health concerns. The possible loss of her income has strained the marriage a bit, especially over the past six months.

Roger works late many days and sometimes doesn’t get home until after the children have gone to bed. Lately, he has appeared to be increasingly irritable and frequently “loses it” and ends up yelling at Annette or the kids. During his senior year in high school and also while attending college, Roger would drink socially with friends and occasionally get drunk. Annette knew of his drinking when they started dating, but it never seemed to be a problem and she had never actually seen him drunk. Roger’s mother was an alcoholic and died four years ago from complications related to her drinking. She was 67 at the time. Her brother (Roger’s uncle) has also been in a detox center twice for drinking problems. One of the reasons Roger was coming home late was because he was stopping at a bar to have a drink with several of his coworkers. What started out as a beer or two once a week after work, became a six-pack three or four times a week. Drinking on the weekends also became more routine and he no longer tried to hide it from Annette. She also recently found pornography on his computer. Annette greatly resents the drinking and is becoming increasingly concerned.

Her primary way of dealing with the issue is to lecture and moralize the situation. Roger responds with anger, sullenness and most recently, by leaving the house for hours at a time. He doesn’t believe he has a serious problem with alcohol and that he could stop if he really wanted to. Besides, he feels like it, “calms him down” after the stress of his workday. He appears aloof and somewhat suspicious of others.

About a month ago, Roger stopped attending church with his family. Annette has explored the possibility of seeing a counselor for help. After a lot of asking, complaining and even a threat by Annette to separate, Roger has agreed to come in. He says he loves his family, but doesn’t know, “what the big deal” is really all about. He doesn’t believe that the Bible expressly prohibits drinking altogether.

Case Study Management and Analysis Form

Each case study summary should incorporate the following elements: A – Achieving a Connection

How would you connect with this couple and begin to form a helping relationship (in 2-3 summary paragraphs)?

B – Breaking Down the Problem

1. Define/summarize the following (in bullet-point format):

· Physical and/or Medical needs and issues

· Emotional needs and issues

· Family/Social/Relational needs and issues

· Mental/Psychological needs and issues

· Financial, Vocational or Other/Practical needs and issues

· Spiritual needs and Issues

2. Assess the scope of the presenting problems by utilizing the scales (1-10) below, state the overall level of risk/distress, and provide a summary paragraph:

Frequency Score:

How often are problems occurring, issues arising and/or certain behaviors being displayed?

0 2 4 6 8 10

< 1x per month weekly daily

Intensity Score:

How strong/evident is the level of pain, distress, or crisis – physically, emotionally, relationally, psychologically, financially/vocationally, spiritually, etc.?

0246810
mildmoderateextreme

Duration Score:

How long does the impact of crisis moments linger/last when they manifest?

0246810
a few hours1-2 days> 1 week

Eric Scalise, Ph.D. (2015)

Variability Score:

How many different issues, problems and/or crisis points are present in the marriage?

0246810
one issue3-4 issues> 6 issues

Overall Score:

(4-15: Low Risk; 16-25: Moderate Risk; 26-40: High Risk)

C – Committing to a Plan of Action

What steps does the counselor need to consider/take, including biblically oriented principles (in bullet-point format)?

What steps does the couple need to consider take, including biblically oriented principles (in bullet-point format)?

D – Documenting the Interaction

What are the potential legal, ethical, and/or liability related issues, if any (in bullet-point format)?

E – Explaining the Chosen Theoretical Orientation

Select one theoretical orientation/model for marriage counseling (e.g., behavioral, emotion- centered, psychodynamic, multigenerational, social constructionist, etc.) and describe (in a two-page summary) how a counselor would work with the couple using the constructs, techniques, and interventions specifically related to the chosen theory.

A different theoretical orientation/model will be used for each case study.

Case Study Analyses Assignment Instructions

Overview

Review files Case Study Analysis: Roger and Annette. Describe hypothetical presenting problems with a couple. Using the Case Study Analysis Template, provide a thorough, systematic and holistic summary.

Instructions

· Length of Assignment – 5 pages

· Excluding title page and reference page

· Devote 2 of your pages to the integration of your selected theoretical model

· Current APA format

· Include 5 scholarly references published within the last five years

· Utilize the Case Study and Analysis Template to write your paper

· Description of how you would approach working with the couple

· The theoretical orientation/model you are using.

· Your analysis/assessment of the case;

Important: Follow the template, Case Study Analysis Template, Headings A through E, to organize and present your paper. All of these sections must be included in your final submission.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

CHD 216/

Discussion Question – Module 3: The Importance of the First Five Years

1

1 This week, we have been focusing on the importance of quality caregiving and how it impacts the overall development of children in the first years of life. Using the information from your textbook and the article and videos, The Secret Life of the Brain, Are We Crazy About Our Kids, and Change the First Five Years and You Change Everything (Five Year Fund) answer the following questions

1. After watching The Secret Life of the Brain, what is the most surprising thing you learned about the cognitive abilities of an infant?

2. Why are authentic experiences important for brain development and what are some of the potential consequences for young children in terms of cognitive, physical, social/emotional, and language development if they are deprived of quality experiences in the first years of life?

3. In your opinion, what changes in terms of policy, cultural and societal norms, parenting practices, and caregiver training need to occur to ensure all young children have access to quality care and caregivers?

Find current research to support your position

2

Discussion Question Adult Relationships in Infant and Toddler Programs

This week, we have been focusing on adult relationships in infant and toddler programs. Using the information from your textbook and the supplementary articles and videos, discuss and answer the following:

1 What do you think is the most important thing when building relationships with children?

2. Why is it critical to build a relationship with the families of the children you care for and what are some ways to build those relationships?

3 Consider the Ten Principles from an adult perspective (look at your slides), which one(s) do you feel is/are most important and why?

Find current research to support your position

3 Discussion Question Regulation, Resiliency, and Culture

This week, we have been focusing on behavioral regulation, resiliency, and culture. Using the information from your textbook and the supplementary articles and videos, discuss and answer the following:

1 Explain, using concrete examples and details, how resilience and the ability to regulate one’s emotions are related.

2 What role does culture and cultural background play in terms of resilience and regulation?

3 How does culture play a role in teacher assumptions/expectations regarding resiliency and regulation?

4 What are the some of the outcomes for children who do not develop resiliency or are unable to regulate their emotions? Find current research to support your position.

CHD 216

After completing this assignment, you will be able to will design or find an Annual Program Evaluation and discuss how it covers the six types of family involvement.

Create or find an Annual Program Evaluation (parent questionnaire, group evaluation meeting, checklist, etc). This can be any kind of document used to evaluate parent involvement. Google topics such as Parent Involvement Survey, Self-Assessment of School/Program Parent Involvement Practices, Annual Program Evaluation: Parent Survey, Parent Evaluation Parent Questionnaire, Annual Program Evaluation for Parent Involvement Policy (PI), etc.

After finding or creating a document, discuss (compare and contrast) how the document relates to the six types of parent involvement: parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community. If your document is missing parts, then create the appropriate section to add to evaluation.

Remember this is a survey of how well the school is meeting the needs of the parents. I need specific comparison/contrast for each section. Some examples are below:

Example 1:

For the parenting topic, I was looking for the questions that wanted to know if the school helps families in parenting topics, child development knowledge and helping the parents to create a home environment that supports their child’s academic success. Questions like, number 12. I receive information on what my child should learn and be able to do in each grade in school; or number 22. I am given information about services to support my child’s learning and behavior needs and enhance his or her talents (tutoring, mentoring, camps, career exploration).

Example 2:

Parenting – questions 10, 11, 16, 24, and 25 address the schools’ provision of skills and techniques for parents to help them with parenting at home. It points parents’ involvement with homework activities, listening to your children and effectively communicating with them.

Example 3:

Part 2: COMMUNICATING

The questionnaire asks the parent on different methods the teacher has communicated with the parent.

Asks if the parent attends PTA meetings

Asks if the parent is involved in the student’s achievements by going to parent teacher conferences

The teacher is questioning the parent on what they can do to better communicate with the parent

Unit 5 Ethics

Instructions

This assignment involves relating ethical behaviors in high-profile events, as well as examining regulatory and sustainability market approaches to business’s environmental responsibilities. Read each of the following questions before answering each one within a Word document.

  1. Based on the response to Hurricane Katrina, what is the relationship between inefficiency and ethical behavior for leaders? How could the response to the Hurricane Katrina disaster have been more effective, and thus more ethical? Your response must be at least 200 words.
  2. In considering the BP Oil Spill, what circumstances would ethically justify a government or private company in restricting information made available to the public during a disaster? At what point might other companies have an ethical right to intervene regarding environmental disasters? Your response must be at least 200 words.

In the Word document, list your answers one after the other. Use Times New Roman, 12-point font, and double-spacing. There is no need to include a title page nor a references page. You are not required to perform research for this assignment; however, if you choose to perform research to answer these questions, use APA style to format your in-text and reference citations. 

NURSING RESEARCH

Evidence-Based Signature Assignment on Acute Bronchitis

rewrite for a zero Turnitin score

Running head: CURRENT EBP – ACUTE BRONCHITIS 1

CURRENT EBP – ACUTE BRONCHITIS 2

Signature Assignment: Current EBP – Acute Bronchitis

Name xxxxxxx

United State University

Primary Health of Acute Clients/Families Across the Lifespan-xxxx

Professor xxxxxxx

Date xxxxx

Signature Assignment: Current EBP – Acute Bronchitis

This paper presents a comprehensive discussion of an acute health problem called acute bronchitis. The paper is grounded on two original research contributions, peer-reviewed articles, and the clinical experience of a client with acute bronchitis requiring at least two visits. Using these resources, the paper explores key concepts and differing viewpoints related to acute bronchitis, the impact of cultural/spiritual/socioeconomic considerations, and evidence-based medical guidelines, in addition to other relevant factors related to the acute health problem. The objective is to provide the reader with a deep insight into acute bronchitis with regard to clinical evaluation, symptomatic presentation, evaluation, and management of clinical guidelines.

Topic and Rationale for Selection

According to Singh, Avula, and Zahn (2021), acute bronchitis “is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages that extend from the trachea into the small airways and alveoli.” Common symptoms of the acute health problem include cough, sputum production, nausea, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat, fatigue, headache, and muscle aches. This topic was selected because acute bronchitis is a common presentation in most primary care offices, urgent care centers, and emergency departments. Singh, Avula, and Zahn (2021) note that in the US, acute bronchitis ranks among the top ten common acute health problems among outpatients with 5% of adults being diagnosed with the condition each year. This translates to approximately 10 million visits to healthcare organizations each year.

The health problem is synonymous with the flu season, which is common during winter and autumn in the US. The disease can follow any viral upper respiratory infection with common pathogens being parainfluenza, influenza virus A or B, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. The condition is further exacerbated by risk factors like asthma, crowding, residing in polluted areas, and a history of smoking. Considering that these are risk factors that characterize a large population of the US, the topic was selected due to its importance in public healthcare outcomes.

Evaluation of Key Concepts

According to Kinkade and Long (2016), “acute bronchitis is the result of acute inflammation of the bronchi secondary to various triggers, most commonly viral infection, allergens, pollutants, etc.” (p. 560). In addition to this, the bronchial wall’s inflammation results in the denudation of the basement membrane, the desquamation of the epithelial cell, and mucosal thickening. There are instances when a viral upper respiratory infection progresses into the lower respiratory tract infection, which leads to acute bronchitis. The findings of physical examination in acute bronchitis are diverse and include bullous myringitis, rhinorrhea, adenopathy, conjunctivitis, diffuse wheezes, inspiratory stridor, and peripheral cyanosis, among others.

Overall, acute bronchitis is likely to be diagnosed in individuals having an acute respiratory infection combined with a cough. However, it is vital to acknowledge that there are other more serious illnesses associated with the lower respiratory tract that cause a cough. Hence, Albert (2016) suggests the following studies to help in the proper diagnosis of acute bronchitis: (a) spirometry, (b) influenza tests, (c) blood culture in case there is suspicion of a bacterial super-infection, (d) sputum cytology in case there is a persistent cough, (e) chest radiography in case there is suspicion of pneumonia or the patient is elderly, (f) procalcitonin levels in order to differentiate nonbacterial and bacterial infections, and (g), complete blood count with differential.

Complete History and Physical (H&P) of the Client’s Initial Visit

History

The client is a 45-year-old male who works in a company that deals with toxic substances with strong fumes. He is a chronic smoker and has been overweight for the past three years. The client has been coughing for the past 12 days and complains of a lot of sputum. Currently, the sputum is clear-colored. The client has also had the following symptoms over the past six days: extreme fatigue, muscle aches, headache, stuffy nose, and sore throat. Consequently, these symptoms have made it challenging for him to work. Considering his job pays him based on his output, his current illness is not only affecting his health adversely but also his economic wellbeing. Therefore, the client seeks a swift and successful solution to his predicament.

Physical Examination

A physical examination of the client has revealed coarse rhonchi and wheezes, which alter in intensity and location after a productive and deep cough. Additionally, the exam shows that the client makes high-pitched continuous sounds and diffuse wheezes, which implies that he has a severe case of an acute health problem. Occasionally, the patient shows diffuse diminution of air intake, which indicates an obstruction of the trachea or major bronchi. The client also has a sustained heave along his left sternal border, which is an indicator of the right ventricular hypertrophy; a condition that is synonymous with bronchitis.

SOAP Note for the Client’s Follow-Up Visit

Subjective

The client is a 45-year-old male who visited the clinic on 02/18/2022. He complained of a consistent cough, a lot of sputum, extreme fatigue, muscle aches, headache, stuffy nose, and sore throat. A review of his systems showed that the client did not have any major health changes over the past few weeks apart from the cough. A skin exam showed no rash or itching while a HEENT exam showed that the client had normal eye and ear functioning but had a stuffy nose and sore throat. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal functioning were also normal. The client has no known allergies. He has taken over-the-counter medication to help with the coughing with no success.

Objective

The client’s vital signs were as follows: “BP 115/75, HR 85, RR 17, Temp 96.2 (oral), SPO2 96% RA. Height: 5ft 8inch, Weight: 143 lb., BMI: 21.7.” a general survey showed that the client was calm with clear speech and congruent answers to any questions asked. However, he had dry skin and appeared older than his stated age.

Assessment

The primary diagnosis is acute bronchitis (ICD-10: J20.9). This diagnosis was made based on the symptoms such as severe cough, fatigue, mucus, and chest discomfort. The client’s diaphragm appeared flatter and lower than normal. He also had a palpable liver, which implies that overinflation could have displaced it. His smoking and regular exposure to toxic fumes at his workplace is major risk factors for bronchitis. However, standard lab tests are mandatory to prove or disprove this diagnosis.

Plan

The plan is to prescribe azithromycin to the patient. This is a drug that is effective in fighting off bacteria, a major reason behind the development of bronchitis. Additionally, Naproxen and Sumatriptan can be combined for better effect. Albert (2016) asserts that the combination of these medications results in positive clinical outcomes. The client has no allergies and is likely to benefit from these drugs. Regarding lab tests, an x-ray of the chest will be done to assess the lungs and bronchial tubes, a blood test will check for infections, a respiratory mucus test will reveal the mucus’ origin, a urine test will reveal likely inflammation origins, and spirometry will reveal the functioning of the lungs. Finally, patient education will be done to sensitize him on the proper taking of medication and the necessary lifestyle changes to be made to ensure he gets well swiftly and prevents acute bronchitis from being a chronic one.

Description of Multiple Viewpoints

According to Singh, Avula, and Zahn (2021), there are instances when secondary pneumonia develops. Often, this is indicated by fever, productive cough, and worsening symptoms. Hence, there may be a need for chest x-rays. This trend is crucial for smokers, infants/newborns, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults. Fahey et al. (2014) reveal that for patients with shortness of breath and a cough, pulmonary emboli must be in differentials. At times, spontaneous pneumomediastinum or pneumothorax can result from aggressive coughing. Once again, a chest –x-ray may be vital for acute worsening of symptoms. People diagnosed with acute bronchitis should comprehend the significance of lifestyle changes such as avoiding pollutants or quitting smoking in order to minimize recurrence of the disease or various complications. Furthermore, pneumonia and influenza immunizations for the at-risk groups may be important. Patient education such as avoiding the use of antibiotics in situations when it has not been indicated to avoid antibiotic resistance may also be necessary. However, the general population tends to go against such norms with a high number of people self-medicating on antibiotics, others refusing to be vaccinated, and others refusing to quit their poor lifestyle habits.

Merit of Evidence/ Soundness of Research

The research referenced in this article was very sound based on a variety of factors including the use of scientific research techniques, use of large sample sizes, long study-time, randomization, and result findings being closely aligned with the scientifically established guidelines regarding treatment and diagnosis. More so, the research in the articles used was done by qualified individuals with impressive academic credentials and extensive experience in their fields. The research was also published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals that referenced other credible and reliable primary and secondary sources.

Evaluation of Current EBM Guidelines

Current EBM guidelines recommend treating simple acute bronchitis using antibiotics in healthy adults. In nine randomized, controlled trials of antibiotic agents, pertinent research reveals a slight reduction in the cough duration period. However, there was no notable reduction in the period of illness (Fahey et al., 2014). Consequently, the use of antibiotics is not recommended in simple cases, taking into account the cost of antibiotics, possible side effects, and antibiotic resistance. For viral acute bronchitis, there are medical societies that advise against the use of antibiotics. Nevertheless, the majority of healthcare practitioners still prescribe antibiotics for individuals diagnosed with acute bronchitis. Current EBM guidelines not only focus on treatment but preventive measures as well. People diagnosed with acute bronchitis should comprehend the significance of lifestyle changes such as avoiding pollutants or quitting smoking in order to minimize recurrence of the disease or various complications.

Cultural, Spiritual, and Socioeconomic Considerations

When interacting with patients, healthcare practitioners should consider the role played by the client’s cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic backgrounds. These are factors that directly impact the healthcare outcomes of the patient. For instance, there are cultural and spiritual beliefs that may cause a client to forego vital medical care. The client may choose traditional medication or adhere to his religious beliefs and stop the necessary medication. McHale (2018) advises healthcare practitioners not to get offended by such outcomes but to respect the choices of the client. More so, they can try and see the perspective of the client in order to open a proper line of communication and find alternative ways of helping their patients that will not seem offensive to them. Socioeconomic considerations should also be made. For instance, the client presented above works in a company that deals with toxic fumes. It might not be possible for the healthcare practitioner to ask the client to quit his job in order to improve his healthcare outcomes. Hence, alternative preventive solutions should be sought.

Standardized Procedure for this Diagnosis

Acute bronchitis is likely to be diagnosed in individuals having an acute respiratory infection combined with a cough. However, it is vital to acknowledge that there are other more serious illnesses associated with the lower respiratory tract that cause a cough. Hence, as aforementioned, Albert (2016) suggests the following studies to help in the proper diagnosis of acute bronchitis: (a) spirometry, (b) influenza tests, (c) blood culture in case there is suspicion of a bacterial super-infection, (d) sputum cytology in case there is a persistent cough, (e) chest radiography in case there is suspicion of pneumonia or the patient is elderly, (f) procalcitonin levels in order to differentiate nonbacterial and bacterial infections, and (g), complete blood count with differential.

How the Evidence Would Impact Practice

The evidence collected in this paper would positively impact my practice and allow me to offer high-quality healthcare services to my clients. For starters, the evidence collected has revealed the significance of offering holistic care to patients to achieve the best outcomes possible. In my practice, I would not only focus on treatment options, but I would also educate my clients to ensure that they take preventive actions in order to avoid chronic illnesses caused by the acute health problem. I would also consider how their cultures, religion, and socioeconomic backgrounds impact their ability to comprehensively accept healthcare services. The evidence collected has also shown me the importance of carrying out diverse tests during the diagnosis of a client in order to ensure accurate diagnoses are made and differential diagnoses are accurately ruled out.

Conclusion

This paper has presented a comprehensive discussion of an acute health problem called acute bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is a common presentation in most primary care offices, urgent care centers, and emergency departments. It accounts for approximately 10 million visits to healthcare organizations each year. Therefore, it is a major problem that warranted this discussion. Current EBM guidelines recommend treating simple acute bronchitis using antibiotics in healthy adults. Nevertheless, comprehensive tests should be done during diagnosis to rule out other diseases that have similar symptoms to acute bronchitis. Furthermore, his paper has revealed the significance of educating patients on preventive measures to ensure they adopt healthier lifestyles and can alleviate the risk of developing long-term illnesses. Overall, this discussion has enhanced my knowledge of a common acute health problem and has added great value to my future practice.

References

Albert, R. H. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis. American Family Physician82(11), 1345-1350.

Fahey, T., Smucny, J., Becker, L., & Glazier, R. (2014). Antibiotics for acute bronchitis (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, (4).

Kinkade, S., & Long, N. A. (2016). Acute bronchitis. American Family Physician94(7), 560-565.

McHale, J. V. (2018). Ethical, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of healthcare practice. Nursing Ethics20(4), 365-365.

Singh, A., Avula, A., & Zahn, E. (2021). Acute bronchitis. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448067/

P7_THK

Competencies

In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competencies:

· Use basic programming constructs

· Develop a fully functional program

Scenario

Congratulations! Your flowchart and pseudocode design have been accepted! You are applying for a position as a software developer, and the company would now like you to move to the next round of code design. Remember, the company gave you three different possible programming challenges:

1. Cracked Egg Game : There are a dozen eggs in a basket; some are hard boiled and some are raw. The object of this game is for the user to guess the number of hard-boiled eggs prior to playing the game. The computer then simulates cracking all 12 eggs, using a random number 0 or 1 to simulate raw or hard boiled. The number 0 should represent raw eggs and the number 1 should represent hard boiled. The computer must keep track of the number of hard-boiled eggs. At the conclusion of cracking all 12 eggs, the actual number of hard boiled is compared to the user’s guess, and whether the user won or lost is given as output.

1. Spaceship Race Game : There are two spaceships racing across the galaxies toward a distant star. The spaceships make progress by getting a “boost,” or a value between 0 and 10. The first spaceship to reach the distant star wins. The distance of the star the spaceships are racing toward is provided as input by the user (a value between 25 and 100). The boost value is determined from the computer generating a random number between 0 and 10. The object is to have the spaceships race, and then as soon as one spaceship reaches the destination, which spaceship won or if there was a tie is provided as output.

1. Rock-Paper-Scissors Game : This is a game of chance normally played between two people. Similar to flipping a coin or drawing straws, it can be used as a method for determining a random winner. The rules of the game require that each player forms one of three shapes with their hand at the same time. The shapes are as follows:

· Rock, which is represented by a closed fist, will beat scissors because rock can crush scissors.

· Paper, which is represented by a flat hand, will beat rock because paper can cover rocks.

· Scissors, which are represented by the index and middle fingers forming a V, will beat paper because scissors can cut through paper.

In the computer version of this game, the user will play against the computer. The human user will choose rock, paper, or scissors, and the computer will also randomly choose rock, paper, or scissors. Use the integer value 1 to represent rock, 2 to represent paper, and 3 to represent scissors. The human user will input 1, 2, or 3. The computer will then choose a random number between 1 and 3. Based on the rules of the game, the computer will give output to show whether the user or the computer wins the game, or if it is a tie. The user will play 10 games and, at the conclusion of those 10 games, the computer will output the number of times the user won, the computer won, as well as the number of tied games.

You will now write a Coral program to demonstrate your programming skills. Use the flowchart and pseudocode you designed in Project One as a basis for the code you will create. This will reflect the logic you will implement in your program.

Directions

For this project, you will write code in Coral for the programming game you have selected by accessing the activity in the zyBook. Note that links for each are provided in the Scenario section. The work you complete will be based on your flowchart and pseudocode designs from Project One. Be sure to refer to any feedback you received for Project One prior to beginning coding in Coral.

1. Determine the variables and relevant data types of each variable. Consider the necessary variables required to implement the logic of your game, as well as the relevant data type (i.e., integer or float) of each variable.

1. Initialize the variables using appropriate data values. Where necessary, assign an initial value to each variable. Note that variables that obtain an initial value from user input do not require initializing. For example, before you start simulating any of the games, there should be zero wins and losses.

1. Set branches that use conditionals to define the logic of the game. This must meet the requirements of the program. You may use the following types of statements to accomplish this:

· IF

· IF-ELSE

· IF-ELSE-IF

Statements must also use the appropriate relational operators, which are as follows:

· == (equals)

· != (not equal)

· < (less than)

· > (greater than)

· <= (less than or equal)

· >= (greater than or equal)

1. Create loops to define the logic, flow, and sequence of the game. This must meet the requirements of the program. Reference the Brief Tutorial on Coral, linked in the Supporting Materials section, for a reminder of how to create loops in Coral. Use WHILE or FOR loops along with the appropriate relational operators (==, !=, <, >, <=, and >=). Avoid infinite loops by ensuring the loop has an exit condition using the appropriate relational operator.

· Cracked Egg Game: This game will include looping 12 times. Determine what loop to use, then execute it based on program requirements.

· Spaceship Race: This will require an unspecified number of loops in order to lead a spaceship to the finish line. The looping will continue until the condition is met.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: This game will include looping 10 times. Determine what loop to use, then execute it based on program requirements.

1. Apply necessary arithmetic operations. Note that mathematical operators include +, -, *, /, and % (modulo). These must meet the requirements of the program. See specific examples below for reference:

· Cracked Egg Game: Keep track of the number of hard-boiled eggs and raw eggs for the Cracked Egg game.

· Spaceship Race: Keep track of the distance traveled by a spaceship in the Spaceship Race game.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: Keep track of the number of times the player has won in the Rock-Paper-Scissors game.

1. Ensure there are no syntax errors in your code. Use the Coral simulator to make sure there are no syntax errors that prevent your code from running. Fix any syntax errors that may arise so that your code can execute.

1. Determine whether your code functions correctly. Check for logic errors using the Coral simulator by testing it with several different input values to ensure it executes correctly. The Coral simulator will automatically check your code as you enter it, so now you are checking for things it might not pick up on. Also recall that you have already created a flowchart in Project One. Now the Coral simulator will automatically create a flowchart for the code you have built. Be sure to toggle to the flowchart and check it against what you have already created to ensure the design matches your intention. Fix any issues that arise during this testing process. Your updates should result in a functioning program with proper outputs based on the logic of the game.

1. Write code using best practices including appropriate syntax and commenting. This includes the following:

· Using descriptive names for your variables

· Using the correct formatting structure with appropriate indentations

· Using appropriate comments relating to your code

What to Submit

To complete this project, you must submit the following:

Coral Game Code Once complete, copy your code into a plain text file; this will include the TXT tag at the end of its file name. This will help ensure that none of your code’s formatting gets shifted during the copying process. Once you have completed the TXT file, submit it for grading.

Supporting Materials

The following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:

Brief Tutorial on Coral – https://corallanguage.org/tutorial/

Use this brief tutorial to get up to speed on creating loops in Coral. Scroll to the “WHILE loops” and “FOR loops” sections.

Ref https://www.wired.com/2013/12/googles-doodle-honors-grace-hopper-and-entomology/

Week Two Soap Note Ppt Peds

For this Assignment the instruction are attach as well as an example ppt/ template for the soap noted.

please read the entire instructions before do the assignment. THIS ASSIGMENT IS ALREADY TWO DAYS LATE AND I NEED ALL THE POINTS I CAN GET SINCE ITS LATE I WILL HAVE POINT DEDUCTED ALREADY. if you cannot give this assignment on time or you cannot preform the soap note/ppt than please let me asap.

For this assignment, you are to complete a clinical case – narrated PowerPoint report that will follow the SOAP note example provided below. The case report will be based on the clinical case scenario list below.

You are to approach this clinical scenario as if it is a real patient in the clinical setting.

Instructions:

Step 1 – Read the assigned clinical scenario and using your clinical reasoning skills, decide on the diagnoses. This step informs your next steps.

Step 2 – Document the given information in the case scenario under the appropriate sections, headings, and subheadings of the SOAP note.

Step 3 – Document all the classic symptoms typically associated with the diagnoses in Step 1. This information may NOT be given in the scenario; you are to obtain this information from your textbooks. Include APA citations.

Example of Steps 1 – 3: You decided on Angina after reading the clinical case scenario (Step 1) Review of Symptoms (list of classic symptoms): CV: sweating, squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightening, burning across the chest starting behind the breastbone GI: indigestion, heartburn, nausea, cramping Pain: pain to the neck, jaw, arms, shoulders, throat, back, and teeth Resp: shortness of breath Musculo: weakness

Step 4 – Document the abnormal physical exam findings typically associated with the acute and chronic diagnoses decided on in Step 1. Again, this information may NOT be given. Cull this information from the textbooks. Include APA citations.

Example of Step 4: You determined the patient has Angina in Step 1 Physical Examination (list of classic exam findings): CV: RRR, murmur grade 1/4 Resp: diminished breath sounds left lower lobe

Step 5 – Document the diagnoses in the appropriate sections, including the ICD-10 codes, from Step 1. Include three differential diagnoses. Define each diagnosis and support each differential diagnosis with pertinent positives and negatives and what makes these choices plausible. This information may come from your textbooks. Remember to cite using APA.

Step 6 – Develop a treatment plan for the diagnoses. Only use National Clinical Guidelines to develop your treatment plans. This information will not come from your textbooks. Use your research skills to locate appropriate guidelines. The treatment plan must address the following: a) Medications (include the dosage in mg/kg, frequency, route, and the number of days) b) Laboratory tests ordered (include why ordered and what the results of the test may indicate) c) Diagnostic tests ordered (include why ordered and what the results of the test may indicate) d) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, e) Non-pharmacological treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care g) Anticipatory guidance for the visit (be sure to include exactly what you discussed during the visit; review Bright Futures website for this section) h) Follow-up appointment with a detailed plan of f/u

CLINICAL CASE SCENARIO

A 5-year-old male patient presents to your clinic for ear pain. His mother reports he was in good spirits and energetic until about 5 days ago when he developed an upper respiratory infection (URI) consisting of clear nasal discharge and cough. The mother reports that he has been lethargic and stopped drinking fluids about 48 hours before he developed a temperature of 102.1°F and started complaining that his right ear hurt. The mother denies nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, or change in urine output. The mother reports that the patient’s sleep was interrupted due to his complaints of right ear pain.  She noticed that he tugged at his right ear frequently while remaining minimally interested in playing with his toys earlier in the day. Today, his vitals are as follows: weight 40.5 lbs, height 43.0 inches, BP 100/70, HR 100, RR 26, and Temperature is 102F.

Diagnosis: Acute Otitis Media

As you develop your narrated PowerPoint, be sure to address the criteria discussed in the video above and the instructions listed below:

FOLLOW THE TEMPLATE BELOW for the Clinical Case Report – SOAP PowerPoint Assignment:

DO NOT INCLUDE THESE INSTRUCTIONS IN THE POWERPOINT. POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED. REFER TO THE EXAMPLE CASE REPORT FOR GUIDANCE.

SUBJECTIVE (S): Describes what the patient reports about their condition. For INITIAL visits gather the info below from the clinical scenario and the textbook. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE THE SCENARIO; EXTRACT THE RELEVANT INFORMATION.

Historian (required; unless the patient is 16 y/o and older): document name and relationship of guardian Patient’s Initials + CC (Identification and Chief Complaint): E.g. 6-year-old female here for evaluation of a palmar rash HPI (History of Present Illness): Remember OLD CAARTS (onset, location, duration, character, aggravating/alleviating factors, radiation, temporal association, severity) written in paragraph form PMH (Past Medical History): List any past or present medical conditions, surgeries, or other medical interventions the patient has had. Specify what year they took place MEDs: List prescription medications the patient is taking. Include dosage and frequency if known. Inquire and document any over-the-counter, herbal, or traditional remedies. Allergies: List any allergies the patient has and indicate the reaction. e.g. Medications (tetracycline-> shortness of breath), foods, tape, iodine->rash FH (Family History): List relevant health history of immediate family: grandparents, parents, siblings, or children. e.g. Inquire about any cardiovascular disease, HTN, DM, cancer, or any lung, liver, renal disease, etc… SHx (Social history): document parent’s work (current), educational level, living situation (renting, homeless, owner), substance use/abuse (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs), firearms in-home, relationship status (married, single, divorced, widowed), number of children in the home (in SF or abroad), how recently pt immigrated to the US and from what country of origin (if applicable), the gender of sexual partners, # of partners in last 6 mo, vaginal/anal/oral, protected/unprotected.

Patient Profile: Activities of Daily Living (age-appropriate): (include feeding, sleeping, bathing, dressing, chores, etc.), Changes in daycare/school/after-school care, Sports/physical activity, and Developmental History: (provide a history of development over the child’s lifespan. If a child is 1y/o or younger, provide birth history also)

HRB (Health-related behaviors): ROS (Review of Systems): Asking about problems by organ system systematically from head-to-toe. Included classic associated symptoms (this includes pertinent negatives and positives).

OBJECTIVE: Physical findings you observe or find on the exam. 1. Age, gender, general appearance 2. Vitals – HR, BP, RR, Temp, BMI, Height & Percentile; Weight & Percentile, Include the Growth Chart 3. Physical Exam: note pertinent positives and negatives (refer to the textbook for classic findings related to present complaint and the diagnosis you believe the patient has) 4. Lab Section – what results do you have? 5. Studies/Radiology/Pap Results Section – what results do you have?

RISK FACTORS: List risk factors for the acute and chronic conditions

ASSESSMENT: What do you think is going on based on the clinical case scenario? This is based on the case. You are to list the acute diagnosis and three differential diagnoses, in order of what is likely, possible, and unlikely (include supporting information that helped you to arrive at these differentials). You must include the ICD-10 codes, the definition for the acute and differential diagnoses, and the pertinent positives and negatives of each diagnosis.

You are to also list any chronic conditions with the ICD-10 codes.

NATIONAL CLINICAL GUIDELINES: List the guidelines you will use to guide your treatment and management plan

TREATMENT & MANAGEMENT PLAN: Number problems (E.g. 1. HTN, 2. DM, 3. Knee sprain), use bullet points, and include A – F below for each diagnosis and G – H after you’ve addressed all conditions.

Example:

1. HTN a) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, b) Medication-include dosage amounts and mg/kg for drug and number of days, c) Laboratory tests ordered d) Diagnostic tests ordered e) Non-pharmaceutical treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care

2. HLD a) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, b) Medication-include dosage amounts and mg/kg for drug and number of days, c) Laboratory tests ordered d) Diagnostic tests ordered e) Non-pharmaceutical treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care Also discussed: g) Anticipatory guidance for next well-child visit (be sure to include exactly what you discussed during the visit; review Bright Futures website for this section) Return to the clinic: h) Follow-up appointment with a detailed plan for f/u and any referrals

Framework For Making Operations Decisions Assignment

  • CO1: Evaluate a framework for making operations decisions in the five operations areas: process, quality, capacity, inventory, and supply chain
  • CO2: Analyze and explain how the operations function relates to other major business areas: marketing, finance, accounting, human resources, information systems, engineering
  • CO3: Develop process and quality improvement methodologies
  • CO8: Compose the results of operations and case studies effectively in writing the results of operations analysis and case studies

Prompt:

According to the additional reading by USMC LtCol Reuter, the future Joint Force will engage in an operating environment that is a complex mixture of uncertainty, change, and conflict. Among these complexities, global access will be challenged by anti-access and area-denial measures, focused on limiting the Joint Force’s freedom of action in a persistent combination of combat, security, engagement, and relief and reconstruction operations. Furthermore, resource constraints will produce military-wide reductions and necessitate a more economical approach to global logistics. As efficiencies are achieved, though, global logistics must effectively sustain the Joint Force. A key factor of success or failure is the effectiveness and efficiency of the logistics enterprise, of which the supply chain is an enabling capability.

Analyzing this DoD case study, in what specific ways could the SCOR framework be used to enhance and enable the combined joint military supply chain to be both more effective (supply chain performance) and efficient (less costly).

Instructions:

Label your Word document as follows: yourlastname.doc (ex: Johnson.docx)

The paper should be at least 1,000-words

The paper should be APA-compliant paper comprising your response.

Minimum 5 full pages of content (Word Document) of strategic material (does not include cover page, abstract, nor reference pages)

All charts, graphs, pictures are to go in the appendix (not a substitute for content)

The paper must provide inline citations to at least five scholarly sources supporting your paper

Refrain from excessive use of quotes in your response (less than 5%)

Once you submit your document to the assignment folder it will automatically be loaded to TURNITIN.COM within the course. Your similarity scan score must be 20% or less (the following will be excluded: headers, bibliography, etc. prior to instructor grading paper—focus on the content of scan percentage

Plagiarism will result in an automatic zero for this assignment

CL_DIK7

Part1

select an industry that you would like to work for and an IT role that you would like to assume in the future. (Senior Devops Engineer)

In your initial post:

· State what industry that is and why you want to work as an IT professional in that industry.

· State what IT role you’d like to be in, and why you can envision yourself in that role.

· Describe 2 to 4 ethical or societal implications of the use of the IoT in that industry.

· You are not required to answer these questions, but they may provide you with guidance on assessing potential implications:

· Do you know whether the IoT is already implemented in that industry?

· What kind of impact would the IoT have in that specific industry based on its users?

· Based on what you already know, are any regulations, laws, or organizational policies already in place to address any of these implications?

Part 2

· Suggest at least two more implications or ethical issues that could occur with the IoT in that industry.

· Discuss how those issues can impact (1) individuals outside of that industry and (2) the larger society.

2. Advanced Pathophysiology (Due 20 Hours)

Parts  1 and 2 have the same questions, however, you must answer with references and different writing always addressing them objectively, that is as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.

APA format

1) Minimum 6 pages  (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum of three paragraphs per page

You must strictly comply with the number of paragraphs requested per page.

           Part 1: minimum  3 pages

           Part 2: minimum  3 pages

Submit 1 document per part

2)¨******APA norms

         All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

         Bulleted responses are not accepted

         Don’t write in the first person 

         Don’t copy and paste the questions.

         Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

Submit 1 document per part

3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks) 

********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

4) Minimum 5 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years  (Journals, books) (No websites)

All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed.

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next

Example:

Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering: 

Example:

Part 1.doc 

Part 2.doc

__________________________________________________________________________________

Parts  1 and 2 have the same questions, however, you must answer with references and different writing always addressing them objectively, that is as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.

Part 1: Advance Pathophysiology

Briefly answer the questions in a couple of lines. Do not include unsolicited information

1- What is the age of Puberty for Male and for females?

2- When is early and late Puberty findings positive on each gender? (Males and females)

3- What is Dysmenorrhea? Define Primary and secondary Dysmenorrhea.

4- Primary vs Secondary Amenorrhea. Which the most common cause of secondary Amenorrhea?

5- Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

6- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)symptomatology.

7- What is premenstrual Syndrome and in which phase of the Ovulatory cycle occurs?

8- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)concept and main risk factor for it.

9- Vaginitis concept, main causes.

10- Cervicitis concept, Etiology.

11- Vulvodynia concept, and etiology.

12- Bartholinitis. Pathophysiology and symptoms.

13- Mention three types of Ovarian Cysts and its features.

14- What are Leiomyomas, Risk factors for it, and types of these tumors.

15- What is endometriosis? Causes of it and symptoms.

16- Main Cause of Cervical Cancer is….

17- Endometrial Cancer and risk factors.

18- Why is Ovarian Cancer considered the “Silent killer”?

19- Infertility definition.

20- Galactorrhea concept. Causes for Primary Galactorrhea.

21- What is Priapism? Symptoms and What You do as Primary Care Provider if You receive in your office a patient with this condition?

22- What is Balanitis? Why does this happen?

23- Varicocele: pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment.

24- Hydrocele concept.

25- Spermatocele concept.

26- Cryptorchidism concept. This condition is a common risk factor for which type of Cancer.

27- Testicular torsion scenario and what to do?

28- Features of Testicular Cancer and risk factors.

29- Why BPH happens? Symptoms of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. Symptoms. How may We detect this disease?

30- May male’s patient suffers Gynecomastia. Etiology for it. Breast Cancer in Males symptoms.

31- What is the function of Pili structure for Gonorrhea bacteria during infection? Gonorrhea symptoms in males and females and complications.

32- Syphilis Infection: describes symptoms on each Stage.

33- Etiology for Bacterial Vaginosis, Clinical Symptoms.

34- Chlamydia Infection Symptoms.

35- Genital Herpes: etiology, Is there a cure for it? Symptoms.

36- Can We prevent Human Papilloma Virus Infection? Explain it.

37- Trichomoniasis symptoms.

38- Breast Cancer: pathophysiologic theories of this cancer. What is BRACA 1 and 2, Value of it in Primary Care practice. Clinical manifestations of Breast Cancer

Part 2: Advance Pathophysiology

Briefly answer the questions in a couple of lines. Do not include unsolicited information

1- What is the age of Puberty for Male and for females?

2- When is early and late Puberty findings positive on each gender? (Males and females)

3- What is Dysmenorrhea? Define Primary and secondary Dysmenorrhea.

4- Primary vs Secondary Amenorrhea. Which the most common cause of secondary Amenorrhea?

5- Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

6- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)symptomatology.

7- What is premenstrual Syndrome and in which phase of the Ovulatory cycle occurs?

8- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)concept and main risk factor for it.

9- Vaginitis concept, main causes.

10- Cervicitis concept, Etiology.

11- Vulvodynia concept, and etiology.

12- Bartholinitis. Pathophysiology and symptoms.

13- Mention three types of Ovarian Cysts and its features.

14- What are Leiomyomas, Risk factors for it, and types of these tumors.

15- What is endometriosis? Causes of it and symptoms.

16- Main Cause of Cervical Cancer is….

17- Endometrial Cancer and risk factors.

18- Why is Ovarian Cancer considered the “Silent killer”?

19- Infertility definition.

20- Galactorrhea concept. Causes for Primary Galactorrhea.

21- What is Priapism? Symptoms and What You do as Primary Care Provider if You receive in your office a patient with this condition?

22- What is Balanitis? Why does this happen?

23- Varicocele: pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment.

24- Hydrocele concept.

25- Spermatocele concept.

26- Cryptorchidism concept. This condition is a common risk factor for which type of Cancer.

27- Testicular torsion scenario and what to do?

28- Features of Testicular Cancer and risk factors.

29- Why BPH happens? Symptoms of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. Symptoms. How may We detect this disease?

30- May male’s patient suffers Gynecomastia. Etiology for it. Breast Cancer in Males symptoms.

31- What is the function of Pili structure for Gonorrhea bacteria during infection? Gonorrhea symptoms in males and females and complications.

32- Syphilis Infection: describes symptoms on each Stage.

33- Etiology for Bacterial Vaginosis, Clinical Symptoms.

34- Chlamydia Infection Symptoms.

35- Genital Herpes: etiology, Is there a cure for it? Symptoms.

36- Can We prevent Human Papilloma Virus Infection? Explain it.

37- Trichomoniasis symptoms.

38- Breast Cancer: pathophysiologic theories of this cancer. What is BRACA 1 and 2, Value of it in Primary Care practice. Clinical manifestations of Breast Cancer

BUS 639 DQ 4

AT LEAST 350 WORDS AND A REFERENCE

In this discussion, imagine that your venture capital (VC) investment organization (DargeanGrix) is changing from the traditional communication methods of telephone or travel to face-to-face interaction with clients. DargeanGrix is now proposing to communicate with clients through video conferencing instead. Your management team has determined that DargeanGrix will be implementing a video conferencing system hosted by SeausNow Video Conferencing, Ltd., a (fictitious) outsourcing vendor. SeausNow Video will provide all video services, video conferencing accounts, and support for the video equipment that will be installed on-site for DargeanGrix.

You have been asked to provide feedback on the challenges the new video services will present in your area. Consider what kind of benefits or problems the new video conferencing system will bring to you in your DargeanGrix role.

Your role in DargeanGrix is assigned below according to the first initial of your last name. If your last name begins with

  • G, P, or Y: You will be a client service manager.

For a quick primer on some of the responsibilities that are associated with various titles common in venture VC firms, consider reviewing the resources listed in the Recommended Resources section of the Week 4 – Resources page.

State your assigned role within the first line of your discussion post, then while staying within your assigned role,

  • Explain in detail how you would participate in this change (e.g., explain your role in the organization, identify your needs, state your concerns and complaints, and describe your specific role in the transformation).
  • Explain two benefits and one (or more) problems that you would identify from the perspective of your assigned role.
  • Describe how you would approach one of the problems you’ve identified during this technological change.

DargeanGrix

Question 1

In my view, DargeanGrix’s technique might be enhanced by establishing a more efficient inventory management system. The company now relies on a time-consuming and error-prone manual process. It is possible for DargeanGrix to reduce inventory monitoring times and eliminate errors by using an automated system. Inventory management would benefit from the enhanced production and efficiency as a result.

Financial reporting can be improved by automating several processes, I feel. This means that we can prepare financial reports more rapidly and with fewer errors thanks to this technology. Automated financial reporting may help the CFO in a variety of ways. CFO’s time spent on manual financial statements may be reduced as a result of this technology. The CFO may be able to devote more time to strategic tasks as a result of this. In addition, automating financial statements may help improve the quality and consistency of reports, enabling the CFO to make better judgements. We can use software to automatically generate financial reports. This method allows us to complete things more quickly and with fewer errors.

Question 2

Currently, the current inventory monitoring and control system is ineffective and does not offer timely information. So the company can’t make intelligent decisions about inventory levels and ends up paying too much for inventory. By putting in place a stronger system for inventory tracking and management, the company will have greater data with which to make informed decisions about inventory levels. In the long run, this will save the company money and improve productivity.

Using an automated financial reporting system would help DargeanGrix Inc.’s CFO save the time and resources necessary to manually generate financial reports. This would benefit the process, department, or organization. So the CFO and his or her team might devote more time to strategic initiatives that benefit the business as a whole.

In order to streamline the creation of financial reports, the application would collect data from several sources and organize the information into a single document. By reducing the amount of time used on manual data entry and report preparation, the finance department’s efficiency would be increased. By eliminating human error in data entry, it would also help to improve the accuracy of the report.

If I were DargeanGrix, Inc.’s CFO, my idea may have a positive impact on a number of areas. In the first place, it may help to increase communication between the CFO and other company members. Having a separate email account for the CFO would make it easier for others in the firm to reach out to him and acquire information. CFOs might also benefit from the ease with which they can monitor and manage email communications. It is important to show that the CFO is approachable and receptive in order to foster a sense of trust and transparency in the company.

Question 3

The time and cost invested on inventory management may be reduced significantly with an efficient inventory monitoring and control system. In addition, an efficient system may help improve customer satisfaction by ensuring that things are available when needed.

Financial reporting may be made more accurate and efficient via automation, which can help a company or department advance. In addition, automating financial reporting may help to reduce the amount of time it takes to create financial reports.

An organization’s or department’s progress may be helped by automating financial reporting for several reasons: It may save you money and effort in the long run. Having to manually prepare financial reports frees up time that can be used for other tasks.

It may help with accuracy. Automating the creation of financial reports ensures that they are accurate and up-to-date. It’s possible that it’ll help boost productivity. To ensure accuracy and timeliness, automating financial reporting may be a useful tool for businesses.

Question 4

A new system for tracking and managing inventory is something I am willing to back as DargeanGrix’s CFO. It is my opinion that this will have a positive impact on the overall efficiency of the company. The study team for this project may count on me to be available to answer any questions as well as concerns they may have. It is an excellent idea and I am willing to support it if it becomes a reality.

Question 5

By looking into the possibilities, we may learn more about how to improve the process, the division, or the company as a whole. Team members will be able to participate to project development, which will help in process, department, or organization improvement by being part of the pilot test department.

It’s a big responsibility to be in command of the pilot test department. The department may be referred to as the “guinea pig” for a new technique, department, or organization if it is designated as the pilot test department. Either more work will be required of the department, or it will be forced to fail. Additionally, the department may not be able to meet the new technique, department, or organization’s requirements for the new service or project.

The benefits of creating a pilot test department outweigh the risks. You will be able to enhance the process, department, or organization by managing the pilot test department. Additionally, the department will be able to become involved in the project’s progress. The department’s long-term success will be aided by its role as a pilot test department.

Automating financial reporting has a number of benefits, including the ability to create reports more quickly and conveniently, to better monitor inventory levels, and to better manage budgets. To further improve communication between departments and organizations, automated financial reporting may also help make information exchange across many platforms easier.

3 Page Paper

5 pages total. 1 cover page, 3 pages of writing, 1 reference page.

Choose a country other than the United States and research the following:

What are the key diversity concerns for that country? Which groups are dominant and non-dominant? What are the participation rates, earnings, and employment differences among the groups? What, if any, legislation exists regarding those groups in the country? How is diversity in the country you chose similar to or different from diversity in the United States

Assume you are starting a business in that country. Based on the information you obtained in item a, which diversity-related factors would you emphasize or be most concerned about

Powerpoint Presentation Assignment

Running Head: Signature Assignment 1

Signature Assignment 10

Signature Assignment

Roberta Amaral Henriques

Southern States University

BU 536 – Global Strategy & Management

Jun 12, 2022

Dr. David Wylie

International Management

The international business term is used in referring to any type of business that occurs across global borders. Basically, it constitutes of sale of goods plus services in between nations. The international business that I choose is Coca-Cola. Despite its inception that is popular, the company is what it is today due to marketing as well as business leadership of the future investors alongside Asa Griggs Candler, they drastically increased sales in addition to expanding the syrup factory production into Canada. Coca-Cola is marketed in China, India, Germany, and all over the globe apart from North Korea and Cuba.

International management can be defined as the business operations management within an institution serving markets plus functioning within several countries. It is utilized in conducting business across various countries and needs familiarity with business regulations plus the capability to have transactions that might be involving multiple currencies. The international managers are responsible for planning the global strategy of a firm, mostly hiring plus delegating authority for the implementation of new practices plus policies. They oversee particular departments within sales, marketing and finance plus accountability for their respective foreign operation of a division (Foss and Pedersen, 2019).

Globalization

Globalization can be described as the developing interdependencies of the globe’s cultures, populations plus economies due to cross-border trade within goods plus services, people, technology and information. Globalization has enabled the expansion of the management across the globe which allows for increment in production. It has also impacted the management as it has resulted in most employees transfers into global locations.

The Coca-Cola firm pursues a global strategy, enabling differences within distribution, packaging plus media that are essential to a specific country or a geographical region. Therefore, an international strategy gets localized via a unique geographic marketing plan.

Culture

Culture can be defined as the social norms, customary beliefs as well as materials characteristics of a religious, social, or racial group. The cultural transmission tends to be the manner in which a single individual learns of a new culture through engaging as well as immersing themselves within the culture in addition to the individuals around them. Transmission involves learning about the social traits that are exhibited by a specific society. The social traits are responsible for dictating what tends to be expected of an individual plus how to make interactions with one another. The cultural transmission is also considered to be the process through which concepts from a single culture get passed down to different generations. The valuable information might as well be cross-culturally passed (Tamariz, 2019).

Cultures Impact

Within globalized economy, cultural sensitivity happens to be crucial. The international business operations are known for cross borders plus cross cultures. The culture greatly influences the manner in which individuals communicate, behave plus think. Additionally, it impacts the types of transactions that are made plus the type of negotiations.

The international success of Coca-Cola is because if its business strategy to be internationally possessing an identifiable brand image that tends to be identifiable instilling local practices enabling them to embrace plus develop the cultural differences. The firm’s value preposition has a significant role within the company since it gets to deliver value consumers plus clients alongside focusing on advancing the product when it comes to taste, size, ingredients, design plus different components.

Foreign Markets

The political and legal aspect is considered to be extremely crucial within global marketing. The international law might be described as the principles plus rules that nations plus states take into account as binding upon themselves. This results into two key traits of the international law. The first belonging to the individual nations plus the global law only gets to exist to the extent that the individual nations are ready to have their rights relinquished. Second is the absence of sufficient international judicial plus administrative framework forming the basis of a global legal system that is quite comprehensive.

Global business is also considered to be subject to the political decrees that the government makes within home plus host nations. The home governments are capable of applying pressure to avoid dealing with the disapproved parties. Basically, these are measures that might take the refusal have an export license granted or the export guarantee cover withdrawn. Host government may end up taking measures such as ownership controls, taxation, expropriation or operating restrictions (Hamilton and Webster, 2018).

Among the strategies that would be formulated is the regulatory plus legal barriers – doing business within the foreign markets tends to be achievable when the said business is sufficiently flexible to operate within the regulation guidelines plus the local laws. During the reviewing, the various aspects that need to be taken into consideration include seeking professional legal counsel for the overseas enterprise practices into identifying hazards that might lead to barriers for the business. Another area is the foreign government consideration – the local government stability plus its authority is extremely crucial whenever reviewing the global business operations. The aspects to take into consideration include exchange rates for the currency, transportation plus communication options, access to capital that is affordable plus access to required resources plus materials among others.

Third strategy is on culture – cultural difference is capable of determining if he enterprise is successful or not. It is if extreme importance to have an understanding that is intimate in relation to who lives within the community as well as what they tend to value. One should not underestimate the impacts linked to cultural differences.

The Coca-Cola company markets aggressively its own product lines via ad campaigns across different channels and mediums, inclusive of online ads, TV in addition to sponsorships. The sponsorships of the company comprise of American Idol, NBA, NASCAR among others.

Leadership

There are various leadership skills that are essential in enhancing the team incorporate. These include:

Communication – string leadership needs intelligent communication. Transparency on development in the company is crucial for the team morale while communication development may have the team members buoyed plus driven into success.

Confident and knowledge – leaders should have intelligence quotient levels the are high plus expertise. When they are aware of how their knowledge influences their team, they tend to have confidence within the organization.

Innovative plus inspire – the leaders of a team possess innovation skills that assist the in advancing their team. This is achievable through coming up with advanced means and ideas used in improving their teams to perform tasks. There tends to be several traits that are considered necessary in helping the leaders enhance their teams. The one on the top list is flexibility. Leaders should be having the ability to have an action plan changed whenever everything fails to work as planned. This is due to the fact that the market tends to be full of competitors who continuously change their teams plus the manner in which they carry out their tasks (Goldenhar, et.al, 2019).

Tenacity, Patience plus courage is what follows. Exhibiting courage when alone, toughness involving not bowing into pressure as well as the endurance to continue moving till one achieved whatever they desire. Patience in addition to humility are considered to be among the characteristics of a leader. Bossing around is not considered to be beneficial in any way, on the contrary, the capacity to appropriately communicate with every employee despite of their position at work is what tends to work in leadership. Leaders also need to respect every employee.

There are various things that can be done by leaders to enhance the chances to get people motivated. They need to be aware of the people try operate with. Being a leader, it is important to identify what works for each employee, a it helps in shaping rewards, recognition plus coach based incentives as per what is of significance to them.

Strategy Evaluation

The implemented strategic evaluation as well as control comprises of the last stage of the strategic management. The main aim of the evaluation plus control is making sure that the strategy gets to be implemented in accordance with the intention as well as rectifying deviations, that is in case any of them occurs. With the strategy evaluation nature, strategic management processes leads in decisions that might be having crucial, long lasting repercussions. The erroneous strategic decisions may conflict penalties that are severe in addition to being extremely complicated, in case it is not impossible to reverse. The strategy evaluation is of great importance to the well-being of the organization. In addition, an evaluation that is timely is capable of alerting the management of the problems it the possible problems prior to a situation ends up being critical (Edmondson, 2018).

Adequate in addition to timely feedback is considered to be the cornerstone of strategy evaluations that are effective. The strategy evaluation is considered to be important in making sure that the objectives that are stated get to be achieved. In most organizations, the strategy evaluation is just a simple appraisal in relation to how well a company had performed. It is not possible for one to demonstrate conclusively whether a given strategy is actually optimal or give a guarantee that the strategy will become functional. However, it is possible for an individual to have it evaluated for the critical flaws.

The Coca- Cola firm has its brand evaluated within various countries. Its new brands get to be sold within various regions globally. A marketing strategy that is rigorous will be utilized in introducing additional coca cola brands into various markets. Consumer awareness gets to be controlled alongside the major focus for the firm’s marketing strategy at the initial step. The distribution network will be utilized in accessing various markets globally. The distribution firm has been established within various countries into accessing local markets. This firm makes plus retails essences, syrups and the beverage bases in bottling workers. The bottling employees manufacture gets to issue the brand of beverage to the clients. Coca-Cola vends its own products to the bottling plus canning operations, suppliers plus wholesalers.

References

Edmondson, V. C. (2018). Strategy Evaluation and Control. In The Thinking Strategist: Unleashing the Power of Strategic Management to Identify, Explore and Solve Problems. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Foss, N. J., & Pedersen, T. (2019). Microfoundations in international management research: The case of knowledge sharing in multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(9), 1594-1621.

Goldenhar, L. M., Schwatka, N., & Johnson, S. K. (2019). Leadership skills for strengthening jobsite safety climate. Journal of safety research, 70, 263-271.

Hamilton, L., & Webster, P. (2018). The international business environment. Oxford University Press.

Tamariz, M. (2019). Replication and emergence in cultural transmission. Physics of Life Reviews, 30, 47-71.

Advance Pathophysiology (20 Hours)

Parts  1 and 2 have the same questions, however, you must answer with references and different writing always addressing them objectively, that is as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.

APA format

1) Minimum 6 pages  (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum of three paragraphs per page

You must strictly comply with the number of paragraphs requested per page.

           Part 1: minimum  3 pages

           Part 2: minimum  3 pages

Submit 1 document per part

2)¨******APA norms

         All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

         Bulleted responses are not accepted

         Don’t write in the first person 

         Don’t copy and paste the questions.

         Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

Submit 1 document per part

3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks) 

********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

4) Minimum 5 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years  (Journals, books) (No websites)

All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed.

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next

Example:

Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering: 

Example:

Part 1.doc 

Part 2.doc

__________________________________________________________________________________

Parts  1 and 2 have the same questions, however, you must answer with references and different writing always addressing them objectively, that is as if you were different students. Similar responses in wording or references will not be accepted.

Part 1: Advance Pathophysiology

Briefly answer the questions in a couple of lines. Do not include unsolicited information

1- What is the age of Puberty for Male and for females?

2- When is early and late Puberty findings positive on each gender? (Males and females)

3- What is Dysmenorrhea? Define Primary and secondary Dysmenorrhea.

4- Primary vs Secondary Amenorrhea. Which the most common cause of secondary Amenorrhea?

5- Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

6- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)symptomatology.

7- What is premenstrual Syndrome and in which phase of the Ovulatory cycle occurs?

8- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)concept and main risk factor for it.

9- Vaginitis concept, main causes.

10- Cervicitis concept, Etiology.

11- Vulvodynia concept, and etiology.

12- Bartholinitis. Pathophysiology and symptoms.

13- Mention three types of Ovarian Cysts and its features.

14- What are Leiomyomas, Risk factors for it, and types of these tumors.

15- What is endometriosis? Causes of it and symptoms.

16- Main Cause of Cervical Cancer is….

17- Endometrial Cancer and risk factors.

18- Why is Ovarian Cancer considered the “Silent killer”?

19- Infertility definition.

20- Galactorrhea concept. Causes for Primary Galactorrhea.

21- What is Priapism? Symptoms and What You do as Primary Care Provider if You receive in your office a patient with this condition?

22- What is Balanitis? Why does this happen?

23- Varicocele: pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment.

24- Hydrocele concept.

25- Spermatocele concept.

26- Cryptorchidism concept. This condition is a common risk factor for which type of Cancer.

27- Testicular torsion scenario and what to do?

28- Features of Testicular Cancer and risk factors.

29- Why BPH happens? Symptoms of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. Symptoms. How may We detect this disease?

30- May male’s patient suffers Gynecomastia. Etiology for it. Breast Cancer in Males symptoms.

31- What is the function of Pili structure for Gonorrhea bacteria during infection? Gonorrhea symptoms in males and females and complications.

32- Syphilis Infection: describes symptoms on each Stage.

33- Etiology for Bacterial Vaginosis, Clinical Symptoms.

34- Chlamydia Infection Symptoms.

35- Genital Herpes: etiology, Is there a cure for it? Symptoms.

36- Can We prevent Human Papilloma Virus Infection? Explain it.

37- Trichomoniasis symptoms.

38- Breast Cancer: pathophysiologic theories of this cancer. What is BRACA 1 and 2, Value of it in Primary Care practice. Clinical manifestations of Breast Cancer

Part 2: Advance Pathophysiology

Briefly answer the questions in a couple of lines. Do not include unsolicited information

1- What is the age of Puberty for Male and for females?

2- When is early and late Puberty findings positive on each gender? (Males and females)

3- What is Dysmenorrhea? Define Primary and secondary Dysmenorrhea.

4- Primary vs Secondary Amenorrhea. Which the most common cause of secondary Amenorrhea?

5- Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

6- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)symptomatology.

7- What is premenstrual Syndrome and in which phase of the Ovulatory cycle occurs?

8- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)concept and main risk factor for it.

9- Vaginitis concept, main causes.

10- Cervicitis concept, Etiology.

11- Vulvodynia concept, and etiology.

12- Bartholinitis. Pathophysiology and symptoms.

13- Mention three types of Ovarian Cysts and its features.

14- What are Leiomyomas, Risk factors for it, and types of these tumors.

15- What is endometriosis? Causes of it and symptoms.

16- Main Cause of Cervical Cancer is….

17- Endometrial Cancer and risk factors.

18- Why is Ovarian Cancer considered the “Silent killer”?

19- Infertility definition.

20- Galactorrhea concept. Causes for Primary Galactorrhea.

21- What is Priapism? Symptoms and What You do as Primary Care Provider if You receive in your office a patient with this condition?

22- What is Balanitis? Why does this happen?

23- Varicocele: pathophysiology, symptoms and treatment.

24- Hydrocele concept.

25- Spermatocele concept.

26- Cryptorchidism concept. This condition is a common risk factor for which type of Cancer.

27- Testicular torsion scenario and what to do?

28- Features of Testicular Cancer and risk factors.

29- Why BPH happens? Symptoms of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. Symptoms. How may We detect this disease?

30- May male’s patient suffers Gynecomastia. Etiology for it. Breast Cancer in Males symptoms.

31- What is the function of Pili structure for Gonorrhea bacteria during infection? Gonorrhea symptoms in males and females and complications.

32- Syphilis Infection: describes symptoms on each Stage.

33- Etiology for Bacterial Vaginosis, Clinical Symptoms.

34- Chlamydia Infection Symptoms.

35- Genital Herpes: etiology, Is there a cure for it? Symptoms.

36- Can We prevent Human Papilloma Virus Infection? Explain it.

37- Trichomoniasis symptoms.

38- Breast Cancer: pathophysiologic theories of this cancer. What is BRACA 1 and 2, Value of it in Primary Care practice. Clinical manifestations of Breast Cancer

Observational Study Designs

A clinical pediatric nurse has noticed a rise in childhood asthma diagnoses among the Hispanic population served by the local clinic. The nurse is concerned about this increase in asthma incidence in the patient population and turns to the literature to explore current research on this topic. The nurse finds, through the reading, that there appears to be an association between parental smoking and childhood asthma and wonders if this could be the cause of the rise in cases. 

This type of suspected association between a risk factor (exposure) and a particular outcome (childhood asthma) can be evaluated using an observational study design. A relevant case-control study would match a group of controls (no asthma) with the case group (asthma diagnosis). Both groups would then be assessed on certain historical exposures like (a) family history; (b) early childhood respiratory infections; (c) secondhand smoke exposure; (d) urban residence (ozone); and (e) obesity. Measures might include interviews, surveys, and medical records. If results show the case group has a higher rate of exposure to a given risk factor, the researcher may conclude that exposure results in greater odds of asthma.

In any epidemiological study, the design and methodology used should be appropriate for that study and for the research question. It is important for researchers to understand the strengths and limitations of each of the study designs and methods. This gives them a better chance of correctly interpreting results and synthesizing them for use in developing and implementing evidence-based population health programs. For this Discussion, you will explore the strengths and limitations of various types of observational study designs and critique their appropriateness for specific studies.

To prepare:

  • Review the different types of observational study designs presented in the Learning Resources: ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort.
  • Carefully examine the characteristics, strengths, and limitations of each design.
  • Consider when it is appropriate to use each of the observational study designs.
  • Consider how using observational study designs can lead to improvements in population health.
  • By Day 1 of this week, you should have received a communication from your Instructor assigning you to a small group to review two specific articles. Review the two articles your group was assigned, with a critical eye toward the researchers’ use of study design and their selected methods. Although several students will be assigned the same articles, this is NOT a group project; please submit your Discussion posts individually. You will then have the opportunity to discuss and share your thoughts with your colleagues.

Soap Note Week Two Peds Assignment

For this Assignment the instruction are attach as well as an example ppt/ template for the soap noted.

please read the entire instructions before doing the assignment. THIS ASSIGNMENT IS ALREADY TWO DAYS LATE AND I NEED ALL THE POINTS I CAN GET SINCE ITS LATE I WILL HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED ALREADY. if you cannot give this assignment on time or you cannot perform the soap note/ppt then please let me asap.

For this assignment, you are to complete a clinical case – narrated PowerPoint report that will follow the SOAP note example provided below. The case report will be based on the clinical case scenario list below.

You are to approach this clinical scenario as if it is a real patient in the clinical setting.

Instructions:

Step 1 – Read the assigned clinical scenario and using your clinical reasoning skills, decide on the diagnoses. This step informs your next steps.

Step 2 – Document the given information in the case scenario under the appropriate sections, headings, and subheadings of the SOAP note.

Step 3 – Document all the classic symptoms typically associated with the diagnoses in Step 1. This information may NOT be given in the scenario; you are to obtain this information from your textbooks. Include APA citations.

Example of Steps 1 – 3: You decided on Angina after reading the clinical case scenario (Step 1) Review of Symptoms (list of classic symptoms): CV: sweating, squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightening, burning across the chest starting behind the breastbone GI: indigestion, heartburn, nausea, cramping Pain: pain to the neck, jaw, arms, shoulders, throat, back, and teeth Resp: shortness of breath Musculo: weakness

Step 4 – Document the abnormal physical exam findings typically associated with the acute and chronic diagnoses decided on in Step 1. Again, this information may NOT be given. Cull this information from the textbooks. Include APA citations.

Example of Step 4: You determined the patient has Angina in Step 1 Physical Examination (list of classic exam findings): CV: RRR, murmur grade 1/4 Resp: diminished breath sounds left lower lobe

Step 5 – Document the diagnoses in the appropriate sections, including the ICD-10 codes, from Step 1. Include three differential diagnoses. Define each diagnosis and support each differential diagnosis with pertinent positives and negatives and what makes these choices plausible. This information may come from your textbooks. Remember to cite using APA.

Step 6 – Develop a treatment plan for the diagnoses. Only use National Clinical Guidelines to develop your treatment plans. This information will not come from your textbooks. Use your research skills to locate appropriate guidelines. The treatment plan must address the following: a) Medications (include the dosage in mg/kg, frequency, route, and the number of days) b) Laboratory tests ordered (include why ordered and what the results of the test may indicate) c) Diagnostic tests ordered (include why ordered and what the results of the test may indicate) d) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, e) Non-pharmacological treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care g) Anticipatory guidance for the visit (be sure to include exactly what you discussed during the visit; review Bright Futures website for this section) h) Follow-up appointment with a detailed plan of f/u

CLINICAL CASE SCENARIO

A 5-year-old male patient presents to your clinic for ear pain. His mother reports he was in good spirits and energetic until about 5 days ago when he developed an upper respiratory infection (URI) consisting of clear nasal discharge and cough. The mother reports that he has been lethargic and stopped drinking fluids about 48 hours before he developed a temperature of 102.1°F and started complaining that his right ear hurt. The mother denies nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, or change in urine output. The mother reports that the patient’s sleep was interrupted due to his complaints of right ear pain.  She noticed that he tugged at his right ear frequently while remaining minimally interested in playing with his toys earlier in the day. Today, his vitals are as follows: weight 40.5 lbs, height 43.0 inches, BP 100/70, HR 100, RR 26, and Temperature is 102F.

Diagnosis: Acute Otitis Media

As you develop your narrated PowerPoint, be sure to address the criteria discussed in the video above and the instructions listed below:

FOLLOW THE TEMPLATE BELOW for the Clinical Case Report – SOAP PowerPoint Assignment:

DO NOT INCLUDE THESE INSTRUCTIONS IN THE POWERPOINT. POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED. REFER TO THE EXAMPLE CASE REPORT FOR GUIDANCE.

SUBJECTIVE (S): Describes what the patient reports about their condition. For INITIAL visits gather the info below from the clinical scenario and the textbook. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE THE SCENARIO; EXTRACT THE RELEVANT INFORMATION.

Historian (required; unless the patient is 16 y/o and older): document name and relationship of guardian Patient’s Initials + CC (Identification and Chief Complaint): E.g. 6-year-old female here for evaluation of a palmar rash HPI (History of Present Illness): Remember OLD CAARTS (onset, location, duration, character, aggravating/alleviating factors, radiation, temporal association, severity) written in paragraph form PMH (Past Medical History): List any past or present medical conditions, surgeries, or other medical interventions the patient has had. Specify what year they took place MEDs: List prescription medications the patient is taking. Include dosage and frequency if known. Inquire and document any over-the-counter, herbal, or traditional remedies. Allergies: List any allergies the patient has and indicate the reaction. e.g. Medications (tetracycline-> shortness of breath), foods, tape, iodine->rash FH (Family History): List relevant health history of immediate family: grandparents, parents, siblings, or children. e.g. Inquire about any cardiovascular disease, HTN, DM, cancer, or any lung, liver, renal disease, etc… SHx (Social history): document parent’s work (current), educational level, living situation (renting, homeless, owner), substance use/abuse (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs), firearms in-home, relationship status (married, single, divorced, widowed), number of children in the home (in SF or abroad), how recently pt immigrated to the US and from what country of origin (if applicable), the gender of sexual partners, # of partners in last 6 mo, vaginal/anal/oral, protected/unprotected.

Patient Profile: Activities of Daily Living (age-appropriate): (include feeding, sleeping, bathing, dressing, chores, etc.), Changes in daycare/school/after-school care, Sports/physical activity, and Developmental History: (provide a history of development over the child’s lifespan. If a child is 1y/o or younger, provide birth history also)

HRB (Health-related behaviors): ROS (Review of Systems): Asking about problems by organ system systematically from head-to-toe. Included classic associated symptoms (this includes pertinent negatives and positives).

OBJECTIVE: Physical findings you observe or find on the exam. 1. Age, gender, general appearance 2. Vitals – HR, BP, RR, Temp, BMI, Height & Percentile; Weight & Percentile, Include the Growth Chart 3. Physical Exam: note pertinent positives and negatives (refer to the textbook for classic findings related to present complaint and the diagnosis you believe the patient has) 4. Lab Section – what results do you have? 5. Studies/Radiology/Pap Results Section – what results do you have?

RISK FACTORS: List risk factors for the acute and chronic conditions

ASSESSMENT: What do you think is going on based on the clinical case scenario? This is based on the case. You are to list the acute diagnosis and three differential diagnoses, in order of what is likely, possible, and unlikely (include supporting information that helped you to arrive at these differentials). You must include the ICD-10 codes, the definition for the acute and differential diagnoses, and the pertinent positives and negatives of each diagnosis.

You are to also list any chronic conditions with the ICD-10 codes.

NATIONAL CLINICAL GUIDELINES: List the guidelines you will use to guide your treatment and management plan

TREATMENT & MANAGEMENT PLAN: Number problems (E.g. 1. HTN, 2. DM, 3. Knee sprain), use bullet points, and include A – F below for each diagnosis and G – H after you’ve addressed all conditions.

Example:

1. HTN a) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, b) Medication-include dosage amounts and mg/kg for drug and number of days, c) Laboratory tests ordered d) Diagnostic tests ordered e) Non-pharmaceutical treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care

2. HLD a) Vaccines administered this visit & vaccine administration forms given, b) Medication-include dosage amounts and mg/kg for drug and number of days, c) Laboratory tests ordered d) Diagnostic tests ordered e) Non-pharmaceutical treatments f) Patient/Family education including preventive care Also discussed: g) Anticipatory guidance for next well-child visit (be sure to include exactly what you discussed during the visit; review Bright Futures website for this section) Return to the clinic: h) Follow-up appointment with a detailed plan for f/u and any referrals

Discussion 7 Assignment

Global Perspectives for International Business

Please write one paragraph to describe how this course helped you. State at least ONE thing you liked about International Business Perspectives. Feel free to share anything you think is important about the course and your professor.

1 page

Urgent Assignment

*PLEASE FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY****

****PLEASE FOLLOW THE RUBRIC CAREFULLY****

****DUE JUNE 18th****

****YOU CAN ALSO USE THE REFERENCES IN THE ATTACHMENT****

**** TOPIC: SEX WORKERS PSYCHOLOGY AS A NORMAL HUMAN BEING**** 

Article Review Template #1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Karunanayake, D., Jayasundara, N., & Vimukthi, N. D. U. (2020). The Impact of Sex Work on Psychological Wellbeing. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology, 180–190. https://doi.org/10.32628/ijsrst207533

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The research problem being investigated in this study is having a job in the sex industry can have a significant impact on the mental health of a woman’s employer in the sex industry. The effects are detrimental, and this was especially the case for Ryff’s autonomy, environmental proficiency, personal development, and a sense of self are some of the dimensions, acceptance.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The majority of sex workers are negative about their profession, according to the findings. Many of them are guilty, afraid, sinful, and repentant. They have immoral feelings about their profession. There were a number of numerous reasons why the participants are sex workers. Numerous participants in the sample were presented with the occupation due to destitution. While they negative attitudes regarding their profession, have needed to interact with it. Many of them succeed their children’s and other family members’ requirements through this occupation They earn a good living wage adequate to meet their needs as well as the needs their immediate family members Therefore, they made no attempt engage in a different profession. They are aware that the sex worker profession is illegal and that it is an unethical and unorthodox source in terms of income They have a relationship with their religion and are aware that the occupation is considered sinful. Further, They are concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. All Participants’ reports indicate that they are Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases attendance at Kandy National Hospital to evaluate their safety from illnesses, although initially they had negative attitudes towards their profession had evolved. Normalized through time But that does not necessarily imply that no longer have negative feelings about the profession.

Even though it became routine over time, they continued to do it, continually experience regretful emotions. Many people believe sex workers have cheerful outlooks towards themselves that they continue to maintain their occupation voluntarily. Nonetheless, the study was discovered that the majority of the society is not acceptable.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Bellhouse, C., Crebbin, S., Fairley, C. K., & Bilardi, J. E. (2015). The Impact of Sex Work on Women’s Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study. PLoS ONE10(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141575

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence that women’s sex work has on their personal romantic relationships and how they use mental separation as a coping mechanism to maintain a healthy equilibrium between the two aspects of their lives.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Our data imply that sex employment harms women’s romantic relationships significantly. Just under half of women in relationships stated their boyfriends did not know they worked in the sex business. For most women, lying led to feelings of guilt and fear of their partners finding out, which caused trust issues for both partners. Some women’s partners became suspicious of their sex lives and faithfulness. This study supports and extends prior findings that women in the sex business experience negative effects on their relationships due to lying, trust, and guilt. In a research by Warr and Pyett of condom use among Australian sex workers, women in partnerships experienced similar negative effects related to their profession. Past study shows that other couples may also face suspicion, jealousy, and faithfulness concerns. These challenges arise when trust and loyalty are violated, which are key to relationship fulfilment. Given the nature of their employment and the stigma associated with the sex business, it is possible that these issues will be exacerbated in sex workers’ personal relationships.

It was found that women in the sex industry struggle to combine work and personal relationships. This study allowed women to express some of the emotional effects of their jobs, which may help health care and support providers help sex workers manage the tensions between employment and personal romantic relationships. They have provided a useful insight into this under-researched field and suggest the necessity for a larger study to ascertain whether the findings of this study are reflected in larger, more representative sample of Australian sexual workers. Indoor and outdoor sex workers encounter diverse job and personal challenges that may affect their love relationships differently. Women from varied socio-economic, cultural, sexual, and geographic origins are likely to face varying repercussions of sex work, and future treatments must recognize this and customize support programmers accordingly. The negative stigma surrounding the sex industry must also be addressed through increased public awareness and education campaigns, given its prominent role in most women’s relationships. If women were safe disclosing their genuine occupation to partners, family, and friends without fear of judgement or stigmatization, they may have fewer concerns with dishonesty and lying. The challenges women encounter in their relationships due to sex work are multifaceted, and there is no simple solution.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Davis, A. C., Vaillancourt, T., & Arnocky, S. (2020). The Dark Tetrad and Male Clients of Female Sex Work. Frontiers in Psychology11https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577171

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

In this research problem being investigated that the socially repugnant traits that are embodied by the Dark Tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism) may characterize certain male clients of female sex workers, particularly those consumers expressing the motives of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. The desire to have sexual encounters that are thrilling and unusual with women who are treated with contempt, the perception prostitution in a businesslike manner with a minimal amount of emotional investment and looking to profit from it exercise dominance and control over sexual service workers by portraying them as helpless and servile. It’s possible that males who buy sex from other men are more likely to exhibit characteristics of the tetrad sex workers who are female and who operate outside (for example, in street prostitution) as opposed to those who work in indoor settings.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Several lines of evidence addressed in previous sections support the hypothesis that Dark Tetrad personality traits may be relevant in comprehending some men pay for sex. Male clients of prostitution, Dark Tetrad characteristics choose short-term, impersonal solutions. Sexual risk-taking stimulus and novelty impulsivity. Greater rape myth acceptance reduced emotional empathy interpersonal hostility, Crime, violence Edwards et al., 2019). Also, Dark Tetrad may be common Men’s motives include excitement and sex workers, commodified business-like sex, and authority over and to control sex workers. The tetrad’s qualities may not males seeking sex workers actions couples’ unmet desires Prevalent Diminished Dark Tetrad dimensions. Companionship-seeking males buy sex, love, and intimacy. Male clients of outdoor sex work (e.g., prostitution on the street) Tetrad dimensions vs. indoor help (e.g., escort services). Outdoor sex works risk, danger, illegal drug use women are often exploited clientele. Many males seek sex workers online. Indoor prostitution service providers report avoiding reasons outdoor sex workers. Indoor sex clients are older and buy more connection, affection, and closeness through men paying for outdoor prostitution. Falsifying evidence is crucial, earlier predictions a person honesty-humility is linked to (Lee et al., 2013). If honesty-humility is positively commodified exciting and scornful sex proof against sex, power, and domination forecasts. Likewise, if males buy sex in the form outside prostitutes show more honesty-humility. Indoor sex buyers would also benefit contradiction. Future study should focus on major Dark Tetrad characteristics are personality dimensions clients and prostitution type accessing. In addition, many researchers do not analyze if men arrested for paying for sex. Prostitution solicitation prevents. It is vital for researchers to investigate random responses variables whose values are not centered around narcissism and psychopathy. Non-random response. These variables can lead to inflated and inaccurate estimates distorted effect size estimations, which can lead to statistical inferences.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Zhang, C., Hong, Y., Li, X., Qiao, S., Zhou, Y., & Su, S. (2013). Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex among Female Sex Workers in China. Health Care for Women International36(7), 753–767. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2013.838247

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

In this research problem being investigated that female sex workers in China are illegal and stigmatized, data on their psychological stressors are rare. We studied stresses in 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSWs using qualitative data. China’s commercial sex. FSW encountered a range of pressures, poverty, limited jobs, and lack of social protection, violence clients, limited peer and partner support. We demand empowerment and structured strategy to improving FSW’s mental health.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

A few caveats should be noted before evaluating the data. First, as with other FSW studies, we must be wary of self-report biases caused by China’s illegal sex industry. Second, our sampling approach may have caused voluntary bias and unrepresentative samples because women who participated were receptive to discussing pertinent topics in a study context. Third, researchers’ backgrounds and roles influenced data interpretation. Fourth, the sample came from a tourism city. The study’s conclusions may not apply to FSW in other situations or China. Despite these limitations, our study found psychological pressures among FSW in commercial sex. Although our study revealed both venue-based and nonvalue-based FSW, most FSW endure ongoing discomfort and dangers due to variables such as poverty, lack of social protection, client aggression, and lack of social support from peers and stable partners.

FSW’s restricted work options and social isolation lead to maladaptive coping. Young women feel distressed, dejected, and powerless. Illegality stigmatized sex work; therefore, sex workers’ psychological needs were ignored. Constructive policies and initiatives to increase FSW psychological well-being must therefore officially recognize this occupation’s existence and needs. In recent years, scientists and campaigners have suggested that FSW health care should not solely focus on HIV and STI prevention and treatment (Wong, Holroyd, Gray, & Ling, 2006). Our data show that therapies should also target FSW workplace stressors. Given FSW’s disempowerment, a multi-sector, multi-level approach is essential to improve their health and safety. Tucker and Tummies (2011) proposed a “behavioral-structural approach” to FSW that (a) integrates policy makers, legislators, and law enforcement; (b) includes local management and organization of sex venues, sex workers’ collectives, and non-government organizations (NGOs); (c) mobilizes the public and the media; (d) facilitates better understanding of sex work; and (e) establishes a collective identity of FSW. Designing a stigma-reduction campaign that allows FSW access to social, legal, and health services in China and abroad should be realistic. They must employ empowerment-based and structural methods to address the requirements of FSW in China, where 2.3% of young urban women are FSW (D. Zhang et al., 2007). So many women choosing sex work voluntarily or involuntarily highlights the need for initiatives to alleviate gender inequalities and “empower” women. Based on WHO recommendations (2005), we demand equitable access to education, skill development, and employment for women.

Article Review Template #5

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Sanders, T. (2004). Controllable Laughter. Sociology38(2), 273–291. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038504040864

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

It has been investigated that these social and psychological processes are an illustration of how women who work in severe professions engage in “emotion work.” When it comes to people who work in the sex industry, humor is an important component of a variety of defense mechanisms that are required to preserve one’s physical and mental health.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

In this study, a contribution to the field of sociology of work by examining the nature and prevalence of humor as a coping technique in the adult entertainment industry. This article establishes humor as a form of “feeling work,” in addition to presenting six distinct varieties of humor that are observed in the female sex business (Hoch child, 2018). The results of an empirical research on female prostitution in a major city in the United Kingdom document how sex workers intentionally use humor as a social and psychological distancing tool. To begin, humor is utilized as a method of conducting business in an environment in which impression control and “body work” (Tyler and Abbott, 1998) make it possible for individuals to adhere to the aesthetic ideal of the “prostitute.” Second, joking relations help mold the feelings that are triggered by selling sex, regulate interactions with customers, and build support networks with other coworkers. In addition to this, they serve as a medium for identifying group membership, disagreement, and divisions.

Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Koverola, M., Drosinou, M., Palomäki, J., Halonen, J., Kunnari, A., Repo, M., Lehtonen, N., & Laakasuo, M. (2020). Moral psychology of sex robots: An experimental study − how pathogen disgust is associated with antihuman sex but not interandroid sex. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics11(1), 233–249. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2020-0012

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

In this research problem being investigated the psychological elements, such as disgust sensitivity and interest in science fiction, that influence opinions about sex robots. Thier findings suggest that engaging in sexual activity with a robot is, in fact, legitimately seen as sexual activity, and that a sex robot is, in fact, legitimately seen as a robot. As a result, we demonstrate that conventional research methods on sexuality and robotics can also be applied to research on sex robotics.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Future research should seek to replicate our findings across cultures and communities; using methods other than vignettes, (psychophysical or neuropsychological assessments of disgust responses would be particularly informative). As soon as sex robots become commercially available, purchasers and/or users might be surveyed online or elsewhere, and a variety of real-world reaction tests could be conducted. In addition, concrete data on sales can reveal information about typical buyers, which can be instructive, as can data on customer satisfaction and complaints.

As there is no practical reason to construct sex robots as exact replicas of either the human female or male form, it will be intriguing to see what kind of robots actually make it to market, and whether attitudes toward less humanoid sex robots will change – it is possible that sex with a “oddity,” such as a six-legged machine with three tentacles, six orifices, an electro stimulator, and two dildos, Our findings demonstrate that people judge a married individual less harshly if they pay for a robot sex worker as opposed to a human sex worker. This is likely because many individuals do not regard having sex with a robot to be adultery or consider it to be “cheating, but less so than with a human”. These findings therefore serve as a stepping-stone to new, intriguing research pathways that may appeal to both evolutionary and moral psychologists. Sociologists and market researchers will certainly be interested in advancing our understanding of the intricate relationships between humans and new ontological categories (robots, artificial intelligences (AIs), etc.).

Future study will open up new avenues for understanding human sexual and moral cognition by concentrating on how humans relate to sexual interactions with androids outside the realm of science fiction fantasies such as West world and Blade Runner. As sex robots approach widespread production in the near future, public opinion will stabilize about moral attitudes toward robot sex.

Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Hricová, Alena. (2017). Psychological problems of Women working in the Sex business.

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Posttraumatic stress disorder may be accompanied by dissociative disorder when a person experiences painful emotion, memories or thoughts that form the basis for various mental and physical symptoms. Psychological issues, however, are not simply related with women working in the sex industry but also with women who have already left this business; as it. Resulting from the research, the so-called “ex-prostitutes” have dramatically increased issues with alcohol and smoking and more frequent PTSD symptoms than other women. The study is a product of the GAJU project No. 029/2016/S – Lifestyle of women in the private sex business and their (self) reflection.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Studies explore sex workers’ mental health. Sexual workers’ emotional stress and wellness vary (Weitzer 2009). Seib et al. (2009) researched Australian sex workers in regulated and illicit nightclubs. Author attributes illegally employed women’s poor mental health to socioeconomic factors. Psychological concerns plague sex industry women. Emotional exhaustion. Demotivation, lack of support, and unfavorable social reactions were all mentioned by Vanwesenbeeck (2005) as reasons for emotional exhaustion. 201 sex workers use opioids to cope with deprivation and stress, according to Young et al. (2000) Second, grief and helplessness. Flower (1998) discusses female worthlessness, powerlessness, low self-esteem and unhappiness Alone, unwanted, and unloved, they are sad and empty. According to Chudakov et al. (n = 55), 19% of sex workers have clinical depression. Goetz (2005) describes depression as a deterioration in mental and physiological functions (fatigue resistance, nutrition, sleep, etc.). More than half of sex workers attempted suicide, according to Flower (2001) PTSD is widespread among sex workers (PTSD).

Sexual assault, childhood sexual abuse, and physical and mental violence are linked to PTSD (Epstein et al. 1997, Roman et al. 2001, Hrabtová 2009). Choi et al. (2009) found that women in the sex business are more prone to PTSD. Eighty-seven percent of respondents (women in the sex business) were sexually abused as children, 72% were physically assaulted, 90% were attacked while working in the sex business, and 78% were raped.

According to Chudakov et al. MacKinnon (2007) reports that sex workers had greater ptsd than Vietnam soldiers.

Normally, PTSD is accompanied by dissociative disorder (Ross et al. 2004). Dissociative disorder causes mental and physical symptoms when unbearable emotions, memories, or thoughts are disconnected from the conscious part of the psyche (Herman et al. 2008). Dissociative disorder is a result of childhood sexual trauma or a defensive reaction to sex work, according to Napoli et al. (2001). (2007) Yargic et al., Cooper et al., and Gajic-Veljanoski and Stewart examined dissociative disorders in sex workers. Tome et al. (2016) state women working under coercion have limited independence, can be damaged, and their mental health is at risk. After the sex industry, these women should be carefully addressed because their social or environmental relationships are usually severely disturbed (Hedin and Mansson 2004).

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

McCarthy, B., Jansson, M., & Benoit, C. (2021). Job Attributes and Mental Health: A Comparative Study of Sex Work and Hairstyling. Social Sciences10(2), 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020035

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

In this study, contribution to the subject is an analysis of the relationships between occupational characteristics and mental health. Our study is comparative and draws its data from a panel survey of people who operate in the fields of hairstyling and sex work. They looked at aspects of the jobs that may be unique to each of these professions, such as the stigma associated with them and the antagonism of their clients, as well as aspects that may be more universal, such as the lack of work stability, the salary, and the opportunity for self-employment. In our study, they made use of mixed-effects regression, and the variables that we considered were both time-dependent and time-independent.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Jobs are important to a lot of people, so it makes sense that they affect mental health. Studies of several occupations show that positive job qualities improve mental health and well-being, while negative ones hurt them (e.g., Lee et al. 2018; Patel et al. 2018). This study does not look at sex work. Literature shows how important it is to look at sex work as an economic activity that involves work for money (Benoit et al. 2017, 2020b; Rosen and Venkatesh 2008; Sanders 2005).

Several studies (Krumrei-Mancuso 2017, Puri et al. 2017, Treloar et al. 2021, and Vanwesenbeeck 2005) have found links between sex work and mental health. However, these studies focused on stigma and abuse by others and did not look at work factors that are not unique to sex work (Benoit et al. 2016).

Previous research (Benoit et al., 2020b) compared sex work to other jobs that were similar (Benoit et al. 2015a, 2015b). This study added to the research by looking at hairstyling and sex work, two frontline service jobs. The results of our analysis were many. In sex work and hairstyling, not knowing what the job will be like is linked to bad mental health. This conclusion is in line with a lot of research that has been done on the link between job insecurity and mental health, especially in low-income frontline jobs, which are becoming more common in neoliberal capitalist economies (Kalleberg and Vallas 2018; Olsthoorn 2014). Poor mental health is strongly linked to not having a job, which makes job insecurity a public health and social problem.

We also found that skill discretion was important for knowing about the workplace and mental health (e.g., Paterniti et al. 2002; Ten Have et al. 2015). This is clear when doing sex work, but not when doing hair. The links between mental health, job insecurity, and limited decision making in sex work show how important it is to combine labor studies and sociology of work and vocations to understand sex work (Benoit et al. 2019).

Our results also showed that the bad link between stigma and mental health found in studies of sex workers (Benoit et al., 2018) is not unique to that job. Instead, stylists with high levels of stigma have worse mental health (Benoit et al. 2019). This shows that sex work stigmatized than hairstyling, but the negative effects of being stigmatized are the same for both jobs and may be the same for a wide range of dirty work jobs. Last, self-employment. Not much is known about self-employment and mental health. Some studies found that self-employed people have better mental health than wage or contract workers (Nikolova, 2019), but when backgrounds and selection were taken into account, there was not much difference between the two groups (e.g., Rietveld et al. 2015). In the past, researchers have used data from a wide range of jobs. Our research shows that self-employment is good for some people’s mental health, like when they do hairstyling, but not when they do sex work.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

McBride, B., Shannon, K., Murphy, A., Wu, S., Erickson, M., Goldenberg, S. M., & Krüsi, A. (2020). Harms of third-party criminalisation under end-demand legislation: undermining sex workers’ safety and rights. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2020.1767305

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

In this research problem, being investigated end-demand third party criminalization affects indoor sex workers’ health and safety. Most third parties were women and current/former sex workers, contradicting stereotypes of male “pimps.” End-demand legislation prohibited condom supply and access to police safeguards in case of assault, compromising sex workers’ health and safety. Our findings show that third-party criminalization under end-demand legislation reproduces harmful working circumstances under earlier regulations ruled unlawful by Canada’s top court. Legislative reforms are needed to decriminalize the sex industry, especially sex workers’ right to work with third parties.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

End-demand models portray sex workers as victims needing protection and criminalize third parties who are perceived as coercing sex workers and commodifying sexual activity. In 2013, Canada’s Supreme Court ruled that bawdy house laws were unconstitutional (i.e., indoor sex work venue) barred sex workers from protecting themselves and hit unconstitutional law. Canada still enacted end-demand legislation that criminalizes third parties running indoor locations claiming to decrease sex worker exploitation (Department of Justice 2014). Third parties provided workers with screening, security, and sexual health supplies, yet criminalization continued less third-party support, increased venue assault risk restricted condom access and police protection in case of assault fraud, undermining sex workers’ constitutional rights to privacy. Their study fills a research gap on how end-demand third-party criminalization affects sex workers’ working circumstances. Third-party research: an empirical study The findings interrogate binaries misrepresentations of sex workers and other parties as mutually exclusive and polarized – two assumptions. Canada and dozens of other countries criminalize third parties. Our results imply that end-demand third-party criminalization remains restrict sex workers’ access to health and safety-enhancing services likely to promote worker violence. Illustrations sex workers as exploited victims a basic premise of End-demand mindset reproduces rather than increases sex worker safety other prohibitive sex work regulations’ hazardous working circumstances. In this study, most third parties were women. Former sex workers challenge gendered power assumptions sex workers vs. third parties. Switzerland/India studies. Canada and China depict consensual and supportive third party-sex worker partnerships. Similar participants’ descriptions. They used ’empowered’ and ‘autonomous’ to describe working in managed in-call venues and showed confidence in their boss’s assistance. Disconnect between sex workers’ lived experiences and stereotypical ‘pimp’ stereotypes. End-demand models based on polarizing exploitation of third parties and sex workers (Parliament of Canada 2014) deny sex worker and third-party responsibilities cross widely (Yi et al. 2012). The workers’ active participation in searching out complementary work (Including third-party services). The criminalization of third-party material advantages in sex work in Canada is a discriminatory limitation on service exchanges.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Howard, S. (2020). Covid-19: Health needs of sex workers are being sidelined, warn agencies. BMJ, m1867. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1867

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

This article includes research on the objective conditions of precocity in sex workers’ slaves and their subjective experiences of work quality in sex work, compared to other available jobs.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The findings above address a study vacuum on sex workers’ subjective experiences of work quality compared to alternative career possibilities. Canadian sex workers pick from a variety of competing employment options. Servants their participants chose sex work because it gave them personal happiness, control over working conditions, and higher earnings. Occupational stigma is sex work’s biggest problem. Prostitution as sex labor has several benefits; sociologists can employ fundamental themes to explain the changing world of work and disadvantaged workers. Globalization, technology, and neoliberalism have spawned low-paying, part-time personal service occupations. Many of them have insecure job some endure precocity in housing, social welfare, and social support (Campbell and Price, 2016). They are uncertain, unstable lifeworld’s’. These data reveal Canadian sex workers are vulnerable. Participants a high frequency of structural sociodemographic factors reflecting gender, race, and class disparities. Canada’s culture (Benoit et al., 2009). As previously found on commencing sex work (Benoit et al., 2017b), continued sex work creates precocity in personal life and individual agency. These shows most participants have reflected on work quality and developed sex work pleasure and fulfillment many participants felt proud of giving customers with bounded emotional intimacy and observed that in England. Nevertheless, Some participants found providing customers with intimacy stressful unhappy this strain in high-stress personal service employment. Emotional intelligence and intimacy are not just for sex workers for flight attendants. Money was another reason people liked sex work. Results echo findings of other studies emphasizing the importance of financial rewards to sex workers’ decisions. Finances dominated individuals’ decisions to perform sex work in instead of other occupations Regardless, the financial gains. Many participants’ optimism was tempered by the unpredictability and instability of their profits. This shows the work in the sex industry can be vulnerable, like other forms of part-time or self-employment where work hours are not guaranteed. Stability and planning are tough. Process control is another significant determinant of job quality.

The majority of study participants felt in command and had a great level of control. Their flexible work schedule empowered them. This was especially true for internet-based escorts. Their businesses were unsupervised. Unlike many low-wage personal service professions, many sex workers had more latitude deciding when, whom they would serve and where. Some found too much control; leaving them wanting more structure and helping, they separate work and life.

Article Review Template #1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Kramer, Lisa. (2003). Emotional Experiences of Performing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. 2. 10.1300/J189v02n03_10.

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Women go through a range of undesirable emotions while performing sex acts with clients including feelings of unhappiness, worth-lessness, resentment, anxiety, and shame. Far less regularly, emotional encounters of turning tricks were explained as including feelings of enjoyment and desirability

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

One of the challenging in assisting CSE victims is that many women in the business feel as though they are making a decision that offers them with chances, advantages, and financial stability that they may not have otherwise.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

.

Kanayama Y, Yamada H, Yoshikawa K, Aung KW. Mental Health Status of Female Sex Workers Exposed to Violence in Yangon, Myanmar. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2022;34(4):354-361. doi:10.1177/10105395221083821

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Female sex workers are predominantly vulnerable to mental disorders. One of the causes for this vulnerability is the potential for violence against sex worker

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Threats of violent behavior from partners exacerbate the mental health of sex workers, leading to serious symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Elliott N (2020) Meeting female street sex workers’ physical and mental healthcare needs. Nursing Times [online]; 116: 1, 35-39.

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Street sex workers frequently have a history of childhood trauma, concerning sexual abuse and neglect. Street sex workers are frequently caught in a cycle of sexual violence and substance abuse. Nurses must realize what makes women into street sex work capable of meeting their health requirements

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Health professionals must be aware of the reasons why women end up in street sex work.

Examining the health challenges of female street sex workers in the framework of a history of childhood and adult trauma – as well as sexual abuse, neglect and social rejection, will result in caring and empathetic nursing.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Beattie, Tara S; Smilenova, Boryana; Krishnaratne, Shari; Mazzuca, April; (2020) Mental health problems among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS MEDICINE, 17 (9). e1003297-. ISSN 1549-1277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003297

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Mental health problems are extremely widespread among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries are greatly linked with common risk factors. Results establish the belief of intersecting vulnerabilities and emphasize the pressing demand for interventions intended to better the mental health and well-being of female sex workers.

2. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The mental health of female sex workers has appeared as a main public health matter in numerous low- and middle-income countries. Crucial risk factors consist of poverty, low education, violence, alcohol and drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and shame and discrimination.

Article Review Template #5

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Armstrong, L. ‘I Can Lead the Life That I Want to Lead’: Social Harm, Human Needs and the Decriminalisation of Sex Work in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Sex Res Soc Policy 18, 941–951 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-021-00605-7

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex work is frequently understood to be a dangerous profession.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Social harm is a basis that can assist in illustrating socio-economic problems which impact routes into sex work for some individuals

Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

McCarthy, Bill, Mikael Jansson, and Cecilia Benoit. 2021. Job Attributes and Mental Health: A Comparative Study of Sex Work and Hairstyling. Social Sciences 10: 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/ socsci10020035

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Selling sex can be usefully examined as a form of service work equivalent to additional personal service jobs, especially those that involve emotional labor, body work, and associated activities

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The routine interaction between sex work and hairstyling or barbering.

Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Macioti et al., Sex Work and Mental Health. Policy Relevant Report. Access to Mental Health Services for People Who Sell Sex in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and UK, 2021

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The issue of sex work and mental health is complex. Sex workers, like many other individuals, and in particular marginalised groups, may suffer from mental health issues.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The issue of sex work and mental health is complex. Sex workers, like many other individuals, and in particular marginalised groups, may suffer from mental health issues.

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Puri, N., Shannon, K., Nguyen, P., & Goldenberg, S. M. (2017). Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting. BMC women’s health17(1), 133. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0491-y

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face inconsistent health and social injustices compared to the overall population. While considerable research has concentrated on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) amongst sex workers, there remains a gap in data concerning the wider health concerns confronted by this population, including mental health.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Additional examination that investigates mental health assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for these vulnerable subpopulations is necessary in order to create evidence-informed interventions.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Carla Treloar, Zahra Stardust, Elena Cama, Jules Kim, Rethinking the relationship between sex work, mental health and stigma: a qualitative study of sex workers in Australia, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 268, 2021, 113468, ISSN 0277-9536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113468. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953620306870)

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex workers may encounter stigma equally associated to their profession as well as psychological health issues that they face.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The risk of stigma is widespread and has mental health consequences for sex workers.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Zehnder M, Mutschler J, Rössler W, Rufer M and Rüsch N (2019) Stigma as a Barrier to Mental Health Service Use Among Female Sex Workers in Switzerland. Front. Psychiatry 10:32. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00032

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Many sex workers suffer from mental health problems, but do not seek help.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Interventions that aim to increase mental health service use among sex workers should take stigma variables into account.

ARTICLE REVIEW #3 2

Article Review #3 2

Article Reviews on Sex Workers’ Psychology as a Normal Human Being #3

Tanya Williams

June 12, 2022

Article Review 1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Rethinking the relationship between sex work, mental health and stigma: a qualitative study of sex workers in Australia Treloar C., Stardust Z., Cama E., Kim J. (2021) Social Science and Medicine, 268 , art. no. 113468

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex workers might encounter disgrace associated with their profession and the psychological concerns that they deal with.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Increased training and development for mental health specialists, financial support for services to better internalize stigma, programs that reduce stigma and underlying defenses from sex work stigma.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Reynish, T., Hoang, H., Bridgman, H. et al. Barriers and Enablers to Sex Workers’ Uptake of Mental Healthcare: a Systematic Literature Review. Sex Res Soc Policy 18, 184–201 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-020-00448-8

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The goal of this research is to produce proof on the difficulties of psychological healthcare for sex workers and the circumstances that assist in the understanding.

Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Future investigation on different methods to the psychological health of sex workers may encourage a wide- range of services and procedures that may enhance a sex workers’ overall value of life.

.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Puri, N., Shannon, K., Nguyen, P., & Goldenberg, S. (2017). Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting. BMC Women’s Health17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0491-y

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

There is a lack of research documenting women’s mental health who engage in sex work. Therefore, the authors decided to investigate the prevalence of mental health diagnoses among this demographic in Vancouver, Canada, and the factors associated with such diagnoses.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Between January 2010 and February 2013, 692 people who worked in the sex industry were enrolled in the program. Of those 692 people, 338 (48.8 percent) reported being diagnosed with a mental health disorder. The two most prevalent diagnoses were depression (35.1 percent) and anxiety (19.9 percent ). According to a multivariate study, women who have been diagnosed with mental health conditions have a greater likelihood of identifying as a sexual or gender minority. This study shows the unequal mental health burden encountered by women who engage in the sex industry. In particular, it is among those who identify as a sexual or gender minority, those who use narcotics, and those who operate in informal interior settings and street and public areas. Additional research has to be done on evidence-based treatments personalized to sex workers that address the interconnections between traumatic experiences and mental health. This research should be done with policies that promote access to safer workplaces and health services.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Yuen, W., Wong, W., Holroyd, E., & Tang, C. (2014). Resilience in Work-Related Stress Among Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong. Qualitative Health Research24(9), 1232-1241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314544968

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The research on positive psychology and endurance reveals that people use their personal qualities and the resources provided by their environments to support positive adaptation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frameworks mentioned above functioned as self-protective techniques for female sex workers, allowing them to maintain their mental and physical well-being despite stressful sociocultural and employment situations.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The informants expressed unpleasant emotions in reaction to financial hardship, customer expectations, physical health hazards, and stigma. Some female sex workers demonstrated resilience by rationalizing their job, believing in their abilities to make a change in their lives, and being hopeful. They learned coping methods like emotional control and acceptance of their duty and boundaries to deal with traumatic life situations. The findings contribute to our understanding of the function of positive psychology and adaptability in this vulnerable group.

Article Review Template #5

1. PA reference of article being reviewed

Gunn, J.K.L., Roth, A.M., Center, K.E. et al. The Unanticipated Benefits of Behavioral Assessments and Interviews on Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Depression Among Women Engaging in Transactional Sex. Community Ment Health J 52, 1064–1069 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9844-x

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex worker’s that participate in transactional sex due to them having unbalanced psychological health illnesses and are confronted with significant obstacles to gaining the necessary tools to get the help that they require. 

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The study evaluated qualitative data from a total of 38 FSWs as well as 16 gatekeepers. The researchers investigated various sources of stress concerning commercial sexual activity in China. It was discovered that female sex workers (FSW) were exposed to a continuum of sources of stress. Poverty limited economic opportunities, a lack of social safety, and violence conducted by clients. They also suffered from a lack of social support from peers and stable relationships, contributing to the stresses experienced. To meet the requirements of FSW and promote their psychological well-being, the researchers advocate for the enablement of FSW and a systematic approach.

Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Poliah, V., & Paruk, S. (2017). Depression, anxiety symptoms, and substance use amongst sex workers attending a non-governmental organization in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Family Practice59(3), 116-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/20786190.2016.1272247

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

This paper aimed to investigate whether or not sex workers have a high rate of clinical depression, anxiety, and drug abuse.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The poll included responses from 155 individuals in total. On the other hand, the prevalence of anxious and depressed symptoms was 78.4 percent and 80.9 percent, respectively, on the total scores of the SRQ 20 and PHQ 9. In the year leading up to the survey, over forty percent of those who worked in the sex industry reported having suicidal thoughts. It was stated that there were high rates of violence (n = 112, 72 percent) and mistreatment of children (n = 107, 69 percent). The high prevalence of anxiety, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, drug use, and co-morbid HIV infection that was reported by sex workers, as well as the significant treatment gap, suggests that there is an imperative must provide an interconnected healthcare system that addresses both the physical and mental health of sex workers.

Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Ernst, F., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., Köhler, S., Amelung, T., & Betzler, F. (2021). Students in the Sex Industry: Motivations, Feelings, Risks, and Judgments. Frontiers In Psychology12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.586235

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Student sex labor is a contemporary phenomenon occurring all over the globe. The media has been reporting on it increasing over the last several years. On the other hand, research on student sex work in Germany is still limited. Besides, there are no firsthand testimonies from students who have participated in the practice. As a result, this research aims to investigate the perspectives and experiences of students who are now employed in the adult entertainment sector.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

According to most student sex workers, the primary motivation for entering the sex business was money (35.7 percent). The majority of respondents said they offered services that included direct sexual interaction. It was found that those who disclosed their occupation to their friends, family, or other people had fewer issues with social isolation and in their love relationships. Students who did not work in the sex business said that they had never heard of other students working in the sex industry at 22.9 percent overall. Compassion and bewilderment were the feelings brought up by respondents, the most often concerning student sex workers (48.9 percent). There was no discernible difference in levels of enjoyment between students who worked in the sex industry and those who did not. As a result of this study, it has become abundantly clear that the students’ sentiments and the challenges they are required to overcome are comparable to one another. In addition, stereotypes and misconceptions regarding the lives of student sex workers are still widely held. People who engage in student sex work might benefit from a greater awareness of the practice. It would allow them to live their lives with less shame and access the assistance of others more easily.

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Beattie, T., Smilenova, B., Krishnaratne, S., & Mazzuca, A. (2020). Mental health problems among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine17(9), e1003297. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003297

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

This meta-analysis and conceptual study aimed to estimate the proportion of mental health disorders among FSWs in LMICs and explore relationships with shared risk variables. 

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

In meta-analyses, a correlation existed between having experienced violence and having depression. Other significant associations included having experienced violence and having recently engaged in suicidal behavior. This research showed that mental health issues are closely connected with standard risk variables and had a high prevalence rate among female farmworkers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study results lend credence to the idea of overlapping vulnerabilities and bring into sharp focus the pressing need for treatments that are meant to promote the mental health and well-being of FSWs.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Burnes, T., Long, S., & Schept, R. (2012). A resilience-based lens of sex work: Implications for professional psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice43(2), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026205

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Through the utilization of a vitality lens and the subsequent application of that lens to three distinct research areas involving sex work, the study attempted to present an alternative way of understanding sex work.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

A resilience-based viewpoint may act as a gateway to thinking about how psychologists conceive theory and application with sex workers. Such a lens demands study and practice exploring the circumstances rather than the essence of sex work from a holistic viewpoint. One of the most conspicuous exclusions is the necessity for long-term research on sex worker resiliency. Studies examining sex workers’ psychological health risks and endurance across the life cycle is an area that is in serious need. Without a meta-analyses rigid body of study from a robustness lens, therapists may not be able to generate reliable conclusions and predictions and develop effective therapeutic options for this group.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Weiss, P. (2014). Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic. Medical Science Monitor20, 1682-1686. https://doi.org/10.12659/msm.891092

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The purpose of the study was to examine male sex work through the lens of a quantitative research design. In addition, the mental health issues experienced by male sex workers concerning their sexual identity or orientation are investigated in this study.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

According to the findings, being a homosexual and working in the sex industry as a male sex worker are not linked to any significant mental health issues for homosexuals. However, those who identified as heterosexual or bisexual were more likely to report psychological distress, and bisexuals displayed a markedly higher level of anxiety.

Preliminary Dissertation References Assignment Instructions

Instructions

The reference list will serve as the foundation on which to develop your literature review for your dissertation in the future. It must contain at least 100 sources related to your dissertation topic. Here is what you need to submit:

· One annotated sample citation:

· APA citation

· Main focus

· Research design

· For example: survey, randomized control group study, phenomenological qualitative study, etc.

· If a review or theoretical article/chapter/dissertation, label this as Review or Theory article/chapter/dissertation

· Citable Units/Key findings

· What are 2-3 main findings from the article?

· A meaningful quotation(s) from the source if appropriate

· Key words

· Followed by your reference page with APA citations only for the remaining sources, include the total number of sources at the end of your citations. One hundred meets the assignment requirement, but you will likely have more for your dissertation.

Experts In Nutrition

Food Quality Management Coursework Assignment #2 Guiding Questions

Structure the content of your technical report so that each of the following guiding questions are answered.

1. Using actual cases, discuss and illustrate the difference between an incident that (i) breaches current, legal food safety requirements and (ii) is a clear case of food fraud and adulteration.

Identify what is known about each case, how it happened, how it was identified, what the outcomes were and what change(s) resulted from the incidents.

2. Compare and contrast what a named third-party standard requires a food

company to do to mitigate

(i) breach of food safety

and

(ii) food fraud and adulteration in their products.

What are the similarities and differences?

3. Reflecting on your findings in question 2, critically evaluate the strengths

and weaknesses of

(i) a risk assessment tool for managing food safety hazards

and

(ii) a risk assessment tool used for managing food fraud and adulteration threats.

Module 11

Reflect on what you learned in Module 11 and 12. How will you apply this to your own teaching? Write at least 300 words.

mod 11:

mod 12: 

attached

Nursing -Soap Note

Soap Note on infant wellness child visit, Rewrite for a better turnitin score

SOAP Note on Infant’s Wellness

Name xxxxx

United State University

Primary Health of Acute Client/families Across the Lifespan-Clinical Practicum

xxxxx

Professors xxxxxx

Date xxxxx

SOAP Note on Infant’s Wellness

Client’s Initial: AJ, Age: 10 months, Gender: Female, Race: Hispanic, Date of Birth: 5th May 2021.

Subjective Data

CC: “Ten-month well-baby check-up.”

HPI: AJ is a ten-month-old Hispanic female, who presents today with her mother for a ten-month wellness exam. Her mother stated that the baby was doing quite well. The mother reported that she tool prenatal vitamins and iron supplements during pregnancy and also iron due iron deficiency. She argued that she did not drink alcohol, smoke tobacco or use illicit drug during gestation. She reported that the baby eats, nurses and sleeps well. The baby shows interest in pureed food and teething snacks. The mother had normal vaginal delivery without any complications.

Past Medical Records: The mother reported that the baby has had a severe anaphylactic reaction to peanuts. She further states that the child has never been admitted in the hospital for major illness nor has she ever been prescribed any medication. However, she takes over the counter children Tylenol elixir titrated per weight and over the counter vitamin D, 1 drop daily. She has been vaccinated currently for stated age. She is joyful, darling, and attentive.

Pregnancy and Birth History: Mother states that she had vaginal delivery with Epidural and without complications. The mother omits APGAR score, Para 4 gravida 4 and full gestational age at delivery. She admits of taking prenatal vitamins during pregnancy and iron supplements due to iron deficiency. However she denies smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol or using any illicit drug during gestation.

Developmental History: The child has head control, focuses, fixes, and follows. She has two-sided strong grasps works and seizes toys. She is responsive to babbles, coos and sounds. Currently, she has been alters words like dada and mama. She recognizes laughs, faces, feeds self, smiles, and expresses wants. Currently she has right upper central incisor eruption. She uses 3-5 wet diapers and 1 dirty daily.

Feeding History: She is breastfed three times daily. Solids introduced, pureed foods or soft foods two times daily.

Past Medical Procedures: Anaphylaxis 3 months prior, peanuts- Treated in ED with Epi-Pen Junior.

Medications: OTC- Over the counter children, Tylenol elixir titrated per weight and OTC- Vitamin D 1 Drop Daily.

Allergies: no known drug allergies. She has severe peanut allergy.

Family History: her maternal grandfather is 72 years old with hypertension and high cholesterol. Her maternal grandmother, 71 years old with diabetes mellitus type II. Paternal grandfather, 78 years old with high cholesterol and paternal grandmother, 74 years old with diabetes mellitus type II and COPD. Her mother, 36 years old is very healthy, and father, 38 years old with hypertension. Her 12 years old sister is healthy, 9 years old sister was diagnosed with asthma at the age of 3. Her 7 years old brother was diagnosed with ADHD at the age of 6 and he is currently not on medications.

Social History: She lives with her parents and her three siblings in a two-story home with safety measures. The mother reports no parental use of tobacco products or alcohol usage. No parental use of illicit drugs or use of prescription medications for non-medical reasoning. Her mother is a realtor, she has been working from home since the pandemic. Her father also works from home though occupation not revealed. There are no guns at home and no current visits. They have two Labrador kid-friendly dogs. She sleeps on regular patterns, 8-10 hours daily and 2 naps daily. Mother does not disclose spiritual affiliation.

Immunizations: she has been currently immunized on; Hepatitis B, Rotavirus, Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenza type b, Pneumococcal Conjugate, Inactivated poliovirus, Influenza, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Hepatitis A, Meningococcal.

Review of Systems

Constitutional: sitting on the mothers lap, the youngster looks to be healthy, happy, and engaging. Weight that is appropriate for the age specified.

Weight: no recent changes, currently 20lbs.

Head: she has no numbness, no loss of consciousness and she has not experienced headaches

Integumentary: she has no inflammation, lesion, or rash. She has no lumpiness. No birthmarks bleeding or bruising.

Neck: she does not have any stiffness, meningeal symptoms or suppleness. She does not have any bruits.

Ears: no ear infections or drainage.

Nose: There is no nasal congestion or runny nose, and she does not have redness and swelling in his nose, no nosebleeds. She also does not have soreness.

Mouth: She has no growths in the mouth, no bleeding gums, no dried lips, no lesions, no ulcers, no mouth irritation, and no tumor on the tongue. Informed of teething and incoming of a tooth on right upper gum.

Skin, Hair, and Nails: she has had no skin rushes, no changes in skin tone and she has no abnormalities in hair color or nails.

Cardiovascular: no shortness of breath; states crawling and squatting tolerated, no heart sounds, denies cyanosis and she has no excessive sweating.

Gastrointestinal: no nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, one to two bowel movement. No constipation or diarrhea and she has a healthy appetite.

Genitourinary: She denies urine urgency, she has no dysuria, and she has normal urine frequency, average of 3-5 wet diapers a day.

Musculoskeletal: There is no joint swelling, soreness, or pains, and there are no visible joint abnormalities. No scoliosis, bilateral and equal grasps, no gait difficulties, balances well on hands and knees, sits and strives to stand, and the noticed gluteal fold was confirmed to be normal.

Allergies: Denies allergies to medications, Severe Anaphylactic Peanut allergy.

Objective Data

Vital Signs

Temperature: 37.5℃, Height: 27 inches, Weight: 20lbs, BP: 92/74, RR: 26, SpO2: 100%, BMI: 25.63, P: 108, Head Circumference: 44.5cm.

Physical Examination.

Constitutional: The child is a well-nourished and developed Caucasian female who appears happy and content.

Head: Her head shape is Noncephalic. Her hair is thick and evenly scattered across the scalp.

Eyes: no visual problems noted. Her eyes are free of edema, and the cornea is completely clear.

Ears: There are no ear infections or ear leakage. Cone of light perceived tympanic membrane pearly gray transparent none retracted none bulging Ears in line with lateral canthi.

Nose: No nasal congestions or nasal flaring noted.

Mouth: No oral thrush or epistaxis, Right upper central incisor eruption, Red Reflex noted.

Neck: In the trachea, there are no tumors, and it is located in the middle. Neither cervical nor axillary lymph nodes nor supraclavicular lymph nodes may be seen in the neck region. There are no nodules or hyperplasia in the thyroid glands.

Lungs: Breath sounds normal, and there are no wheezes, crackles, or coughs. No dyspnea.

Cardiovascular: She has no palpitations, she has no chest pain, no breathlessness, no congestion, she has no heart sounds, no anemia, orthopnea, and she has no excessive sweating.

Abdomen: No umbilicus infections, hernias, or muscle integrity, round, protuberant abdomen. There was no pain or rebound guarding seen.

Musculoskeletal: There is no joint swelling, soreness, or pains, and there are no visible joint abnormalities. Grasps on both sides, and on an equal footing. There are no gait concerns, and she balances well on her hands and knees, sits, and pushes herself to stand. Her gluteal fold was examined and determined to be normal. There is no sacral dimple. No scoliosis, lordosis, or kyphosis were seen, and Ortolani’s and Barlow’s signs revealed no rotational anomalies.

Skin: She has no skin rashes, no wounds, no lumps, and no lesions. Her nails have no deformities.

Neurologic: There are no neurologic abnormalities, and the patient is awake and attentive, according to the Babinski reflex. DTRs with negative tremor/clonus; positive sensation; moves all extremities symmetrically with proper tone.

Genitourinary: Per mother, no abnormalities

Assessment

Primary Differential Diagnosis

Severe Anaphylactic Peanut Allergy– It’s a potentially fatal whole-body reaction to an allergy. Swelling of the throat, a quick drop in blood pressure, difficulty breathing, pale complexion or blue lips, fainting, and dizziness are the most typical symptoms. Peanut allergy symptoms appear practically quickly after eating or handling it. Rarely, responses might take up to four hours to manifest. Delay responses can be difficult to identify because most newborns feed every 2 to 3 hours. By the age of five, about 20% of babies will have outgrown their peanut allergy (Greenhawt et al., 2020).

Febrile- babies may have a “very slight increase in temperature” whenever they’re growing a new tooth. This might be caused by gum inflammation as teeth cut through delicate gum tissues. Since the patient had incisor eruption, febrile is among the differentials (Hayakawa et al., 2020).

Asthmatic Risk- the patient is at risk of asthmatic attack due to family history of asthma. Her 9 year old sister was diagnosed with asthma at the age of three. The common symptoms of asthma include shortness of breath, difficulties when sleeping wheezing when exhaling, which is most common in children (Pijnenburg & Fleming, 2020).

Diagnostic plan

Skin test- The healthcare professional makes a few tiny needle pricks in the back or arm during this examination. On the needle pricks, he next puts modest quantities of several allergy-causing chemicals. After 15 minutes, the skin response is watched and evaluated. An allergic reaction is indicated by skin regions that become red and itching (Gray, 2020).

Treatment

Medication- There is presently no medication available to prevent the development of a peanut allergy. Children may outgrow it over time in some circumstances. Anaphylaxis is treated with the drug epinephrine (adrenaline). Children who are at risk of anaphylaxis should be given an epinephrine auto-injector and should have two doses with them at all times (Dunlop, 2020).

Home remedies- avoid feeding the child peanuts.

Education- the mother is educated on avoiding feeding the baby food containing peanuts. Education on treatment and OTC medication for possible febrile risk of incisor eruption is also important. Parents should also be educated on asthmatic risk and complications, and education on auto EpiPen injector how to use and how many to have (Dunlop, 2020).

Safe environment– Remove anything dangerous, anything that can course a choking hazard, or broken into little pieces from the reach of children. Secure electrical outlets, utilize stairwell gates, and secure doors and cabinets with locks.

Feeding Safety-When your child is eating, always keep an eye on her. Ascertain that your youngster is seated in a highchair or other secure location. Foods that could cause your infant to choke are not to be served.

Follow Up- Follow-up in 2 months for 12- month Well Child Exam and Vaccines series including: Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, Pneumococcal Conjugate, Inactivated poliovirus, Influenza, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Hepatitis A, Meningococcal (Dunlop, 2020).

References

Greenhawt, M., Shaker, M., Wang, J., Oppenheimer, J. J., Sicherer, S., Keet, C., … & Wallace, D. (2020). Peanut allergy diagnosis: A 2020 practice parameter update, systematic review, and GRADE analysis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 146(6), 1302-1334.

Hayakawa, I., Nomura, O., Uda, K., Funakoshi, Y., Sakakibara, H., & Horikoshi, Y. (2020). Incidence and aetiology of serious viral infections in young febrile infants. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 56(4), 586-589.

Pijnenburg, M. W., & Fleming, L. (2020). Advances in understanding and reducing the burden of severe asthma in children. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(10), 1032-1044.

Gray, C. L. (2020). Current controversies and future prospects for peanut allergy prevention, diagnosis and therapies. Journal of Asthma and Allergy, 13, 51.

Dunlop, J. H. (2020). Oral immunotherapy for treatment of peanut allergy. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 68(6), 1152-1155.

Assignment 5

Module 9:

Module 10:

Reflect on what you learned in Module 9 and 10. How will you apply this to your own teaching? Write 300 words.

Field Experience A: Leadership And Collaboration

Assignment Content

  1. Competencies
    • Evaluate the challenges and benefits of employing a diverse workforce.
    • Formulate strategies for conducting business and managing employees in a global society.
    • Critique the impact of diversity, equity, and inclusion on organizations.
    • Evaluate the role of identity, diverse segments, and cultural backgrounds within organizations.
    • Compare cultural and social intelligence.
    • Analyze the importance of managing a diverse workforce.
    • Student Success Criteria
      View the grading rubric for this deliverable by selecting the “This item is graded with a rubric” link, which is located in the Details & Information pane.
      Scenario
      Over the last year, you have been working to advance your company in the area of diversity, equity, and inclusion. Because of your efforts, you have been chosen to present at a national conference and share highlights of what you have done and learned along the way.
      Instructions
      First, using the Movement Advancement Project:
    • Select three issues to research.
    • Research these issues in two different states.
    • Next, create a presentation (slides and speaker’s notes) that:
    • Introduces LGBTQ+ workplace diversity, including the challenges and benefits of employing this workgroup.
    • Identifies your three chosen issues from the Movement Advancement Project and your two states.
    • How might DEI impact your organization for each issue in each state?
    • Describes the intersection of other aspects of diversity, such as race, gender, and generation, and their impact on LGBTQ workers in each state.
    • Examines the role of cultural and social intelligence when managing workplace diversity.
    • Discusses strategies for implementing the four components of the Corporate Equality Index into a company for each state. 
    • Determines the value of diversity management for the future.
    • Be sure the presentation displays proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and credible sources cited in APA format.

Unit III Scholarly Activity

Please make sure you follow all the professor instructions . Please watch out for spelling errors and grammar error. Please use the APA 7 edition. Please read the study guide.Apply headings to delineate topic transitions. Be sure you include an explanation of your research and business problem within an introduction with a citation to support a literature gap. 

Book Reference:Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331

For this assignment, you will evaluate articles so that you can begin to develop your literature review. Using the CSU Online Library, select five peer-reviewed scholarly articles based on your final statement of the business problem provided in your Unit II Discussion Board post. Utilizing the CSU template found in the Doctoral Writing and Research Center (DWRC), include the components listed below for each scholarly article. 

  • Provide a summary of the article.
  • Evaluate the article with respect to how it fits into existing or future research. 
  • Discuss the application to your research by explaining what this article will do for your study. Does it support the research and/or problem statement?

This assignment should be at least three pages in length. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

What is the Impact of Training on Employee Productivity?

Students Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name

Professor’s Name

Date

What is the Impact of Training on Employee Productivity?

Most existing entities have a department dealing with Human resources. The output of a business is related to the skills employed. Human labor is highly flexible in terms of quality. In other words, the level of knowledge in any worker is adjustable. Training improves both the worker and the business.

Understanding the role of training the workforce will help business people shape their decisions. Management that invests in training its workforce records higher performance. Many times, skilled labor lacks the specifications unique to running an organization. Training makes a qualified worker more productive. It also builds the capacity of the semiskilled workforce to competent levels.

When human resource managers get to know the value of training, productivity and diversity can upscale. In the very hiring stage, the bar gets adjusted to accommodate laborers with the potential to gain a skill. Organizations ought to invest in policies that can help training by introducing clear details outlined in manuals (Badhu and Saxena, 1999). They noted that the changing economic dimensions demanded complex banking services and recommended training employees to balance the gap of higher expectations.

The organizational workforce comprises diverse persons who acquired skills in different environments and were guided in different ways. That means that though two people may have similar qualifications in terms of academic achievements, their expertise when delivering will most likely differ. Their approach to circumstances may be different, but training comes in as an equalizer.

Many studies have proved that training the workforce is a venture that positively contributes to productivity. The activity happens as an expense at the time of delivery which the employer must meet. Returns reflect on the output as a continuous practice rather than a one-time gain. Many corporations, banks, factories, and organizations are adopting a training culture on staffing. In return, frustrations from underperforming workers have been considerably lowered. Managers who go the extra mile of investing much in training have registered higher achievements than cheap training (Ramu, 2006).

According to Purohit (2012), Training equips workers with knowledge in their job fields. The study’s goal was to assess the effect of training on workers’ execution of duties and fulfillment of customers. They used existing policies of running cooperative banks to commend human resource practices of training the workforce. They did Personal interviews through questionnaires around the Pune region. The research used a sample of Sixteen banks, and thirty employees responded. They noted that frequent and deep training promotes productivity.

Some of the reasons that necessitate training include a desire for personal growth, customer complaints, and new work policies in organizations, among others. However, the development of a business is determined by many factors. It is important to mention that leadership organization plays a major role in the success of a business. The strategies management adopts and decisions they make to harmonize all production factors determine an organization’s productivity. Competent management can utilize available resources to maximize profits and minimize losses.

References

Sal, A., & Raja, M. (2016). The impact of training and development on employees performance and productivity. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research5(7).

Zwick, T. (2006). The impact of training intensity on establishment productivity. Industrial relations: a journal of economy and society45(1), 26-46.

Drafting Essential Questions

This assignment is due on tomorrow. It must be on time. There are multiple things to do so please read the instructions. 


DOK Questions Table

DOK LevelOne Question from that LevelExamples of Student ResponsesRationale of why Chosen Question Meets DOK Level
Level 1: Recall
Level 2: Skill/Concept
Level 3:Strategic Thinking
Level 4:Extended Thinking
Calendar Weeks … T 2 F 3 S 4 S 5 M 6 T 7 W 8
Class Introductions
Topic 1 DQ 1
Topic 1 DQ 2
Operations and Algebraic Lesson Plan
Topic 1 Participation T 9 F 10 S 11 S 12 M 13 T 14 W 15
Topic 2 DQ 1


Topic 2 DQ 2
Drafting Essential Questions Drafting Essential Questions Start Date & Time
Jun 9, 2022, 12:00 AM
Due Date & Time
Jun 15, 2022, 11:59 PM
Rubric View Rubric Assessment Traits Requires Lopeswrite Assessment Description When students are learning mathematical operations and skills, the concepts and skills will build upon each other. It is important for teachers to plan meaningful learning progressions in their lessons to help with this learning process. Higher-order questioning within a lesson plan can help ensure skill mastery before the next learning concept is introduced.
Part 1: Partial Lesson Plan
Select a 1-5 grade level and a corresponding Arizona College and Career Ready Standard or other state standard based on the Number and Operations in Base Ten domain.
Using the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” complete the lesson plan through the Multiple Means of Engagement section, making sure the activities are supported by the recommendations found in the topic Resources.
Include appropriate support and guidance to help students learn related academic language.
Part 2: DOK Essential Questions
Upon completion of the partial lesson plan, draft 20 essential questions to guide meaningful learning progressions and foster problem-solving for students with disabilities, using the “DOK Questions Template.” Five of the questions should activate prior knowledge and the remaining 15 questions should be based on the progression of the lesson activity, probing the four Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels.
Using four of the questions you drafted, one from each DOK level, identify the following using the DOK Questions Table within the “DOK Questions Template”:


Examples of student responses Rationale of why chosen question meets DOK level APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

GCU College of Education

LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE

Section 1: Lesson Preparation

Teacher Candidate Name:
Grade Level:
Date:
Unit/Subject:
Instructional Plan Title:
Lesson Summary and Focus:In 2-3 sentences, summarize the lesson, identifying the central focus based on the content and skills you are teaching.
Classroom and Student Factors/Grouping:Describe the important classroom factors (demographics and environment) and student factors (IEPs, 504s, ELLs, students with behavior concerns, gifted learners), and the effect of those factors on planning, teaching, and assessing students to facilitate learning for all students. This should be limited to 2-3 sentences and the information should inform the differentiation components of the lesson.
National/State Learning Standards:Review national and state standards to become familiar with the standards you will be working with in the classroom environment.Your goal in this section is to identify the standards that are the focus of the lesson being presented. Standards must address learning initiatives from one or more content areas, as well as align with the lesson’s learning targets/objectives and assessments.Include the standards with the performance indicators and the standard language in its entirety.
Specific Learning Target(s)/Objectives:Learning objectives are designed to identify what the teacher intends to measure in learning. These must be aligned with the standards. When creating objectives, a learner must consider the following:· Who is the audience· What action verb will be measured during instruction/assessment· What tools or conditions are being used to meet the learningWhat is being assessed in the lesson must align directly to the objective created. This should not be a summary of the lesson, but a measurable statement demonstrating what the student will be assessed on at the completion of the lesson. For instance, “understand” is not measureable, but “describe” and “identify” are.For example:Given an unlabeled map outlining the 50 states, students will accurately label all state names.
Academic LanguageIn this section, include a bulleted list of the general academic vocabulary and content-specific vocabulary you need to teach. In a few sentences, describe how you will teach students those terms in the lesson.
Resources, Materials, Equipment, and Technology:List all resources, materials, equipment, and technology you and the students will use during the lesson. As required by your instructor, add or attach copies of ALL printed and online materials at the end of this template. Include links needed for online resources.

Section 2: Instructional Planning

Anticipatory SetYour goal in this section is to open the lesson by activating students’ prior knowledge, linking previous learning with what they will be learning in this lesson and gaining student interest for the lesson. Consider various learning preferences (movement, music, visuals) as a tool to engage interest and motivate learners for the lesson.In a bulleted list, describe the materials and activities you will use to open the lesson. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.For example:· I will use a visual of the planet Earth and ask students to describe what Earth looks like.· I will record their ideas on the white board and ask more questions about the amount of water they think is on planet Earth and where the water is located.Time Needed
Multiple Means of RepresentationLearners perceive and comprehend information differently. Your goal in this section is to explain how you would present content in various ways to meet the needs of different learners. For example, you may present the material using guided notes, graphic organizers, video or other visual media, annotation tools, anchor charts, hands-on manipulatives, adaptive technologies, etc.In a bulleted list, describe the materials you will use to differentiate instruction and how you will use these materials throughout the lesson to support learning. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.For example:· I will use a Venn diagram graphic organizer to teach students how to compare and contrast the two main characters in the read-aloud story.· I will model one example on the white board before allowing students to work on the Venn diagram graphic organizer with their elbow partner.Explain how you will differentiate materials for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Multiple Means of EngagementYour goal for this section is to outline how you will engage students in interacting with the content and academic language. How will students explore, practice, and apply the content? For example, you may engage students through collaborative group work, Kagan cooperative learning structures, hands-on activities, structured discussions, reading and writing activities, experiments, problem solving, etc.In a bulleted list, describe the activities you will engage students in to allow them to explore, practice, and apply the content and academic language. Bold any activities you will use in the lesson. Also, include formative questioning strategies and higher order thinking questions you might pose.For example:· I will use a matching card activity where students will need to find a partner with a card that has an answer that matches their number sentence.· I will model one example of solving a number sentence on the white board before having students search for the matching card.· I will then have the partner who has the number sentence explain to their partner how they got the answer.Explain how you will differentiate activities for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Multiple Means of ExpressionLearners differ in the ways they navigate a learning environment and express what they know. Your goal in this section is to explain the various ways in which your students will demonstrate what they have learned. Explain how you will provide alternative means for response, selection, and composition to accommodate all learners. Will you tier any of these products? Will you offer students choices to demonstrate mastery? This section is essentially differentiated assessment.In a bulleted list, explain the options you will provide for your students to express their knowledge about the topic. For example, students may demonstrate their knowledge in more summative ways through a short answer or multiple-choice test, multimedia presentation, video, speech to text, website, written sentence, paragraph, essay, poster, portfolio, hands-on project, experiment, reflection, blog post, or skit. Bold the names of any summative assessments.Students may also demonstrate their knowledge in ways that are more formative. For example, students may take part in thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down, a short essay or drawing, an entrance slip or exit ticket, mini-whiteboard answers, fist to five, electronic quiz games, running records, four corners, or hand raising.Underline the names of any formative assessments.For example:Students will complete a one-paragraph reflection on the in-class simulation they experienced. They will be expected to write the reflection using complete sentences, proper capitalization and punctuation, and utilize an example from the simulation to demonstrate their understanding. Students will also take part in formative assessments throughout the lesson, such as thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down and pair-share discussions, where you will determine if you need to re-teach or re-direct learning.Explain if you will differentiate assessments for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Extension Activity and/or HomeworkIdentify and describe any extension activities or homework tasks as appropriate. Explain how the extension activity or homework assignment supports the learning targets/objectives. As required by your instructor, attach any copies of homework at the end of this template.Time Needed
Rationale/ReflectionAfter writing your complete lesson plan, explain three instructional strategies you included in your lesson and why. How do these strategies promote collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and creativity? Bold the name of the strategy.For example:.· Think-Pair-Share promotes engagement, communication, and collaboration because all students get a chance to share their ideas or answers. This is beneficial to students because they get to put their ideas into words, and hear and discuss the perspectives of others.

Conflict Mediation

Suppose that you are the HR manager for a company. The judge in a current law suit by a former employee has ordered mandatory pre-suit mediation. Your boss is unfamiliar with mediation and she asks you to advise her as to several issues regarding the upcoming mediation. Draft a memo thoroughly discussing, at minimum, the following questions:

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mediation? Is it likely to be successful? Is it likely to make the parties more or less hostile toward one another? How do the costs in terms of time and money compare with litigation?
  2. If your boss has no interest in mediation, does she really have to be there? Can she send her attorney instead? If so, are there any conflicts of interest with respect to attorney advocate representation of which she should be aware?
  3. Must the company actually participate in the mediation? Can your boss (or her attorney) just sit there and refuse to speak?
  4. If your boss (or her attorney) does decide to engage in dialogue during the mediation, what are the risks concerning information that might be disclosed? If the mediation fails, can the former employee use such information at trial?

Although this assignment is completed in Week 3, students should refer to information in Lessons 3, 4, and 7 for relevant information.

Submission Instructions:

This assignment should at a minimum contain 1,000 words of content (there are four parts, so this is ~250 words each). Word count does not include headings, cover pages, references, or question text (if you choose to include it in your paper); I am looking for 1,000 words of substance. Your paper should be in APA format including a properly formatted cover page (abstracts are optional) and a reference page with at least three (3) NEW references (“new” here means references that you have not already used in previous assignments in this course). Providing additional references to your assignments demonstrates your desire to conduct additional research on the topic area, and can improve your research skills.

With all assignments, include properly formatted in-text citations within the body of your work for each of your listed references so the reader can ascertain your original thoughts or ideas as well as the portion of your work that is credited to credible sources. It is very important to identify work from other sources to ensure that proper credit is provided to researchers in the field. This assignment uses Turn It In for originality verification.

Submit the weekly written assignment as an MS Word attachment (.doc or .docx format). A recommended font is 12pt Times New Roman. DO NOT include discussion board answers with your formally written assignment submission.

Implementation And Support Plan

Assessment Description

The purpose of this assignment is to create a new technological implementation plan and outline how the new technology will be supported for all stakeholders after implementation.

Planning for the implementation of technology is only one part of the management strategy needed to ensure that the new technology can address the identified problem and produce positive results for the business. Once the implementation plan is in place, support for the new technology must also be available.

Using the technology selected in the Topic 2 assignment, develop a 750-1,000 word implementation plan that addresses the following:

Describe which system development system will be used and justify its selection.

Describe the testing procedures that have been designed. Identify sources of guidelines and standards of testing that were used in formulating the procedures.

Describe the prototype process and environment.

Describe how the technology solution will support accessibility for the disabled.

Explain integration into the information system production environment.

Describe the support plan for the new technology by outlining end-user, operational, and technical support and maintenance.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. 

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. 

Unit VIII Case Study

For the final unit, you will read the mini-case on page 483 of your textbook: “Tengiz—The Definition of Political Risk.” After reading and analyzing the case, answer the questions below, which can also be found on page 486 of the textbook.

  • Why would a company like Chevron invest so much capital in a project with so many risks?
  • How had Chevron tried to mitigate the political risks of the project?
  • Had the risks associated with Tengiz changed or evolved over time?

Your submission must be at least two pages in length. Use the knowledge you have gained during this course to answer these questions. Outside sources are not required, but if used, please adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references. APA formatting is not necessary. 

 Moffett, M. H., Stonehill, A. I., & Eiteman, D. K. (2017). Fundamentals of Multinational Finance (6th Edition). Pearson Education (US). https://online.vitalsource.com/books/9780134623368

Unit 4 AS: Literature Review Assignment

This assignment requires you to write a Literature Review draft based on the credible academic sources you have read and evaluated about your topic. 

The assignment must be double-spaced, in 12-point font, and at least 5-pages in length. It should draw from at least 6 peer-reviewed sources. It should cite paraphrase and quotes in APA-style as necessary to support your analysis. For completing the Literature Review Draft assignment, review the course resources about literature reviews (Unit 3) and follow the guidelines regarding drafting literature reviews.

Discussion: Poverty And Perceptions

Describe the historical context of the policy in 2–3 sentences.

The goal is to concisely point to an important historical event for context rather than conduct a deeper historical analysis.

Identify the population the policy serves.

What programs fall under this policy?

Explain how the policy aligns with or does not align with the social work mission and values.

Explain how society’s perception of vulnerable or marginalized populations relates to the development of this and other policies to address poverty.

Resources:

https://aspe.hhs.gov/reports/personal-responsibility-work-opportunity-reconciliation-act-1996

Apa Style Assignment

A Scoping Review of Inclusive Education for Disability in African Countries:

Case of Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Education disparities are a global concern, especially in the third world African nations Such as Nigeria. Research studies have confirmed the many types of disparities associated with gender, disability, and poverty observed in schools generally, and taken steps towards careers particularly. Study findings suggested that girls’ enrollment in educational institutions is low, and this ratio is even lower in girls with disabilities. This seems to have significant ramifications for the country’s progress. Employment, gender, poverty situation, and geographical variances all have an impact on children’s school attendance. This is a literature review paper focusing on a policy analysis of secondary information out of a scoping review to show how intersectionality created problems in inclusive education and how intersectionality can positively play its role in bringing inclusive education for children with disabilities to schools and getting the same education as the other typically developing children. Predicated on the analytical synthesis, discussions on possible solutions for inclusive education in African countries are undertaken, and recommendations are made for delivering education to the doorsteps of Nigerian students with disabilities, especially girls.

A Scoping Review of Inclusive Education for Disability in African Countries:

Case of Nigeria

Knowledge is a fundamental right as well as a necessary instrument for promoting justice, progress, and stability. Fair and equitable education helps a person, contributing toward a better equitable connection amongst males and females in the long run, and encouraging sexual equality in education settings results in a robust, skilled, and valuable human resource foundation. “No development plan is better than one that includes women as essential actors,” said Kofi Annan, the ex-Secretary-General of the United Nations. It provides instant advantages in terms of food, healthcare, money, and development at the household, neighborhood, and, eventually, national levels. In addition, the importance of education in the third-world nations is critical since millions of impoverished students lack access to almost any or limited education that would enable them to achieve their full capabilities in life. This might be due to a variety of factors (Carnoy & Samoff, 2014). For example, essential and vital aspects of a child’s education are lacking, such as the lack of a teacher or inexperienced teachers.

Second, overcrowding in classrooms, as well as poverty or any type of mental or physical handicap and incompetency of the government of such countries to cope with such situations. The failure of the government to cope with situations could also be because of the presence of intersectionality elements in the society of such countries (Jayawardena, 2016). Factors such as disability, gender or sexual orientation, race, social status, and ethnicity, not only make a child’s life miserable but also cause their right to seek education in these third world countries taken away or compromised. A third-world country that I am especially focusing on in my paper is Nigeria, my motherland. Poverty and gender biases in Nigerian society have badly affected its education system. And on top of that children with disabilities, especially females, were considered exempt or non-eligible to get an education in the past. Men and Women’s educational disparities are a worldwide concern, especially in poor nations like Nigeria. Studies have confirmed the male dominance in educational institutions, as well as in careers specifically. Therefore, examining these problems through the lens of Inclusive education is very important for Nigerian society.

Inclusive Education

Inclusive education, or inclusion which is now broadly practiced in the developed world, could be defined as the theory, and conduct of schooling children with disabilities in regular school facilities (Ainscow, M. (2005). The method is based on the idea that each and every child must be treated equitably in the educational ambiance. To put it another way, children with disabilities thrive by studying in a regular classroom, whereas their classmates without impairments benefit by getting introduced to children possessing a wide range of skills, capabilities, and demeanors. The inclusive educational approach has apparent advantages, for example, kids ought to gain interpersonal interactions in a setting that closely resembles natural development as well as advancement settings (Ajuwon, 2008). Youngsters learn language relatively successfully throughout their early years when they are surrounded by children who talk naturally and correctly. Sometimes it is wonderful to see how possibly practically, and procedurally adaptable school community settings allow kids and teenagers with bodily impairments to perform as successfully as they would without. Also, certain changes to the surroundings typically make it easier for people who do not suffer from any impairments to reach their surroundings.

Global/International trends in inclusive education

Since the globe reacts to the immense issues that are evolving because of the epidemic catastrophe, the topic of such a particular challenge became an increasingly bigger international concern. It has highlighted the critical importance of developing educational institutions that incorporate all kids and youth. In this perspective, the goal is not to get back to usual. Instead, this is a chance to establish a modern norm based on insights acquired during the worldwide financial catastrophe (Ydo, 2020). Researchers also state that “many educators and families were already aware of the need to change the school model, but the pandemic revealed the urgency and the possibility of this transformation” (Novoa & Alvim, 2020). As we have seen, several governments and public sector organizations in the Developing World are implementing realistic responses to worldwide patterns in inclusive schooling. Some nations, on the other hand, lack organizational frameworks comparable to those seen in Europe and America, where inclusive education programs originated. Although international human rights accords are vital for stimulating international discourse and acknowledging the presence of an issue, meaningful remedies must be developed on the regional level. State and regional lobbying organizations can help build regionally appropriate inclusive methods for the 21st century by providing support and funding (Schuelka & Johnstone, 2012).

Inclusive education in African countries

As per the reports published by the DEEP, (2020), through legitimizing the Protocol on the disabled children’s and adults’ rights states across Sub-Saharan Africa are committed to inclusion. Several countries went even farther, enacting their separate statutes and perhaps constitutions. However, inclusive education is not the sole problem in African countries. There are several other reasons too. Just school enrolment is not enough in these countries, yet their persistence is what is more significant. Analysis by LLC, Encompass, and Center for Inclusive policies (2020) provided the data that, in Africa, overall school enrollment ratios for disabled girls are 10.1 percent less than for girls having no impairments, while 12.8 percent less for disabled boys as compared to boys having no disability. Almost 33.3 percent of people with cognitive difficulties opted to leave out in one of the Kenyan districts. Registration and persistence are frequently hampered by fiscal, physiological, and societal obstacles (Mont et al., 2020). These vary from a dearth of access to infrastructure and resources to prejudice and maltreatment, as well as a shortage of adaptable or diverse instructional approaches. Entrances through stairways and railings are among the most basic and visible adjustments, yet just 8% of academic institutions in Ghana, for instance, used them in the year 2018. In countries like Uganda, Cameroon, Zambia, Senegal, and Ethiopia almost 956 disabled kids examined had experienced at least once in their lifetime incidents of sexual and emotional assault, while those who were abused physically are almost 81.5 percent. When inclusive methods are not integrated, educational performance suffers. Almost 80% of the instructors polled agreed that a dearth of inclusion measures contributes to suspensions. Also, it results in reduced educational performance for others who stay. Hardly one in ten instructors had undergone in-service instruction to encourage inclusion learning, according to an assessment of Eleven nations. About 38.3% of instructors who dealt with students with intellectual challenges had received special requirements in educational instruction, whereas 59.9% had received no professional education on the way to interact with students having any kind of impairments (Mont et al., 2020)

Inclusive education in Nigeria

As per the Nigerian Government, a program named ”Special Education” was created to meet the needs of three groups of people: a) Those with visual, physical, auditory, intellectual, behavioral, interpersonal, language, cognitive, and numerous disabilities are classified as disabled. b) The Handicapped, which includes nomadic pastoralists’ children, migrant fishermen, farmworkers, and poachers. c) The Talented and Exceptional ones, which include persons (both adults as well as kids) having a high IQ and particular abilities in the crafts, innovation, singing, management, and cognitive sartorial elegance who are not appropriately stretched in ordinary institutions. Moreover, under this program, schooling for kids with special requirements is anticipated to really be accessible at all degrees, as well as the required resources to facilitate easy access to educational institutions, are anticipated to be granted (Fareo, 2020).

Also, with the strategy of including special kids in conventional classes, it is apparent that the education system of Nigeria is undergoing considerable adjustment. Since a crucial preliminary approach to achieving long-term sustainability, all sorts of mystical ideas regarding impairments must be eradicated, as they have always hindered the participation of disabled individuals in school and society. The importance of properly documenting disabled children and teenagers for efficient intervention could not indeed be overstated in this respect (Ajuwon, 2008). Every school administrator must also make the correct placement of competent certified special instructors in the primary school and secondary school settings a major consideration. Such school administrators and legislators should indeed avoid political influences to reach ill-informed judgments concerning special schooling or perhaps even regular educational programs for moral grounds. The government authorities should not just simply recommend global special education policies and procedures which are not yet been thoroughly analyzed or evaluated in underdeveloped nations. Educators, admins, various academic workers, legislators, kids both with and without impairments, as well as their families, must really be aware of the duty of teaching all kids so that everyone may attain their utmost capacity throughout the discussions as well as conversations that will take place. Regarding disabled kids, the ultimate objective ought to be equal accessibility to every available opportunity that will ensure progress in school, career, and social inclusion (Ajuwon, 2008).

Intersectionality

Intersectionality is basically the recognition of persecution, biases, and prejudice in society to isolate people based on various elements such as disability, gender or sexual orientation, race, social status, ethnicity, etc. (Gillborn, D. (2015). Intersectionality has also been employed to investigate how children at educational institutions feel privileged, disadvantaged, or perhaps a blend of both of these. It was also evidenced that the thoughts and feelings of Ecuadorian children who migrated to Spain in terms of schooling, race and sex, relocation, and dearth of residency rights, showcasing how systematic racism, shrinking labor business prospects, advertisements, regulations, and welfare institutions pervaded relationships among educators as well as learners, among educators at workplaces, among families and instructors, and among different student groups belonging to different ethnicities necessitating a variety of inclusive approaches (Balsera, 2014). The goal of inclusive schooling is to provide an educational atmosphere in which every child feels secure and comfortable in order to study and grow to their fullest capacity. Initial discussions about inclusion have been concordant with civic equality dialogue, and “advocates sought for students with disabilities the status of any minority group that was widely disenfranchised and discriminated against…” (Ferguson, 2008), to guarantee significant exposure to regular classes. Similarly, inclusiveness is described as “the theory and practice of educating children with disabilities in mainstream education settings,” citing a variety of sources (Ajuwon, 2008).

Children with disabilities are increasingly having access to education in both low and middle income countries. However, they are not learning effectively as a result of segregation and social exclusion in the classroom as well as teaching methods that perpetuates inequality. Having segregated schools or classrooms perpetuates the misconceptions that children with disabilities are fundamentally different from their peers who are non-disabled and hence need to be separated or isolated which minimizes the chances of social inclusion. Therefore, in terms of academic achievements for students with disabilities, peer support is a significant resource. Despite the benefits that are associated with inclusive education, evidence shows that students with disabilities are less likely to attend a school or even complete it if they are able to enroll. Those who are able to enroll face an increased probability of undeserved discipline, violence, and bullying. Integrating children with disabilities is vital when it comes to the promotion of child development of their competencies, essential skills, as well as social relationships.

Intersectionality inducing factors

There are multiple factors that directly cause intersectionality, including poverty, gender biases, and disability. Such factors can make a child’s life miserable and their right to seek education in these third world countries is specially taken away or compromised.

Poverty

Poverty has wreaked havoc on the public’s livelihoods in Nigeria, depriving them of even the most basic necessities. Hunger hits deep, determining public belief in Nigeria as well as dictating how they should spend their lives. Nigeria’s system was a complete failure as its inhabitants never had a good living and enough work for any of them to survive (Amzat, 2010). Furthermore, the Nigerian administration is beset by dishonesty, which is the basis of the crisis in the nation. The corruption of the state is at the root of just about everything. Inequality is caused by corruption, which results from a poor or uneven allocation of the country’s assets and justice. Corruption has buried Nigeria’s whole structure under the Dead Sea, making it difficult for the government to function. Regarding education, a link has been discovered involving lack of education and poverty. Poverty directly influences the sort of qualifications that individuals in Nigeria ought to have. The public education system is devastated by poverty. Educational institutes are only a ghost of what they once were (Amzat, 2010).

Gender Biases

Teaching girls is a proven social strategic plan or a lengthy commitment that pays out handsomely. Even though the Government has passed a series of amendments and laws relating to “Universal Basic Education”, it is now essential to put these laws into action by transforming primary and secondary schools into training centers with adequate means and staff. To allow every girl to reach her best capacity via equitable right to schooling, these obstacles must be removed. States should implement a strategy of integrating a participatory approach through major policy frameworks, according to the Global Conference on Women, to raise awareness of the underprivileged status of female children. Additionally, via societal information exchange approaches, families must also be educated and aware of the benefits of schooling (Alabi & Alabi, 2014).

Mutual effect of intersectionality inducing elements

It is evident that there are numerous signs of the way impoverishment and impairment interact. Impoverishment and impairment, for example, both can lead to lower educational attainment, according to research (Fareo, 2020). Educational institutions either regular ones or those for special children ”frequently do not provide sufficient provision for the unique educational requirements of children with impairments,” Slightly earlier impairment, in effect, might lead to reduced educational opportunities. Furthermore, delayed impairment in the context of learning as because of impoverishment implies that a person’s education resources never transform into useful capability when they become disabled. Poor education is a contributory factor to impoverishment amongst disabled persons (Groce & Bakhshi, 2011). Mitra and his colleagues, (2011) also claimed that unemployment has a negative effect on schooling as well. Intersectionality is used to illustrate that perhaps the interplay of sexuality, disabilities, racism, and unemployment restricts females’ accessibility to school, leading to subsequent professional marginalization. In many underdeveloped nations, the ratio of employment amongst persons with impairments was less as compared to for quasi persons (Mizunoya & Mitra, 2013). However, deprivation of employment and impoverishment has an influence on such events as well. Loeb and his colleagues found that the unemployment rate is even higher in the eastern boundaries of South Africa. They also discovered employment ratios are considerably different between impaired and quasi working-age persons. Nevertheless, there have been considerable variances mostly in Western Cape, in which the business is better, with the labor force participation rate amongst normal persons nearly twice as compared to the impaired ones.

Intersectionality: problem for inclusive education in African countries

Employing intersectionality with an academic perspective enables the assessment of the concurrent interplay between sexual identity, impairment, background, racial group, and category for any child, and the interaction among such children or collective attributes and organizational feedback to each other organizational (Grant & Zwier, 2011). While Waitoller and Kozleski, (2013) explained in their study that intersectionality can help clarify why some pupils (for example, a migrant student with conduct disorders) experience highly variable tiers of marginalization in academic institutions due to the way academic institutions confront or fail to acknowledge the interplay of their personalities, rather responding to just one facet of pupils’ requirements. For example, educational institutions give handicap support to children based on their disabilities, as well as migrant children receive assistance with linguistic acquisition and stressful experiences. Whatever, though, causes a refugee kid with any impairment to go through. This kid would not receive the social assistance required, because these identification indicators are not properly differentiated and the domain of duty is not explicitly established (Walgenbach, 2017). Child’s identities and abilities might be subsumed by how they are thought to be diverse, leading to a homogeneous picture of individuals. The perspective by which instructors may promote literacy inside the organizational environments wherein they operate is narrowed by these standard conceptions of pupils, which are incorporated into the pedagogical policy. Consequently, if a child is classified as requiring special assistance in one regard, other parts of the kid’s requirements may be missed. Grant & Zwier, (2011) states that intersectionality can be very valuable in this situation. It proposes a multi-strategy to “more completely resolve concerns” of demand, fairness, and equality in current institutions by analyzing and conceptualizing instructional problems. Some academics believe that inclusive education requires a multi-dimensional paradigm. Similarly, many researchers explained the immediate need for intersectionality as described by Slee, (2001) ”the discussion across intersections of class, race, gender, and disability reminds us both of the specificity and the general applications of claims for inclusive education” It is important to recognize that inclusive education is indeed a lengthy but slow process aimed at developing efficient solutions to prevent marginalization in an increasingly varied setting.

Ainscow, (2005) stated that in order to combat marginalization and adapt constructively to heterogeneity, inclusiveness is a notion that is invariably changing. As per the ebb & flow group, intersectionality, too, must always be considered continuously since it is always evolving in accordance with fresh advances and multidimensional socio-economic imbalances throughout time. It is a dynamic process that is always evolving in reaction to a united oppressive system. Intersectionality should be employed in relation to comprehensive inclusive schooling to underline the idea that pupils that are disadvantaged and biased typically face numerous types of banishment and stigmatization, not just on the interpersonal basis, but as well as on the institutional threshold. On the other hand, according to Hancock, (2007), such impacts produce the societal and academic inequality that inclusivity advocates aspire to eliminate, but rather find themselves locked in since they lack understanding of the overlapping character of such consequences while defining and implementing the educational system. When investigators combine such ideas, intersectionality aids in identifying prejudice and exclusionary practices, whereas inclusiveness aids in addressing such issues and creating the utmost effective educational environment conceivable for any and all children. The premise that the classifications employed for personal qualities such as identification identifiers are socially created is crucial to bridging intersectional and inclusiveness. Gillborn, (2015) says that these classifications generate divisions among people, that society perpetuates and reinforces. Social disparities are created and perpetuated through the connections and sociological domains of organizations, rather than being pre-existing and fundamental. Social terms like “migrant” and “refugee” are immutable trait inventions that are employed to legitimize, justify, and preserve a community’s sociological structure.

United Nations’ role to eradicate impoverishment

The UN Millennium Conference approved 8 MDGs in the year 2000, with the deadline year of 2015 to accomplish them. Few of the very first objectives, eradicating severe hunger and poverty as well as achieving universal basic literacy, were intertwined. Poverty reduces the possibilities of acquiring any schooling, although education is also among the primary strategies for overcoming poverty. It is a global issue that has negative consequences for practically every element of domestic life as well as kids’ results (Engle & Black, 2008). This study looks at how poverty impacts children’s educational results, as well as treatments that were successful in boosting child academic results for low-income households in both developed countries like America and developing nations like Nigeria. Likewise, kids in emerging nations are far more likely than affluent kids to not ever join education, as well as the discrepancies, are significant. As per a survey conducted 12 percent of kids in the highest income group never went to school, so although 38 percent of kids within the lowest income group never went to school. Such disparities are particularly strongly linked to maternal affluence and schooling as compared to region and ethnicity. Poverty-affected children do worse in class. Studies reveal that there are substantial positive connections between social and economic position and pupil accomplishment among nations, age groups, and educational disciplines. Furthermore, in most nations, socioeconomic factors in success rates, also known as socioeconomic slopes, occur, demonstrating social standing disparity in exam outcomes (Engle & Black, 2008).

Salamanca Manifesto regarding inclusive Education

Although inclusivity is often linked with children with impairments, there seem to be a lot of perspectives that cover a variety of target demographics (Miles & Singal, 2010). The Salamanca Manifesto of the year 1994, emphasizes that inclusiveness must aim to assist all oppressed and underprivileged groups and compensate for multidimensional social inequalities that restrict pupils’ academic success. Whereas an accommodating strategy does have the capacity to help a wide range of societal categories, the majority of the debates focus on pupils with impairments. Because it became a consequence of the Global Convention on “Special Needs Education”, Miles and Singal contend that Salamanca Manifesto inherently relates inclusive education to people with impairments. The concentration on fulfilling the student’s needs instead of forcing students to conform to a current framework is also at the heart of inclusion (Ajuwon, 2008). Throughout this vein, it is suggested that we should deliver facilities to students and personalize these to meet specific requirements. Moreover, according to Ferguson (2008), instructors should strive to give training help and accommodations instead of pedagogically imparting content to pupils.

UNESCO guidelines regarding inclusive education on global level

UNESCO in the year of 2011, established “Open File” resources to assist legislators, state authorities, and officials in advancing inclusive education in various regions. They provide a mechanism for legislators in various nations to rely on global expertise in directing their respective institutions further towards inclusiveness. Employees with management roles in public education departments, municipal governments, regional operations and service centers, private groups, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), as well as other organizations are expected to be using the “Open File”. While such important elements in the establishment of comprehensive inclusive schooling, the “Open File” is not mainly preoccupied with federal legislators or teaching practice. Federal policies, on the other hand, are primarily a political matter, whereas instructional practice and problems of intrinsic school improvement and organization are efficaciously addressed in UNESCO’s “earlier teacher education resource pack, Special Needs in the Classroom, which is referenced all across the Open File” (UNESCO, 2020).

Barriers to inclusive education in the global context

There seem to be various challenges to delivering training to exceptional children in a traditional classroom setting, including all types of irrational assumptions regarding impairments, which have had for centuries prevented participation in learning and the society by disabled people. When these are accomplished, students with special challenges will be free to enjoy a unique adventure by participating in inclusive classrooms alongside their quasi peers.  Hurdles to inclusive classrooms settings can be resolved by raising understanding about what integration does and the societal advantage it has, ensuring that school systems have had the funding and aptitude to reorganize their learning system to accommodate all learners, hiring educators having the skill sets and competency to encounter variable pressures in the lecture hall, and possessing support from family. The goal of this form of teaching for disabled kids is to provide them with equal exposure to options that would ensure their performance in school, work, and societal inclusion (Jacob & Olisaemeka, 2016). Conducting education or activity study to reduce investigator interference and tribalism is really nothing novel. Nevertheless, recognizing the merits and demerits of a gendered emphasis may be utilized to develop crucial perspectives about certain educational systems. At the moment, having a concentration appears to be turning things around.  It is necessary to invert the rationale of the study. Originating from the holy summit and participating in the prescriptive ‘how far’ procedure, the typical strategy for reaching such an examination of institutions is what one would call the greatest universal number strategy. Studies on females, academic management, as well as the Developing Country studies, on the other hand, are not about focusing on females whatsoever. To do that might be to reinforce a detrimental sex disparities perspective and divert attention away from a more in-depth examination of the why but for whom authority in classrooms is evolved to be exerted in a specific manner. The cross-examining of the engrained and chosen to take gender aspects and speech by which instructional regulation is arbitrated is just the first move toward the development of new hypotheses of schooling management that would give both male and female teachers more adaptability and self-control. It is anticipated that further study, would allow institutions to emerge not only as “woman-friendly,” but also “user-friendly” in general (Davies, 1987).

Barriers to implementing inclusion in Nigeria

In Nigeria, special needs schooling has still been beset by policy development but also execution issues, and the general public’s and administration’s dismissive stance toward disabled people, creating a climate that is not favorable to enabling practicing. As a result, establishing inclusiveness in a setting could be impractical and detrimental. Special needs training must be prioritized to ensure successful deployment. To put it another way, at the present, inclusion is merely a notion, and it is not a reality that can be practiced (Sunal & Mutua, 2013). Disabled students who would be integrated into regular schooling courses get interpersonal and intellectual gains even without stigmatized segregation or squeeze classes. Nevertheless, there are various obstacles to inclusiveness, including insufficient special instructors to educate disabled kids, a shortage of materials and infrastructure, and a lack of government financing, to name a few. To attain the intended outcomes, the administration, institutional authorities, educators, society, and families must all work together to address the issues (Fareo, 2020).

SSA has made mixed success despite a rising worldwide agreement on the importance of implementing inclusion. There are a few obstacles are recognized in underdeveloped regions pertaining to schooling, along with inadequate facilities as well as instructional resources, the abrogation of preschool programs, prejudice in the provision of services, a scarcity of appropriately skilled practitioners, as well as bad infrastructural facilities (Eleweke & Rodda, 2002). Special requirements schooling is considered expensive and unimportant, and administrations cannot be taken completely accountable if they neglect to deliver the required programs for people with impairments due to a dearth of legislative backing. Such are essential challenges in education, and learners having impairments are substantially affected because of their existing stigmatized standing in several countries. When it comes to these difficulties, Nigeria is one of a kind.  In the history of counters of western Africa, as per Garuba, (2003), schooling for disabled students has indeed been exceedingly unequal, distinguished by commonalities and shatters, as well as a varied spectrum of characters. For example, from around the year 1945 to the year 1970, individual charitable organizations and benefactors offered support and programs for disabled people. Obiakor, (1998) further explains that Nigeria kept the imperial system of education as well as proceeded to hire overseas instructors after liberation, instead of adopting a philosophy of education that catered to the nation’s demands and goals. After the Nigerian Civil War, which was from 1967 to 1970, the state’s dedication to inclusion grew, as did its focus on improving the country’s overall schooling infrastructure.

National Policy on Education in Nigeria

The decade 1970s was a period of significant academic improvements, such as the development of additional academic institutions and the introduction of grants, thanks to the priority on national reconciliation and finance from increasing oil earnings. Also, with the establishment of compulsory basic schooling in the year 1976, inclusive education acquired even more traction. A revised NPE was introduced in the year 1977 (Obiakor, 1998). While Eleweke, (2002) claimed that this strategy emphasizes equalizing academic chances for children with impairments and giving the tools for students to develop into self-sufficient, productive individuals. The NPE policy of the year 1977 paved the way for the inclusive education of disabled pupils in normal learning environments. Garuba, (2003), further explained that “at Ibadan, Jos, and the then-Federal Advanced Teachers College”, additional educator development courses were also formed. Regrettably, several of such gains were undermined by the worldwide recession as well as the World Bank’s adoption of SAP also called the structural adjustment program in the year 1980. The Nigerian authorities were forced to decrease state outlays, and schooling expenditures for each person declined dramatically during the period of the 1980s (Babalola, Lundwangya, & Adeyinka, 1999).

Research aims and objectives

The main objectives of this study are to examine issues centering around inclusive education as follows: Inclusive education for children in African countries and especially in Nigeria, Intersectionality between gender biases, disabilities, and poverty and its direct impact on the education of children; The policies that the Nigerian government has made to eradicate disparities between disabled and normal children, Implementation of special education policies in African countries especially focusing on Nigeria and the global concern and obligations to play their role in this regard in third world countries.

Research questions

My scoping review paper will answer several research questions through policy analysis of study synthesis. These questions include:How does inclusive education conceptualize in the existing literature as to policies and practices globally, in African countries, and especially in Nigeria?, What are some key barriers to inclusive education for students with disabilities in Nigeria, and are there similarities between Nigeria and other African countries, in this regard?

What have the Nigerian authorities done so far? How intersectionality has been part of the problem for inclusive education in African countries? And how are they willing to make it better? What solutions are there through the lens of intersectionality for promoting inclusive education in Nigeria and other African countries?

Methods

A scoping review was carried out using a multi-step procedure. Due to the general variety of conceptual contexts important to the analysis of inclusion, this type of evaluation was chosen. Scoping reviews look for pre-existing literature on important topics and the many types of supporting evidence that may be discovered. Scoping reviews attempt to summarize the range of academic findings on a given issue. This technique was relevant for the exploration of my study since it sought to interpret and integrate worldwide literature from a variety of perspectives on inclusive education and intersectionality, patterns, and challenges in inclusive education for students with disabilities in African nations, especially focusing on Nigeria. Overall inclusion and exclusion criteria, the importance of inclusive education, barriers such as gender biases and disability in education for children and leading to unemployment for adults, intersectionality between poverty, gender biases, and disability, as well as major causes and potential solutions. Furthermore, these secondary resources assisted in obtaining information regarding the dimensions that governments have employed, as well as WHO and UNICEF policies that were recommended to address the problem. In order to perform scoping review research, I followed the steps outlined in the subsequent section.

Identifying relevant studies

Data collection is a method of gathering evidence on a certain research subject, then analyzing and evaluating the resulting statistics to acquire a better understanding of the subject (de la Croix et al., 2018). On my own, I devised search techniques.  Employing a combination of important phrases, I found related publications in ERIC, PubMed, PsychINFO, EBSCO, and Sci-hub, prominent databases in academic and social sciences.  I used the following key search terms such as: Inclusion, inclusive education, intersectionality, global trends of inclusive education, disabled children, education, third-world nations, barriers, Nigeria, and/or African countries. One inquiry, for instance, included the terms “Inclusive education,” “Nigeria,” and “African nations.” In each database, various sets of search phrases were input. There were hundreds of articles in all, even repetitions, as a result of all these searches. The abstracts of almost all of the papers generated from the search were then checked for policy reports and empirical research papers published in a peer-reviewed publication in English between 1999 and 2022, which met the inclusion criteria.

Besides review articles, information was obtained from various online websites to ascertain how intersectionality has contributed to the problem of inclusive education in African countries and what solutions can be found through the lens of intersectionality for promoting inclusive education in Nigeria and other African countries. Finally, data were gathered through reports published by official and non-governmental organizations. UNICEF and WHO reports employed in the current study provided statistical data. Additionally, the websites of LLC, Encompass, and the Center for Inclusive Policies, as well as DEEP, were utilized to gather statistical data on this topic. Owing to the broadness of the inclusion criteria, additional criteria were established to discover articles related to the scoping review’s core goal of understanding the implementation of policies and barriers regarding inclusive education. Studies that were not relevant to inclusive education were omitted. In addition, articles that did not involve students with impairments were eliminated.

Study selection

Multiple qualitative data analysis methodologies from secondary resources were utilized to analyze the acquired data, which assisted in defining the study’s conclusions and in identifying the differences between the data and the outcomes. Secondary sources regarded as the most prevalent and reliable were utilized. Those articles with duplicate abstracts were eliminated in the first go. Because of the escalating urgency for inclusive education, there is a pressing imperative to gather the information that underlines the importance of inclusion in education. So, I especially focused on inclusion and exclusion criteria and eliminated all the irrelevant articles. For example, articles concentrating on inclusive education but eliminating the intersectionality factors were discarded. Articles with high citation numbers were employed. Later on, I read the full articles and wrote this scoping review to the best of my capabilities and keeping the authenticity at its best.

Validity, Reliability, and Ethical Considerations

Concerns on Authenticity, Credibility, and Ethics Secondary source approaches such as webpages, organizational reports, and online peer-reviewed publications are all dependable and therefore beneficial in providing legitimate results and conclusions of the implementation of inclusive education policies. The secondary source data is accurate and credible since it has not been altered and is presented after many writers have reviewed it (Summers et al., 2019). Several ethical issues arise throughout the research process, the most essential of which is appropriately crediting sources. Because secondary sources are employed for data collecting and sampling in the present study, it is vital to reference anything included in the study from the sources. If the study work is not correctly mentioned, it might result in major infractions and, in certain cases, catastrophic penalties (Wangmo et al., 2019). Finally, in utilizing data from secondary sources, it is important to remember that certain material will not damage someone or compromise their integrity; alternatively, the investigators would have ethical problems.

Major cause of the problem regarding inclusive education (Results)

Intersectionality is employed in relation to inclusion in general and inclusive education particularly to underline the idea that individuals who are marginalized or persecuted typically face numerous types of stigmatizations as well as inequalities, not just on an interpersonal basis, yet at the institutional stage. Hancock, (2007) explains that such effects produce the societal and academic division those inclusive classrooms campaigners aspire to eradicate, however rather find themselves locked in so that many neglects to acknowledge the interconnected structure of such effects while defining and implementing an inclusive education system. When researchers combine such theories, intersectionality might aid in identifying racism and exclusionary mechanisms, whereas inclusion might aid in addressing such issues and creating the utmost effective educational environment attainable for everyone including pupils.

Figure 1: Intersection Union (Besic, 2020).

Intersectionality: A pathway towards inclusive education? | SpringerLink

Solution of the problem regarding inclusive education

We discovered that instructors were conscious of many aspects of identities and attempted to address individualized education requirements. Instructors, on the other hand, were more conscious of how overlapping child characteristics are related to receiving excellent schooling and how practices lead to inequality. Instructors tended to evaluate their pupils to dominant concepts of linguistic proficiency, cultural status, and cognitive-behavioral abilities. Intersectionality also helps the teachers to get to know their students in a better way. However, disabled children based on their social status i.e., poverty, are more prone to bullying. So, intersectionality helps the trained inclusive education instructor to develop and maintain policies that will ultimately help the students, especially the impaired students.

Analysis of children based on enrolment in schools

Some analytical studies carried out in some African countries revealed the ratio of children enrolled in school. These ratios explained the rational difference between normal children’s enrolment, as well as the enrolment of disabled children. In this analysis, they also compared the percentage of girls versus boys’ school enrolment as well as disabled girls versus disabled boys’ School enrolment. The analysis by LLC, Encompass, and Center for Inclusive policies (2020) provided the data that, in Africa, overall school enrollment ratios for disabled girls are 10.1 percent less than for girls having no impairments, while 12.8 percent less for disabled boys as compared to boys having no disability. Almost 33.3 percent of people with cognitive difficulties opted to leave out in one of the Kenyan districts. Registration and persistence are frequently hampered by fiscal, physiological, and societal obstacles (Mont et al., 2020). These vary from a dearth of access to infrastructure and resources to prejudice and maltreatment, as well as a shortage of adaptable or diverse instructional approaches. Entrances through stairways and railings are among the most basic and visible adjustments, yet just 8% of academic institutions in Ghana, for instance, used them in the year 2018 (Mont et al., 2020). Further ratios of children enrolled in school at the elementary level in different zones of Nigeria are explained in the table as well as graphically represented.

When inclusive methods are not integrated, educational performance suffers. Almost 80% of the instructors polled agreed that a dearth of inclusion measures contributes to suspensions. Also, it results in reduced educational performance for others who stay. Hardly one in ten instructors had undergone in-service instruction to encourage inclusion learning, according to an assessment of Eleven nations. About 38.3% of instructors who dealt with students with intellectual challenges had received special requirements in educational instruction, whereas 59.9% had received no professional education on the way to interact with students having any kind of impairments (Mont et al., 2020). In countries like Uganda, Cameroon, Zambia, Senegal, and Ethiopia almost 956 disabled kids examined had experienced at least once in their lifetime incidents of sexual and emotional assault, while those who were abused physically are almost 81.5 percent.

Challenges of policy implementation in African countries

In contrast to issues at the educational institutes and cultural levels, concerns also with the execution of inclusion policies seem to originate in particular to inconsistencies in Educational White Paper. According to the Department of Education, (2001), there are advantages of policy measures, is the cost efficiency of inclusiveness. However, Stofile (2008), stated that it is challenging to see how notable alterations to Africa’s instructional framework can be achieved without offering regional divisions with considerable rises in brief financing to assist in taking such requisite first stages. It is possible that the uncertainty in economic resources and administrative tasks is deliberate. Several African rules are adopted for ideological significance instead of pragmatism; as a result, imprecise regulations are frequently approved; nobody is made responsible for effective execution (Jansen, 2001). Stofile (2008), further explained that indeed, school administrators in Africa’s province of Eastern Cape complained that they received the sense that the federal Education department never was dedicated to implementing the comprehensive inclusion strategy and had attempted to delegate their obligations to everyone else.

Challenges to policy implementation in Nigeria

Cost

Inclusion is hampered by a lack of financial resources. Experts and supplementary personnel are required to educate disabled children in regular educational courses. Organizing programs and providing specific help to students necessitates more funding, which many institutions lack, especially in this economic climate. Insufficient financing might stymie continuous technical training that brings experts and teaching staff up to speed on optimal inclusive strategies.

Misrepresentation

A nasty perception is among the most significant obstacles to inclusion in school. This mindset and prejudice, like many in the community, is frequently the result of a paucity of education and awareness. To eliminate dogmas regarding the cause of handicaps and to alter the anxieties and mythologies about disabled children which create confusion and impede pleasant conversation, mass awareness tasks in educational institutes must start by instructing the educational institutes as well as and the public.

Lacking Skilled Staff

In a classroom with disabled children, an instructor without inclusive education capabilities may well not perceive the necessity to describe orientations or placements while discussing specific items or concepts. Whereas many researchers including Ajuwon, (2008) indicated they remained patient with different attitudes inside the inclusive environment, to their students. they were less confident to handle the conduct of special children in Nigeria. Ease of access

Disabled people cannot study in an inclusive school setting if they are unable to even enter classes or dorms. Fareo, (2020) further explained that any institutions currently have escalators, stairs, concrete walkways, and elevators that allow wheelchair kids to enter and exit facilities.

Course Adjustments

As the setting has to be approachable to disabled children, the syllabus and curricula must also allow for an inclusive classroom setting. Instructors ought to be adaptable with how they instruct and assess the skill and comprehension of their pupils.

Collaboration

The effectiveness of a framework for implementing inclusive education is hampered by a shortage of interaction among administration, instructors, experts, employees, families, and children. Educators and professionals will require the opportunity to connect and develop well-thought-out strategies for identifying and implementing modifications, adjustments, and particular objectives for children individually (Omede, 2016). To satisfy a child’s requirements and enhance learning, cooperation between educators, and professionals, including families of a disabled child is required.

Equipment and Resources

Fareo, (2020)said that most the kids with exceptional needs benefit from a setting rich in educational resources. Helpful gadgets or helpful smart gadgets are the terms for such educational materials. Research reveals that a dearth of necessary infrastructure and resources is a key barrier to successful mainstreaming deployment. 

The rationality of the literature used

In this paper, I used over 30 articles, to describe inclusive education and intersectionality and its global and African countries’ trends, especially focusing on Nigeria.

Figure 2: Ratio of Literature

Discussion and conclusion

According to literature synthesis, disabled kids who are integrated into educational courses gain personally and intellectually without the prejudice of being isolated or drawing classes in primary schooling. Children with categories have much more opportunities to meet better norms by becoming autonomous students since the expectations for conduct and teaching are greater. Inclusion further into regular is also thought to allow kids with impairments to gain from the stimulus of mingling with students who are comparatively more capable and to witness better standards of interpersonal and intellectual behavior. Enhanced connectivity and interpersonal interplay prospects, age-appropriate approaches to behavior skills, quite active engagement in the educational setting, individualized schooling objectives, and availability to the core classes are all social and academic advantages of integration for all classmates, regardless of having disabilities or not having any. All children thrive from a relevant, demanding, and relevant program, as well as varied education strategies that target their individual talents and weaknesses. According to research, even kids without impairments can flourish in inaccessible environments. Scholastic achievement is equivalent to or better than that of comparison groupings of kids schooled in a quasi-environment, and disabled children in integrated contexts do not severely restrict or disrupt school time for their non-disabled classmates. People without impairments learn from the inclusive environment because it fosters partnerships and raises understanding of differences.

In terms of interpersonal relationships, inclusive schooling helps students to form bonds with classmates and experience reduced societal stress as a result of their disability. Several individuals feel that kids who are integrated into regular classes have a stronger identity than kids who are separated into other classes solely since they are special or need special attention. The adoption of the inclusive school setting, as opposed to a segmented schooling system, offers a few benefits. It teaches pupils without impairments to embrace and understand impaired kids, among other things. Increase the socialization of impaired youngsters. It lowers the expense of offering special schooling for students with and without disabilities without even any specific requirements; it removes or decreases the stigmatization attached to persons with disabilities and particular requirements; promotes a children’s overall growth, both with as well as without disabilities particular requirements; and allows youngsters who do not have specific requirements to have a good attitude in the direction of individuals with disabilities. With the approach of including kids with disabilities in conventional classes, it is apparent that perhaps the education system of Nigeria is undergoing considerable adjustment. Because of a crucial preliminary move in assuring long-term achievement, all sorts of irrational ideas about a disability must be eradicated, as they have traditionally prevented persons with impairments from participating in school as well as the society. The importance of accurate registration of toddlers and teenagers with impairments for successful training must not be overstated in this respect. Every school administrator should also make the correct placement of accessible certified special teachers in the different school grades a concern.

In this paper, I characterized inclusion and inclusive education and emphasized the significance of expanding the extent of inclusive schooling in different countries of South Africa especially focusing on Nigeria, where it concentrates primarily on kids with impairments along with many other attributes like poverty and gender biases. After then, the fundamental philosophical paradigm, interdependence, was introduced. Not only did I articulate the intersectionality premise, yet I also emphasized that an intersectionality perspective in inclusive schooling is necessary for identifying the interactions of several variables that contribute to exclusionary practices in education targeting various groups of students. Moreover, I demonstrated that while considering inclusive schooling, within-group inequalities must be recognized. Despite the fact that intersectional has indeed been neglected in inclusive education studies, I emphasize the necessity of “thinking intersectionality” in the inclusive pedagogical study and educational practice. Putting it different perspective, shifting the attention from disabled students to all kids emphasizes the imperative to extend the notion of inclusion schooling. Since present inclusive school metrics and regulations are solely focused on kids with impairments, an expansion of the concept of inclusive education is required. This concentration, undoubtedly, provided for significant fundamental improvements in the institution for kids with impairments. D Between disparities between students, on the other hand, must be investigated. Studies and policymakers overlook the wider image by concentrating on only one identification indicator, for example, handicap, notably, that kids are exempted/precluded from several dimensions. Using a single-axis paradigm does not adequately represent inclusive education since most people with disabilities often have yet other identifications that further marginalize them. Additionally, simplifying a complicated problem by concentrating on just one cause of variance in understanding academic performance failure of various student groupings. It also is deceptive to suggest that the educational system operates in a bubble, unaffected by culture as well as the activities that occur inside it. Such aspects necessitate re-centering inclusive education discussion at the crossroads of various personality indicators pertaining to learners, as well as the framework and broader community; embracing a much more subtle research method and attempting to avoid the brief portrayal of persons based on just one authenticity indicator.

To correlate inclusiveness with comprehensive inclusive schooling or assimilation is a fallacy. Although these phrases have been employed interchangeably, there is no evidence that they actually signify a comparable thing. The term inclusion brings to mind the past practices of excluding specific groups of people from educational institutions because of their socioeconomic condition or impairments. Owing to the Global Proclamation of Basic Principles (1948) as well as the United Nations Agreement on the Responsibilities of the Children (1990), which acknowledges everybody’s entitlement to comprehensive and obligatory schooling, such traditions progressively altered. As a result of these pronouncements, these separated groups were able to be integrated into or incorporated into the educational structure. Inclusion is the term used to describe this activity. It is diametrically opposed to the conventional methods of exclusive schooling among the rich and educational marginalization among the impoverished. Inclusionary education refers to the procedures meant to keep historically marginalized groups in the school setting and enhance their learning. Researchers must examine all restrictive, marginalizing issues in the educational system, never just amongst various student organizations, yet also inside them, to alter the structure.

To put this idea into reality, there are certain challenges. Achieving inclusive education therefore in a broader sense would very certainly necessitate adjustments in mindsets as well as behaviors at all levels of the educational system. Nonetheless, as soon as a particular criterion of student diversity (mainly impairment) remains the primary emphasis of inclusive education, its execution will be riddled with preconceptions thinking inclusive education is just a continuation of special schooling. Such is particularly concerning when one considers that every individual is not simply a person with impairments, yet simply a kid with several orientations. If academics and professionals neglect to recognize within-group variations in any of such categories, children who are subjected to intersectionality prejudice will be made inaccessible or unfulfilled in terms of their individual needs. So, in inclusive education, the need to undermine the existing quo by destabilizing instructional practices and policies that preserve an emphasis on disabled children whilst marginalizing others, particularly those whose several dimensions of distinction cross. To summarize, inclusive education must be based on a better comprehension of the pupils provided by schools today, as well as an essential recognition of the societal relics of snag that pervade schools as well as other sociocultural structures, especially at a moment when certain circumstances are growing increasingly perhaps quite complex and difficult because of relocation and transnationality.

Recommendations

To demonstrate Nigeria’s devotion to comprehensive inclusion schooling, legislative action is required. That includes the removal of the notion of “special schools” from the National Education policy of Nigeria, allowing for complete sociological inclusion of disabled students within conventional education systems. In addition, an immediate enumeration to discover each citizen’s impairment is required to provide proper preparatory work for inclusionary schooling in the country. The state’s education initiatives must be strongly pushed to assure the elimination of discrimination and stereotypical conduct toward handicapped individuals. The UBE legislation must contain measures for handicapped kids that incorporate suitable training and avocational resources and tools. To guarantee that academic provision is accessible to each and every kid, conventional educational instructors must undergo extensive education and training in inclusion methodologies and abilities. They will also be taught in handicap evaluation activities. Extensive and pedagogically competent study into the individual requirements and preferences of a distinct category of students with special demands is required to establish how effectively to assimilate kids into traditional classroom culture and community. Among the kids of anglers, livestock ranchers, and archers, it is necessary to develop a traditionally sensitive classroom atmosphere wherein the coursework is customized to the conventional profession and current capabilities are offered for students in traditional educational environments. In order to implement a successful comprehensive educational policy, both commissions working for inclusive education must both be intensified. Such commissions are the Universal Basic Education Commission and National Commission for Nomadic Education. For this purpose, an enhancement in educational funding provision beyond the existing under 10 percent of the total to the UN benchmark of 26 percent of overall GDP is now advocated. This additional funding must go toward providing suitable educational services and infrastructural facilities, along with healthcare staff (particularly medics and physiotherapists) to assist Nigeria’s inclusive educational system. Nevertheless, after providing enough buildings and services for comprehensive schooling, an effective legislative mechanism to penalize anti-inclusive academic conduct must be established. Any conduct that obstructs the implementation of Nigerian inclusive education shall be punished with a penalty or a sentence of one year in custody.

References

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Pop Culture Assignment

Reading Summary #2 – Learner’s Choice

In this reading summary, learners are required to gather information from relevant weeks of the course to respond to a set of prompts. Learners have the choice to submit the reading summary in the format of their choice. Students are required to consult the detailed instructions and format specifications here: Reading Summaries – FORMAT

In addition to the instruction page, students are encouraged to consult the rubric while preparing their submissions. This is available by clicking on the three vertical dots at the top right of this page, or consulting the table below. 

For Reading Summary #2 students are required to compose a response to ONE question in their chosen format using materials from the course and at least ONE relevant peer-reviewed source. Please restrict your responses from 750 – 1000 words. 

1. Describe and explain the role that popular culture has played in reinforcing, but also challenging, mainstream ideas about sex, gender and sexuality.

2. Describe and explain the role that popular culture has played in expressing and consolidating ideas of the nation and nationalism in Canada through consumer items like coffee, donuts, and beer.

3. Describe and explain the role that popular culture has played in contributing to and/or challenging mainstream ideas about identity and race.

4. Explain the role that popular culture plays in constructing ideas of beauty in a globalized world.

Rubric

Reading Summaries

Reading Summaries
CriteriaRatingsPts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Critical Analysis5 ptsOutstandingSummary and description exceeds expectations and is approaching publishing standards. Student has offered precise analysis of the course materials using relevant keywords and terms. Outstanding integration of a range of course resources. Overall, the submission reflects advanced engagement with, and knowledge of, the topic.4 ptsGoodSummary and description is good with minor errors. Learner has offered good understanding of the course materials using relevant keywords and terms. Integration of course sources is good and reflects progressive engagement with, and knowledge of, the topic. Overall, the submission reflects good engagement with, and knowledge of, the topic.3 ptsSatisfactorySummary and description is adequate. Student has offered some understanding of the course materials, but details are missing and/or the language used is not precise. Integration of course resources needs improvement.1 ptsNeeds ImprovementCatastrophic errors in the summary and analysis. Details are missing, the submission does not fully address the question, or poor grammar and/or organization renders the submission unacceptable. Student has not used course resources effectively.0 ptsIncomplete or Catastrophic Errors5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Format and Reference5 ptsOutstandingAPA conventions are met with precision. For written submissions: document meets APA 7th edition student specifications for embedded citations, title page, reference page, spacing, margins, font etc. For audio/video/PPT submissions: audio and/or visuals are of outstanding quality. Use of images, colour, and/or graphics is outstanding and visually appealing. Submission includes accurate transcript/captions and or speaker’s notes and an exact APA reference page is provided. Submission integrates a range of assigned sources, or other reputable sources located by the student, and cites them correctly for chosen format, and offers clear and exact source attribution.4 ptsGoodAPA conventions are met with minor errors. For written submissions: document approaches APA 7th edition student specifications for embedded citations, title page, reference page, spacing, margins, font etc. with less than 2 errors. For audio/video/PPT submissions: audio and/or visuals are of good quality. Use of images, colour, and/or graphics is visually appealing. Submission includes accurate transcript/captions and an APA reference page is provided with minor errors. Submission integrates the appropriate number of sources and cites them correctly for chosen format.3 ptsSatisfactoryAPA format and references need improvement. For written submissions: document has some elements of APA 7th edition student specifications for embedded citations, title page, reference page, spacing, margins, font etc., but there are more than three errors in any of the previously mentioned specifications For audio/video/PPT submissions: audio and/or visuals are of satisfactory quality. Use of images, colour, and/or graphics could be improved. Submission may be missing transcript/captions/speaker’s notes and/or an APA reference page. Submission needs to integrate course resources more effectively; one or more of the sources used is not cited and/or referenced correctly.1 ptsNeeds ImprovementAPA format and/or references have catastrophic errors. For written submissions: document is missing key elements of APA 7th edition student specifications for embedded citations, title page, reference page, spacing, margins, font etc., but there are more than four errors in any of the previously mentioned specifications For audio/video/PPT submissions: audio and/or visuals are of poor quality. Use of images, colour, and/or graphics needs improvement. Submission is missing transcript/captions, or speaker’s notes and/or an APA reference page. Submission does not integrate, or cite, course resources effectively.0 ptsIncomplete or Catastrophic Errors5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Diction, Grammar, Style5 ptsOutstandingFor all submission formats: the delivery and style of writing, grammar, flow, and argumentation is outstanding and approaching publishing standards (free from grammar errors: capitalization, punctuation, syntax, subject-verb agreement, colloquialisms, etc.).4 ptsGoodFor all submission formats: the delivery and style of writing, grammar, flow, and argumentation is good with less than 3 errors.3 ptsSatisfactoryFor all submission formats: the delivery and style of writing, grammar, flow, and argumentation is satisfactory with less than 5 errors. Learner is advised to seek academic support through Student Life.1 ptsNeeds ImprovementCatastrophic errors in grammar, diction, and style. Learner is advised to seek academic support through Student Life.0 ptsIncomplete or Catastrophic Errors5 pts
Total Points: 15

E Business W8 Assignment 2

Question 1

Why have advertising networks become controversial? What, if anything, can be done to overcome any resistance to this technique? 

Question 2

List and describe some Web site design features that impact online purchasing. 

Question 3

What are some of the difficulties in providing services in an online environment? What factors differentiate the services sector from the retail sector, for example? 

Question 4

Briefly outline the types of information an organization would gather before writing the organizations information security policy document.

Question 5

Briefly describe the most important functions to look for in project management software and why they are important.
 

Law Blog 1 2 Response Assignment

100 words 1 reference

Cases of mentally ill inmates in correctional facilities have become prevalent, which in turn calls for plans and implementation of preventive and diversionary policies and programs by the criminal justice system. Prisons rarely provide the necessary treatment for these inmates, which aggravates the prevailing social marginalization and disrupts treatments and linkage to service systems (Navasky & O’Conner, 2005). Therefore, the criminal justice system must consider all these factors before ruling on whether a mentally unwell offender should be moved to prison or a mental facility.

The criminal justice system can design specialized programs that divert inmates with mental illnesses from being in contact with law enforcement, courts, and corrections. This system can also offer opportunities for diagnosis of mental illnesses in offenders and give opportunities for therapies and treatment, allowing them to be taken to correctional facilities after they have recovered.

The most shocking issue in the film is how mentally ill inmates are denied parole due to their misconduct (Navasky & O’Conner, 2005). Instead, the government and criminal justice system should create and develop programs where these inmates can get mental help and efficiently reenter their communities.

The criminal justice system and mental health policymakers should increase access to treatment services in correctional facilities. Further, early identification and treatment of concurrent substance abuse disorders and mental illnesses can help deter incidences of criminality, which can reduce the number of people charged in courts while mentally unwell.

Correctional facilities are becoming the new asylums due to several reasons. First, mental illnesses are usually associated with criminality, which explains why most mentally ill people have encountered law enforcement officers leading to arrests and sentencing (Navasky & O’Conner, 2005). Secondly, mentally ill ex-offenders may discontinue their medication when released and fall back to criminal activities, which leads to them being taken back to prisons. Thus, the high number of mentally ill people in correctional facilities who instead could have been taken to mental facilities and provided with the necessary treatment.

Film Elements Sara Assignment

Overview:

For this final assignment you will examine the film elements of two different films.

Instructions:

Choose a pair of films to review from the options below. Compare and contrast your chosen pair examining the directors’ use of the film elements we have discussed: Narrative, Cinematography, Editing/Montage, Sound Design, Mise-en-Scene, Genre, and Director Style. In doing this analysis, we accept the basics of the critique – that everything is in the film on purpose to make a point or statement, or effect the viewer in some way; and that the film can say something about who the Director is.

· Cosmatos, G. P. (Director). (1993). Tombstone. United States of America: Hollywood Pictures. (2 hours, 9 minutes)

· Mann, A. (Director). (1950). Winchester ’73. United States of America: Universal – International. (1 hour, 32 minutes) OR

· Pakula, A. J. (Director). (1976). All the President’s Men. United States of America: Warner Bros. (2 hours, 18 minutes)

· Howard, R. (Director). (1994). The Paper. United States of America: Universal Studios. (1 hour, 51 minutes) **Below are some prompts to get you thinking. These are not questions to be answered in a 1,2,3 format like a quiz; but to get you thinking about how each film employs these elements to create the movie they make. • Narrative:

o Who are the Protagonist(s) and Antagonist(s)? o What is the central conflict? o Does the closing reflect a clear-cut pattern of development that relates

to the opening? o Do all narrative lines achieve closure?

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

o Is Narration used? Is subjective or objective. What purpose does it fulfill?

• Cinematography:

o How does the DP use light? Is it classically lit (3-Point), or moody and shadowy?

o Does the camera move, or is it stationary? o Depth of Field – Staging in Depth? o Camera angles and lenses? o How close does the camera get to the action?

· Editing/Montage: o Does the editing ever call attention to itself? o What rhythmic relations are created, if any? o Are the cuts on the action, the dialog? o Is parallel editing (cross-cutting) used?

· Sound Design: o How does diegetic sound help create the world beyond the frame? o Is there non-diegetic sound used? What is its role in the final product?

· Mise-en-Scene:

o Do the costumes separate the characters into groups? o How do costumes tell us more about the individual character? o Are the sets and settings heavily detailed or sparse and

impressionistic? o Are there any motifs you notice repeated through the film? o Do the settings, costumes, and staging help create curiosity, suspense

or surprise?

· Genre: o What is roughly the genre of the film? o What genre expectations are set up for the film? o Does the film support or subvert those expectations?

· The Directors: o Who are the directors? Are you familiar with any other of their films?

Copyright 2022 Post University, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

o How does each director utilize these elements to form their own particular film?

o If this film was indicative of their entire body of work, how would you describe their style?

Requirements:

· Read the assignment instructions and rubric carefully before beginning.

· Use full sentences and appropriate academic language in all work.

· Use APA citations and formatting and include a title and reference page.

· Length: 2-3 pages (not including title and reference pages).

E Business W8 Assignment

eBusiness – Week 8 Assignment

Case Study – Silvercar

Renting a car at the airport has, for many, become an unpleasant experience. After a long day (or night) of navigating airports and flight delays, the weary traveler must trudge or take a bus to a rental counter, wait in a line, and finally be greeted with a selection of choices: which type of car, what insurance options, prepaid fuel or refill on the way back to the airport, which navigation aids, and so on. Frequent travelers can make this process less burdensome by selecting choices in advance, but the likelihood that a chosen car model will be unavailable is still high.

Although car-sharing services, such as Zipcar, and chauffeur services, such as Lyft and Uber, have used Internet technologies as a key element from their beginnings, most car rental companies have made limited use of those technologies as an add-on to their core airport-based operations. In 2012, the launch of Silvercar airport rental cars was intended to change that. From its original operation in Austin, Silvercar had grown to 10 airport locations by 2015 with plans to add a new location every few months. Billing itself as the “first hassle-free car rental company,” Silvercar designed its workflow to minimize the time customers would spend dealing with the airport car rental experience.

Silvercar customers must download the company’s mobile app to their phones or tablet devices to make a reservation. The reservation includes insurance options, but there is no need to select a car type or option since all Silvercar vehicles are identically equipped Audi A4 sedans that are painted silver, of course. Once they arrive at the airport, customers receive a text that directs them to either pick up their car at the curb, delivered by a Silvercar employee, or to a nearby lot. The app includes a scan code that unlocks the car. The app reminds the customer when it is time to return the vehicle and provides directions through the app and on the car’s built-in GPS system. If the customer is unable to return the car with a full fuel tank, Silvercar will fill it at the prevailing local price plus a $5 refueling charge.

The company has established rental rates that are competitive in each location with other companies’ rates for midsize sedans. The rentals include additional drivers and roadside assistance. The equipment included with each car includes GPS, Wi-Fi, satellite radio, and a toll-tracking system that charges the customer automatically for the exact amount of tolls incurred (most rental car companies charge a daily rental fee for a toll transponder in addition to the toll amounts).

Your assignment this week is to assume you are the Customer Experience Manager at an established rental car company and have been asked to prepare a report to your Board of Directors that summarizes the competitive threats presented to your business by Silvercar’s and outline specific actions you believe your company can take to reduce those threats. Many rental car companies in the past have promoted their services by highlighting the helpfulness and friendliness of their employees, assess the role and importance of employee characteristics such as helpfulness in Silvercar’s business process design. In your report, include your recommendations of the website technologies that you think your company should offer to create an engaging, user-friendly, and efficient customer experience.

The following requirements must be met:

·  Write between 1,000 – 1,500 words using Microsoft Word in APA style.

·  Use an appropriate number of references to support your position, and defend your arguments. The following are examples of primary and secondary sources that may be used, and non-credible and opinion based sources that may not be used.

o  Primary sources such as government websites (United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Census Bureau, The World Bank), peer reviewed and scholarly journals in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library) and Google Scholar.

o  Secondary and credible sources such as CNN Money, The Wall Street Journal, trade journals, and publications in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library).

o  Non-credible and opinion based sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. should not be used.

·  Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased statements, information, etc.) in the paper and list each source on a reference page using APA style. APA resources and a template are provided in the Supplemental Materials folder.

Management Assignment

You have discovered information about Millennials, Gen X, and Baby Boomers in the workplace. You have considered the myths and stereotypes as well as the best approaches to communicating with these generations. 

Consider the generations that are part of your current organization. What generations are reflected in the employee make up? – GenX, Millenials, Baby Boomers. Need help in designing a mindmap visually communicating the following in a 4-6-page which is APA formatted:

  1. How each of these generations perceive work
  2. How your company can benefit from providing collaborative opportunities for these generations as they work together to solve problems within organizations
  3. The potential challenges that managers may likely encounter while working with each of these generations

E-Business W8 Discussion

Review & Reflection 

Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be a minimum of 300 words in length, and you should respond to two additional posts from your peers.

Review and reflect on what you learned in the past 8 weeks. What is the most practical and easily applied lesson you learned? What was the hardest to grasp? Why? What else do you need to know about E-Business?

Finance And Quality Improvement Week 6

MGT 410

Homework Set 3

Provide a short answer to each of the following questions.

1. Use a cause and effect diagram to develop a list of potential causes for each of the following:

a. Failure to earn an A on an examination.

b. You consistently arrive late for class or work.

c. You consistently slice when hitting a golf ball with your driver.

d. Your table lamp fails to light when you turn the switch on.

2. Prepare a flow chart for getting to work or school in the morning. Discuss areas for improvement revealed by the flow chart.

3. You have collected the following data from customer comment cards at your restaurant. Construct a Pareto diagram to show which of the problems should be investigated first. Show the cumulative frequency line on your diagram.

Comment Frequency

Dirty dishes 11

Dirty silverware 18

Inattentive service 98

Cold food 23

Wrong order 5

Overpriced 35

Long wait 4

4. Use the following data to construct a scatter diagram. Does there appear to be a relationship between hours of overtime and number of rejects? Discuss.

Hours of Overtime Number of Rejects

127 33

90 25

95 23

160 40

10 9

80 19

27 14

103 28

48 19

65 31

5. Your boss has asked you to evaluate the reject percentage for the past year on one of the production lines. Use the following data to construct a run chart. Does there appear to be a pattern in the change in reject rate over the year?

Month Reject %

January 3.7

February 3.3

March 3.1

April 3.5

May 3.3

June 2.7

July 3.0

August 2.3

September 2.5

October 2.2

November 1.6

December 1.7

Quality Management and Improvement

Module 6 Discussion

Explain the concept of the control chart and identify out-of-control signals on a control chart. Explain what would you do if you were a Quality Manager ?

Finance

Module 6 Discussion

Cash flow projections are a central component to the analysis of new investment ideas. In most firms, the person responsible for making these projections is not the same person who generated the investment idea in the first place. Why?    

E Business W7 Assignment

eBusiness – Week 7 Assignment

Case Study – Davis Humanics

Davis Humanics (DH) is a company founded in 1982 that provides human resources services to about 7000 companies with a total of nearly 100,000 employees. These services include payroll processing, tax filing, health insurance and claims management, and retirement plan management. DH has annual sales of $2 billion and about 1000 employees. In 1997, DH launched a Web site that has since grown to include a variety of tools for connecting with customers. DH has expanded rapidly and has clients of all sizes, ranging from smaller companies with fewer than 50 employees to Fortune 500 companies.

As DH grows, it is having trouble maintaining a consistent quality of service. Account managers each must handle more clients, making it more difficult for them to maintain personal contact with the human resources executives who control DH’s contracts. In the past, account managers worked with a small set of client contact people, but now account managers must work with more people, many of whom they have never met. Further, a number of different client employees have regular contacts with DH operations staff (who handle input tasks), DH systems staff (who help customize the interfaces between DH systems and client systems), and DH professional staff (lawyers, actuaries, and human resources professionals who consult with DH clients and their legal counsel regarding the operation of their retirement and benefits plans).

Because DH’s clients vary so much in size and how they operate, DH has to be flexible in handling input data. For example, DH’s payroll-processing service allows clients many different ways to send in time card data. The largest clients arrange for customized computer-to-computer transfer of information. Some large clients use EDI transfers. Most medium and smaller-sized clients e-mail the time card information, but some mail paper lists that DH must scan into its systems. The health insurance claims-handling operation is even more troublesome. In addition to having clients submit information in various formats, the insurance companies demand that DH submit information in specific formats that are different for each insurance company.

The complexity of DH’s operations is growing as rapidly as the company adds new clients. Sandi Higbee, DH’s Director of Operations, asks for your help in outlining a Web-based customer relationship management (CRM) system that will help manage the account managers’ ever-increasing levels of customer contact (recall that you learned about CRM systems in Chapter 9). Sandi reviewed the products offered by several leading CRM vendors and believes that one might work as a base product, but no matter which product is chosen, she believes that substantial customization will be necessary because DH’s operations are so complex and different from most companies that sell products or simple services to customers. A good CRM system for DH would need to monitor all types of customer interactions with DH account managers, operations staff, systems staff, and professional staff. In addition, the system’s Web interface should allow DH clients to access parts of the CRM system so they can track DH’s follow-up on their work requests and pending inquiries.

DH evaluates all capital projects, including IT projects, using ROI. Sandi is worried about this because she believes that many of the benefits of this CRM project will be hard to quantify. On the other hand, the costs of the CRM project (software and hardware purchase and cost of consultants who will customize the CRM software to meet DH’s specific needs) will be very easy to quantify and will be large. Sandi expects the vendor-consultant teams to submit bids of between $1 million and $2 million for this project.

This week assignment is to prepare a report to DH Board of Directors that outlines of the benefits that DH might expect to obtain from this CRM project. Use categories to organize your list of benefits; for example, you might identify benefits that will accrue to DH’s account managers, operations staff, IT staff, and professional staff. Because DH’s clients will also benefit, you might be able to identify benefits that will accrue to DH’s Marketing and Sales departments or to DH’s New Product Development department. Be sure to include any long-term benefits that you think might occur after the CRM system has been in place for several years. In your report, include some of your dialog that argues against using ROI as the primary method for evaluating this project. Keep in mind that the Directors have little time to review your arguments and are very much inclined to use ROI for all project evaluations.

The following requirements must be met:

·  Write between 1,000 – 1,500 words using Microsoft Word in APA style.

·  Use an appropriate number of references to support your position, and defend your arguments. The following are examples of primary and secondary sources that may be used, and non-credible and opinion based sources that may not be used.

o  Primary sources such as government websites (United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Census Bureau, The World Bank), peer reviewed and scholarly journals in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library) and Google Scholar.

o  Secondary and credible sources such as CNN Money, The Wall Street Journal, trade journals, and publications in EBSCOhost (Grantham University Online Library).

o  Non-credible and opinion based sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. should not be used.

·  Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased statements, information, etc.) in the paper and list each source on a reference page using APA style. APA resources, including a template, are provided in the Supplemental Materials folder.

Article Critique 3

Instructions

You will need to select a peer-reviewed, empirical article that uses a quantitative methodology and is related to your proposed topic. Instructions for completion are included in the file above.

Topic: Abortion

DO NOT ERASE – LEAVE AT TOP OF PAGE

Article Critique Assignment

Please download this sheet page or copy and paste this entire page into a MS word document. Once in Word, write your answers to the questions IN THAT DOCUMENT-you can take up as much space answering as you’d like. Be thorough, so your instructor knows that you understand it, but do not use phrases or paragraphs from the study. USE ONLY YOUR WORDS – paraphrase everything, and try to keep it short (do not rewrite the entire article).

To provide me with context, please copy and paste the abstract for your chosen article into this word document. In addition, include the APA-style reference below and then upload this single document ( including Abstract, Reference, and Responses to the questions) to the drop box with your name in the title of the file. Please pay close attention to what you are being asked to address in your critique.

Due Date:

This assignment is due on or before Sunday 11:59PM ET.

Helpful Hints:

Select an article you are comfortable with and understand well to complete this assignment.

Copy and Pasted Abstract here:

APA-Style reference here:

Response to the Questions:

1. What the author said:

  a. What is the central question addressed by the article? What is the study’s hypothesis?

b. Briefly (but thoroughly) outline the procedures the author used to test the hypothesis. Also pay attention to the sample.

 c. Using your own words, succinctly summarize the major findings of the study.

d. What major conclusions does the author draw from these findings?

2. Integration and evaluation

a. Assessment: Do you think the author’s conclusions are valid (both internally and externally), reliable and reasonable? Provide an explanation. How do these conclusions relate to the methods used to test the hypothesis? Specifically, address the following:

· external validity (the extent to which a study’s findings can generalize to other populations and settings);

· internal validity (the ability of a study to rule out alternative explanations and support a causal claim);

· construct validity (the quality of the study’s measures and manipulations); and

· statistical validity (the appropriateness of the study’s conclusions based on statistical analyses).

To evaluate any study you read, ask questions in these four categories:

· “Can we generalize?” (External);

· “Was it an experiment? If so, was it a good one?” (Internal);

· “How well did they operationalize that variable?” (Construct); and

· “Did they have enough people to detect an effect? How big was the effect? Is it significant?” (Statistical).

b. Integration: How does this research article fit into your research project? Does it support your project hypothesis? Does it support other literature you are reviewing?

c. What Questions Remain? Are there important issue this article does not address or resolve? How do these issues relate to your research project? Be specific.

E Business W7Discussion

Project Management

Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be a minimum of 300 words in length, and you should respond to two additional posts from your peers.  

Explain why IT projects (such as Web site development or redesign) are less likely to be delivered on time and within budget than large building construction projects. Include a discussion of how project management software can help IT project managers achieve their goals.

CHAPTER 12 MANAGINGELECTRONIC COMMERCE IMPLEMENTATIONS

Summary

This chapter provides an overview of managing electronic commerce implementations. The first step is setting overall goals for the implementation. More specific objectives derive from these overall goals and include planned benefits and planned costs. The benefit and cost objectives should be stated in measurable terms, such as dollars or quantities, and they should be linked to the organization’s business strategies. Before undertaking any online business initiative, companies should evaluate the initiative’s estimated costs and benefits. Some costs, such as opportunity costs, can be difficult to identify and estimate. Funding for online business implementations can come from internal sources in midsize or large firms. Small new businesses can be funded from personal savings or loans and investments made by family and friends. As the startup increases in size, it can turn to angel investors and, eventually, venture capitalists before turning to a public offering of its stock. The most common evaluation technique for online business initiatives is ROI. The benefits of electronic commerce projects can be harder to define and quantify in monetary units than the benefits expected from most other IT projects, so managers should be careful when using quantitative measures such as ROI to evaluate electronic commerce projects. Companies must decide how much, if any, of an electronic commerce project to outsource. Forming an internal team that includes knowledgeable individuals from within the company is a good first step in developing an outsourcing strategy. The internal team develops the specific project objectives and is responsible for meeting those objectives. The internal team can select from specific strategies, such as using incubators or outsourcing various parts of the project, and should supervise the staffing of any part of the project that is to be developed internally. Project management is a formal way to plan and control specific tasks and resources used in a project. It provides project managers with a tool they can use to make informed trade-offs among the project elements of schedule, cost, and performance. Large organizations are beginning to use project portfolio management techniques to track and make trade-offs among multiple ongoing projects. Electronic commerce initiatives are usually completed within a short time frame and thus are less likely to run out of control than other information systems development projects. The company must staff the electronic commerce implementation regardless of whether portions of the project are outsourced. Critical staffing areas include business management, application specialists, customer service staff, systems administration, network operations staff, social network marketing staff, and database administration. A good way for all participants to learn from project experiences is to conduct a postimplementation audit that compares project objectives to the actual results.

Cultural Identity

6 Pages answering each of the following six questions. One page each with in-text citations and references. Please see the instruction in the separate attachment for assignment details. This assignment builds on the previous assignment.

Week 1 – 2 pages (see attached assessment I took to help you with this assignment)

· Which identities do you identify with that are considered part of the dominant/more privileged groups in the society you live in?

· Which identities do you identify with that are considered part of the non-dominant/more marginalized groups in the society you live in?

Week 2- 2 pages

· Provide the racial and/or ethnic cultural identity development model(s) you applied to yourself.

· Explain each stage and provide an example of your own developmental involvement in at least two of the stages you have experienced.

· Explain insights you have gained about your own racial and/or ethnic identity by applying the model to yourself. 

Week 3 2-pages

· Explain each stage, and provide examples of your own developmental involvement in at least two of the stages you have experienced.

· Explain insights you have gained about your own cultural identity by applying the model to yourself.

Unit III Discussion Board

Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy paste. Please watch out for spelling errors and grammar errors. Please use the APA 7 edition format. Please read the study guide.

Book Reference: Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331

Share your final chosen statement of the business problem. What is your intended method and design, and how can you justify their appropriateness for your study? When responding to another student’s post, discuss how they might justify their method and design that they may not have considered.

Structure And Function Of Fallacies

write a 200-300 word response (no more than one page) 


This assignment asks you to find an example of a fallacious argument online, but it doesn’t really specify what sort of websites you should choose. What’s important for this assignment is that you find an example of a fallacy and explain why the argument commits that fallacy. you need to provide a citation for whatever cite you use to get examples of arguments with fallacies. Consider the following question:

  • ​​Why do you believe the fallacies on the websites you chose to visit and explore are bad arguments?

Shared Responsibility

According to the AWS Shared Responsibility Model, you are responsible for the security and reliability of any data or applications you run on the AWS infrastructure.

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: 

Two assignments 3 pages in total

Virginia woolf, OrlandoToni Morris, Beloved And Anzaldua, borderlands
Assignment number 1:  1 pageSoundtrack Assignment

Karl Paulnack, renowned pianist and director of the Music Division of the Boston Conservatory, explains music’s enduring power: “music is one of the ways we make sense of our lives, one of the ways in which we express feelings when we have no words, a way for us to understand things with our hearts when we can’t with our minds.”
Under this premise, the Soundtrack Assignment challenges you to use music to make sense of a literary text. Consider the emotional, literary, and thematic registers of your selected text—and find music that corresponds appropriately. You will share your playlist with the class to help them see the text in a new way. While this might seem like an easy assignment on the surface, to do well, you must think critically and write well.
Across the pond and over a century ago, nineteen-year-old Virginia Woolf wrote in her journal: “the only thing in this world is music—music and books and one or two pictures.” Perhaps she was being dramatic (she was nineteen after all), but she was brilliant, so we’ll use her catalog to structure our assignment. Here are the three components:

Music: Select 5-7 songs that capture some aspect of your selected novel. Book: Write a justification of 100-200 words for each song explaining when the song would play and why it is appropriate to your selected novel. These explanations should make connections between specific scenes and the novel’s larger themes. Be eloquent and insightful.One or two pictures: create an album cover to represent your soundtrack. Your album art can take many forms—a photograph, drawing, or graphic design—but it should be original (not simply an image from the internet—although “fair use (Links to an external site.)” transformations of other work are acceptable). Write a 100-200-word explication of your album cover.
Assignment number 2 : 2 pagesThe paper will take the form of a blog entry. You will transform the topic of your presentation into a two-page Substack blog entry.
Your imagined audience is a diverse one, so you will want to craft an introduction that makes sense to people who might be unfamiliar with the texts we have read during the semester. For example: https://newborderlands.substack.com/p/gloria-anzaldua-breaking-boundaries?s=w (Links to an external site.)
A blog format does not mean that you should be less rigorous about your writing, in some ways, quite the contrary. The content will be published and you can share it with friends and family, so you will want it to be original, reader-friendly, and impeccably written.
The topic of my presentation is a summary of what Toni Morrison herself had to say about the film (find that in the link below), combined with a couple of your own observations (you can watch the entire film on Amazon Prime, or you can base your observations just on the first half of the filmhttp://websites.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/kauwers%20and%20smlyman/interview3.html

Sage : Reverse A Vendor Payment

This article portrays the distinctions between switching, erasing, voiding, and dismissing an installment. Furthermore, it makes sense of the two strategies for switching a seller check.

Every so often, after a seller installment has been posted, the installment should be switched. Inversion varies from erasing, voiding, or dismissing an installment. You can erase an installment provided that its status is Created. This status shows that the installment has been made however hasn’t yet been produced. This impediment generally applies, no matter what the strategy for installment. You can void unposted checks after they have been produced however before they have been posted. On the off chance that the produced installment is finished as an electronic asset move (EFT), you can dismiss the installment before it’s posted. To dismiss an installment, change the Payment status esteem. An installment that has been voided or dismissed can be recovered after the Payment status esteem is changed back to None.

Tip-: sage error 1605

After an installment is posted, inversions are utilized. Installments that are made electronically can’t be turned around after they have been posted. All things considered, another exchange should be made for how much the installment to get the obligation back for the seller. There are two techniques for turning around posted checks. In one technique, inversions are posted promptly when you click Payment inversion on the Check page. In the other technique, when you click Payment inversion on the Check page, the inversion is shipped off the really look at inversion diary in Cash and bank the board, where a commentator can then post or reject the inversion.

To realize which technique your association utilizes, view the Cash and bank the executives boundaries page. In the event that the Use survey process for installment inversions choice is set to Yes, inversions are shipped off the actually look at inversion diary for audit.

Turn around posted checks without inspecting them

If your association has any desire to post check inversions quickly when you click Payment inversion on the Checks page. On the Cash and bank the board boundaries page, set the Use survey process for installment inversions choice to No. On the Checks page, you can choose the check to switch and choose Payment inversion. You can then enter the date, and select a justification behind the inversion.

Read More-: sage fixed assets web chat

Switch posted checks after they are surveyed in the actually look at inversion diary

To survey check inversions before they are posted, make a check inversion diary for survey and on the Cash and bank the board boundaries page, set the Use survey process for installment inversions choice to Yes. On the Checks page, you can choose check to turn around, select Payment inversion. You can then enter the date, and select a justification behind the inversion. The monetary explanation should be set up for both Bank and Vendor types. You should likewise choose a diary name to make a diary in the really look at inversion diary.

Survey an inversion

On the off chance that you’re a client who should survey inversions, You can either support and post the diary, or reject the inversion by erasing the diary. On the Check inversions diary page, you can choose the inversion diary to survey, and afterward click Lines. You can survey the switched check, and afterward select one of the accompanying endorsement choices:

· To support and post the inversion diary, click Post or Post and move.

· To dismiss the inversion, erase the inversion actually look at diary.

· Consequences of posting an inversion

· At the point when you post a check inversion, the accompanying occasions happen:

· The check status is refreshed to Cancellation.

· Assuming that the Reconcile choice was chosen on the inversion page during the inversion, the check is accommodated (the Reconciled choice is chosen) and doesn’t show up on the Account compromise page.

· The inversion voucher is posted against the ledger that the check was given from, to build the financial balance.

· The voucher is presented on General record.

· The adjustment subtleties are refreshed in the History field bunch on the Check page.

· The first installment from the receipt that the installment was settled against is unapplied (the settlement is turned around).

An exchange is posted against the seller represent the installment inversion, and the switched installment is settled against the first installment. The Last settlement voucher field on the Vendor exchanges page for the first seller payment is refreshed to mirror the voucher number of the switched exchange.

On the off chance that the check that was switched was given for a client discount, the accompanying occasions likewise happen:

· An exchange is posted against the client represent the installment inversion, and the settlement between the first installment and the report that the installment was initially settled against is switched (a negative installment is made).

· An installment inversion is applied to the first installment. The Last settlement voucher field on the Customer exchanges page for the first client installment is refreshed to mirror the voucher number of the turned around exchange.

Read Also-: Restore Sage 50 Backup

Homework

Assignment 1

Continuing with the Team Learning template you started on Day 1:

Write your original ONE big idea you get from each unit resource in a minimum of half a page for EACH idea. 

Then complete the Sensemaking and Visioning sections of the Leadership Tools in a minimum of three-sentences for each just before the Conclusion.

Continue with the provided compendium template you started with on Day 1, ensuring the following:

1)  Properly formatted APA 7 in-text citation with brackets for each of the TWO Day 11 resources.

2)  Alphabetically ordered complete References listings.

Resource

· Keathley, J. (2004). Mark #15: A team player. https://bible.org/seriespage/mark-15-team-playerURL

· Ancona, D., Malone, W., Orlikowski, J., & Senge, P. (2007). In praise of the incomplete leader. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 92-100. File

Race And Ethnicity 5.2

 Explain, in detail, using two sociological theories listed below, the crimmigration system at our southern border.  Sociological theories: Functionalism, Conflict, Symbolic Interactionism, Feminist, Intersectionality, or Critical Race Theory.  

Race And Ethnicity 5.1

 In thinking about the readings and videos presented in the unit, why do you think Latinos/Hispanics became and still remain targets of racists?  Please research and discuss three (3) reasons in detail and include in your discussion the role of white supremacy.  

Race And Ethnicity 5.1

 In thinking about the readings and videos presented in the unit, why do you think Latinos/Hispanics became and still remain targets of racists?  Please research and discuss three (3) reasons in detail and include in your discussion the role of white supremacy.  

Finish The Homework

Reflection Papers

For this assignment, you will write a reflection paper on each of Northouse’s Chapters discussed in this course (Chapters 8 to 16). There are nine reflections papers in total and each reflection paper is due the night before the following class at 11:55 p.m. There are individual Dropboxes set up for each assignment.

What is a Reflection Paper?

A reflection is not a regurgitation of what your instructor said or what was written in your textbook. It is a record of your reaction to the particular topic. “A reflection paper is typically more formal than a journal entry because of its academic tone, but it’s less formal than a report because it expresses one’s personal thoughts” (Indeed Editorial Team, 2021). You are expected to reflect and look back on what your instructor taught in class with thought:

· What did you learn?

· What are the essential points to you in this chapter?

· Did it trigger a past event that you can relate to?

· How will you apply this to your leadership practice (life at home, life at work, life in your community)?

· Where do you think the strengths and weaknesses are?

· How does that relate to the culture you came from? How will you apply it to your culture?

· Think of other cultures that are different from yours?

Please do not just answer the questions. You are expected to add your reflection, thoughts, and opinions on the subject.

Assignment Guidelines

· Minimum 1 page, double-spaced.

· Must be APA7.

· Make sure to use correct APA in-text citations for paraphrased ideas and quoted text.

Due date

· Each reflection paper is due the evening before the following class at 11:55 p.m. Please upload to the appropriate Dropbox under Assignment] [Dropbox] in Moodle.

https://ozzz.org/how-to-write-a-reflective-paper/ Retrieved on 22-Sep-2019

How to Write a Reflective Paper

To start with the definition of a reflective paper, it is an essay in which you show your experience and impressions about how some events, books, people, classes and any other things influence your personality. It is a completely personal and subjective type of writing, and, on the one hand, doesn’t include any type of research quite often, but, on the other one, it should be written in a proper academic tone.

Such papers are often used by tutors to communicate and find out more information about their students. Someone may think that this task is not complicated, but you should understand that reflective paper has its specifics.

Main Points You Must Always Remember About Reflective Papers

1. Write clearly and concisely. Despite being a subjective piece of writing, the logic of presentation should be met; otherwise, it will be pretty hard to understand ideas you want to share.

2. Think of the main themes. First of all, try to gather your thoughts together in one-two sentences; it will be the key point of your writing. After that you have to decide why these thoughts come to your mind, if there are some special moments or association, write down them. For example, you can note some visual and auditory associations, write out quotes from books or articles that impressed you the most. A good practice to organize your impressions and associations is to draw schemes and tables.

3. Ask questions to get more details. You are writing about your own experience, for that reason you have to focus on those questions which had arisen in your mind when you perceived new information. You should reflect on your personality. If you aim to write about some book, ask yourself what episode you like the most, what problems are the main ones, what important social, emotional, cultural issues are raised. The number of such questions may be extremely long.

4. Create a reflective essay outline. It is an extremely significant thing for such papers, as it helps to create a map of the paper, determine essential ideas and make the process of writing much easier. Using the outline, you won’t forget to include some element in the text, because you see the order of paragraphs in front of you.

5. Write briefly. Usually, the number of words in the paper varies between 300 and 700, but your instructor can change it. If it happens, you have to meet his or her requirements. Pay attention to this point before you start writing.

6. Write the text. The structure of the reflective paper is similar to other essays. It starts with an introduction. Students talk about their expectations at the very beginning before you read book/journal, listened to the lection or had any other experience. Choose appropriate words to make readers interested in the whole text. At the end of the introduction, you have to write a thesis statement. The following part is body, in which you share emotions and feelings that you had after watching, reading, listening and so on. Pay attention to the brightest details and create one paragraph for each idea. In your conclusion, the final part of the paper, you give brief information about the points told in the body.

7. Good academic tone and proper sharing of the information. Forget about slang and abbreviations, be attentive with spelling and grammar, because you write the academic paper, not a personal diary, even if you can use the pronoun “I.” In the reflective papers you include the information about yourself, and it is preferable to avoid names of people, who played unpleasant role in your experience.

Reflection paper Paper

Yu Liang

Student ID : 628399 Comment by S L: Why is there a space here?

Trinity Western University

LDRS 303 I3 – Contemporary Leadership Approaches

Steven Stephen Liang

May 21, 2022

You made a few mistakes here. I think it is carelessness and not paying attention to details.

Comment by S L: Why is there so much space at the top?

Chapter 12

After reading Chapter 12, I learned that followership are is a very critical element part of leadership. The process of guiding requires the process of following. Followers and leaders build leadership relationships together (Lapierre & Carsten, 2014). The word “follow” has different meanings. For example, when soldiers obey their leaders, followers in the military are viewed positively. On the other hand, when an individual follows a cult leader, the follower is viewed negatively. It is clear from these illustrations that followers can be either negative or positive. Comment by S L: Good. Comment by S L: Your citations and references should be within five years. In addition to that, I would much prefer you use the textbook instead of some external sources. Comment by S L: No additional spaces in between paragraphs.

An important point for me in this chapter is that followership have moral significance. This means that followers are not morally neutral. Like leaders, followers have a responsibility to consider the right and wrong of their actions. Leaders and followers work together to achieve common goals and objectives, and both have a moral obligation to those goals and objectives (Lapierre & Carsten, 2014). This reminds me of the year 2020, when I volunteered at a local restaurant in North Vancouver as a front desk volunteer. I played the role of a follower to lead my boss’s company to run the restaurant. I think both leaders and followers work together for the good of the community. This relationship is built on respect, openness and trust. Comment by S L: There is a difference between followers and followership. Followers are the people. Followership is their actions or behaviors. Comment by S L: This sentence is not clear.

I will build a following in my leadership practice. I think at home we should help our families. When we are in the company, we should help our teams at work.

The concept of followers has to do with the culture. I think leaders must be transparent and open to build followers. The concept of followers can also be rooted in other cultures, such as those that support change. Effective followers can engage and adapt to change and serve the various needs of the organization.

References Comment by S L: You only have one reference. Then why is this plural?

Lapierre, L. M., & Carsten, R. K. (2014). Followership: What is it and why do people follow? Comment by S L: This is not APA 7. Should be in italics.

Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. Comment by S L: This is not APA 7.

Prisoner Right 5.2

In the 1990s an inmate that was HIV-positive had it noted in their medical file. By court order, these notes had to be removed to protect the inmates’ rights. If a correctional staff member had a potential exposure they would not know if the inmate was HIV-positive or not. Should the staff member have a right to know this to protect their safety or not? Please explain your position and reasoning on this. 

Prisoner Right 5.1

The prison system can transfer an inmate at any time they want. With this said, how can an inmate have a fair disciplinary trial/hearing if they cannot call witnesses if they are in a different prison? How do you suggest that this issue is handled? Be specific with solutions. 

Financial Management Class

5. Current Financial Issues
Industry.
a.) List and discuss the current financial issues facing the firm
b.) Factors That Drive Competition in the Industry

Company: Edison International, Inc.

4. Historical Performance. Inte1nal and external reasons for the changes in the yearly data

for a total of 3 years back (2019, 2018, 2017), are identified and discussed

using two graphs that are put together by the team, and NOT from the Internet; one graph

for revenue and another graph for market share. Each of the graphs should have a 5-year

data, and the discussions paired, such as 2017-2018, 2018-2019

under a subtitle to be called, “Analysis” at the bottom of each graph. 30 to 50 points.

5. Current Financial Issues Facing the Firm and Factors that Drive Competition in the

Industry.

a.) Current Financial Issues Facing the Firm: List and discuss the current financial issues

facing the firm, including an analysis of the financial data as stated. Financial information

from the two most recent quarterly reports of the firm are stated with a discussion of the

implications on the firm. 10 to 30 points for subsections A and B.

b.) Factors That Drive Competition in the Industry: List and discuss a minimum of six

factors that drive competition in the industry including the implications of EACH FACTOR

on the assigned firm.

5 Discussions

Q.1 Organizational Development: Impact on Personal and Professional Improvement

For additional background and context on the following questions, read and review Reading 9.1 in the text Strategic Organizational Development Interventions: A Case of Microsoft Corp. Limited(200 Words) needs to answer followings 4 questions.

(Book: Mello, J. (2021). Strategic Human Resource Management (5th ed). Cengage Publishing.1

· What is organizational development?

· How does it compare to personal and professional development?

· What is the significance of strategic planning and development on organizational development, training, and education?

· Almost everyone has participated to one degree or another in some form of training and development. Include some of your own experiences in your responses.

Q.2 Reply foe these discussions (ward) (100 words)

From the chapter reading,  it appears that organizational development is the process of increasing an organization’s capacity to fulfil its mission through the enhancement of its human resources (Mello, 2021).  Organizational development appears to differ from personal or professional development because organizational development seeks to improve the organization in a structured, homogeneous way to meet specific strategic goals (Mello, 2021).  Personal, or professional development appears to imply more choice for the individual than organizational development. However, it appears that organizational development often influences personal development. It appears that in organizational development, employees engage in personal improvement experiences that meet overall organizational goals (Mello, 2021). This is in contrast to purely personal development in which employees pursue experiences that meet their career or personal goals without necessarily bearing directly on the firm’s broad, strategic direction. 

I will be frank, I wasn’t very impressed with the 9.1 reading for a number of reasons.  First, it was riddled with grammatical errors and run-on sentences. I am surprised the publisher allowed so many grammatical errors to make it into the final publication.  Second, it reads more like a case of strategy through mergers and acquisitions rather than a human resources-focused approach to organizational development.  The core of the article is speculation about Microsoft’s strategic motives for acquiring LinkedIn. I would have expected a focused case of pure organizational development from a human resources perspective. Only at the end of the reading do the authors finally  get to how a merger or acquisition can develop an organization. They indicate that it’s through the acquisition of talent. However, it’s not even clear  what talent Microsoft was trying to acquire and how it supported any of the authors’ speculated goals the merger/acquisition of LinkedIn supported.

I also believe the article didn’t really address the general categories of organizational development found in the body of the chapter reading either. In that respect, it wasn’t as good as the vignettes highlighting organizational development in the text.  For example, the chapter addressed organizational development initiatives that go far beyond mergers and acquisitions.  These included initiatives involving knowledge transfer and retention, training programs supported by individual performance review and compensation systems, corporate universities, and means by which employees can pursue degrees at the workplace.

Reference

Mello, J. (2021). Strategic Human Resource Management (5th ed). Cengage Publishing.1

Q.3 Write reply for this discussion (100 words)

 I have gathered that organizational development is a systematic, organization-wide, and top-down endeavor to help an organization’s objective functions and health.  It involves a thorough assessment of the company, the creation of a strategic improvement plan, and the mobilization of resources to carry out the initiative. A comprehensive organization transformation, such as a change in culture, reward systems, or overall managerial strategy, is linked to an organization-development endeavor. There may be strategic attempts that work with specific areas of the organization, but the “system” that needs to be altered is the entire organization (Mello, 2019).

     Professional development refers to the resources that the employer would supply to employees in order for them to gain or improve their abilities. The employer would sponsor the training program in order to boost employee efficiency and develop company ideas by expanding their skills and expertise. This is different than personal development, which is knowledge-based qualifications that are not tied to the job specifically (Fuller et al., 2004). Outside-of-work courses are particularly beneficial to personal growth, but the experiences may not be relevant to or connected to, their occupations or organizational development in general.

     The significance of strategic planning and development on organizational development, training, and education is fairly apparent in that these categories can be aligned strategically to bolster the organization’s goals with the employees’ increased knowledge in certain trainable areas. Strategic planning is critical to an organization’s success because it gives it a sense of direction and establishes measurable objectives. Strategic planning is a technique that may be used to guide day-to-day decisions as well as to evaluate progress and change strategies as you move forward (Sophia et al. 2015).

     I am participating in this class specifically for personal reasons, however, my commitment to my employer is such that I made sure to align my activity outside of work with what I know will be beneficial to any strategic path my employer may decide to take. Therefore the professional development I am obtaining compliments the company’s goals as well.

References

Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2004). Expansive learning environments: integrating organizational and personal development. Workplace learning in context, 126-144.

Mello, J. (2019). Strategic Human Resource Management (5th ed). Cengage Publishing.

Sophia, O. M., & Owuor, D. (2015). Effects of strategic planning on organizational growth. (A case study of Kenya medical research institute, Kemri). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications5(9), 1-15

Q.4 Q.3 Write reply for this discussion (Ares) (100 words)

According to Mello (2019), “Organizational Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations.” (Section, 9-1). This is a simplified explanation of what OD is. However, if you dig a little deeper, you may discover that both employees’ and customers’ expectations have changed. For example, employees expect more than just a paycheck (i.e., challenges, recognition, meaningful professional relationships, etc.). When it comes to customer expectations, they no longer just expect competitive pricing, but also constant improvements in the quality of the products and/or services they purchase. (Mello, 2019). It could be argued that whether an organization is able to deliver on all of these demands, will greatly depend on how effective the organization is able to use OD to continually plan and implement new processes to meet an ever-changing business environment.  

     According to Mello (2019), “While training and development focuses on the micro-aspects of organizational needs and responsiveness, OD focuses on the macro or organization-wide perspective of performance and responsiveness.” (Section 9-6). In other words, an organization’s professional development efforts aim to improve the work skills and knowledge of individuals and groups (focus is internal), while OD focuses on the whole organization and how to improve the organization’s processes to deal with external challenges in their business environment, so the organization is able to remain profitable. On the other hand, an individual’s personal development may or may not align with the OD and/or professional development goals within an organization. However, it could be argued that some employees’ base their personal development goals around what they perceive could be beneficial for them in their professional career.      

     Mello (2019) wrote the following: “Training and development of employees is a key strategic issue for organizations: It is the means by which organizations determine the extent to which their human assets are viable investments.” (Section, 9-8). Organizations that invest in the training and education of their employees do not do it simply out of the kindness of their heart, but because strategically they see a benefit to the organization’s ability to improve organizational outcomes, by also strategically planning OD interventions at the right time and on the targeted organizational processes they want to improve within the organization to ensure they are able to remain competitive.  

     While serving in the U.S. military, I was constantly involved in some type of training and development activities. For example, I was re-assigned to be a U. S. Army Instructor to teach a leadership course for junior noncommissioned officers. Within a week of reporting to my new duty station, I was sent to school for 4-weeks to attend the two (2) instructor training course that I was required to complete to get certified as an instructor before I was authorized to teach the leadership course at my new duty station. I also participated in other types of military training and development focused on improving job skills and knowledge which were directly related to my military occupation.

REFERENCES

Mello, J. (2019). Strategic human resource management. (5th ed.). Cengage Publishing.

Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

DDP has been criticised for the lack of a comprehensive manual or full case studies to provide details of the process. In addition, although non-verbal communication, communicative mismatch and repair, playful interactions and the relationship between the parents attachment status and that of a toddler are all well documented and important for early healthy emotional development, Hughes and Becker-Weidman are described as making “a real logical jump” in assuming that the same events can be deliberately recapitulated in order to correct the emotional condition of an older child.

Based on the readings in this unit, do you share the same criticism? Provide rationale for your answer. 

Unit 4 Introduction Topic

For this assignment, you are expected to submit your introduction and the background information on the controversy surrounding the topic you have chosen for your Written Assignment. Please be sure to address all views on the topic and how it would relate to your work in the human services field. The assignment should be at least 3-5 pages in length and include in-text citations and a full reference list.

RR5

READ

First read

Elin Kelsey, “Hope Matters”

Read the following chapters:

· 3. Hope is Contagious

· 6. We Are Not the Only Ones Actively Responding

· 8. Trending Hopeful

Second read

Atkinson, Facing It: episodes 1 and 5 (Links to an external site.) (“Facing Down Climate Grief” and “Is Hope Overrated?) 15 min each

https://www.drjenniferatkinson.com/facing-it

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS*

* you are NOT required to submit responses to these questions, but you SHOULD take notes for yourself and be able to answer these after completing each reading. You will use your notes and insights from these questions to develop your  Reading Responses (due every 2 weeks in the quarter), so it’s important to take notes as you work through the readings. 

First read

Please continue taking notes of the most compelling points as you read (whatever speaks more powerfully to you), including the page number and the quote. Today you will crowdsource insights from the book, so be ready to share/contribute your top takeaways from the material (i.e. TAKE NOTES as you read!)

Second read

Based on the podcast episodes from “Facing It,” what are the impacts of grief and despair in the age of climate crisis? Alternatively, what are some different ways people define and understand hope? What is *your* understanding of hope?

Students will write a response to the assigned readings, films and other course materials covered since the last reading response. This is a place for you to record your thoughts about what we’re learning, and further develop the methods of philosophical analysis we will practice in class.  Assessment will be based on evidence that you have remained engaged in class and used each entry to develop your critical thinking, philosophic and ethical perspectives, and understanding of the issues and debates.

INSTRUCTIONS

Review the materials assigned since your last submission (2 weeks ago) and write a ~650 word response (longer entries are OK) that touches on the most important ideas/points from *EACH* day. High-scoring responses will integrate concepts from most or ALL assigned materials (although there may be some occasional discussions where you don’t incorporate the smaller/secondary readings or media if you already thoroughly covered the concepts in analyzing the primary/first reading from that day). At a minimum you must address the “main” reading or video (the first one listed in the module) for each day. And to earn an especially high score, you should also touch on the smaller/secondary pieces on the list for that day as well.

What do I write about?

Reading responses should record your thoughts and interpretations about what we’re reading, and further develop the methods of *PHILOSOPHIC* and *ETHICAL* analysis we’re practicing in class. What you choose to focus on is ultimately up to you, but it should be based on the assigned material, and ideally trace connections (or contrasts) between those materials. Please go beyond just summarizing the readings to really dig into the implications and philosophic dimensions of the issue. Assessment will be based on evidence that you have remained engaged in class and used each entry to develop your critical thinking, philosophic and ethical perspectives, and understanding of the issues and debates.  

Before writing your entry, you can consult the reading comprehension questions (on the daily Canvas modules); however, while these may be helpful to take into consideration, the idea is *NOT* to just answer a list of Canvas questions verbatim, but rather expand on the issues you find interesting, trace connections, and share your unique perspective on them. Also keep in mind that strong philosophic writing often does NOT reduce an issue down to simpler terms, but rather expands on its complexity and ambiguity, revealing additional perspectives, philosophical insights, and possibilities within that work. Responses that engage complexity and nuance in these debates will generally earn a higher score.

REQUIREMENTS  (grades will be based on these elements)

· Length: ~650 words (longer entries are OK too!)

· Include materials covered in the last 2 weeks. Choose as least the “primary” reading (the first one listed in the module) for EACH day. This means there will be a minimum of 4 items included if we’ve had 4 full class modules since your last submission. High-scoring responses will integrate concepts from most or ALL assigned materials (although there may be some occasional discussions where you don’t incorporate the smaller/secondary readings or media if you already thoroughly covered the concepts in analyzing the primary/”main” reading from that day). 

· Take a philosophic or ethical approach to analyzing the material, rather than just summarizing it or focusing on scientific/technical aspects. Remember this is a class on ETHICS, so you should think and write like a philosopher!

· Try to trace connections (or contrasts) between the different materials, rather than discussing different issues for each reading/film featured in your essay.

· Posts should give specific evidence that you completed and understood the week’s assigned materials. This means directly responding to details from the reading (or podcast or film) so I know you completed it. Entries that do not specifically refer to points, arguments, quotes or scenes in the material, but simply lapse into generalizations or personal opinions, will receive a low score.

· You may include personal reflections & experiences related to the topic, but these should not displace the assigned reading.

· Demonstrate that you have remained engaged in class discussions but also developed your own, original thoughts

2 Pages urgent assignment

Written Assignment

Research a county with a reputation for high levels of corruption, such as Nigeria, Russia, or Pakistan.  Detail the nature of the corruption that has been reported in the country. Then provide a suggestion for how a United States firm may deal with such issue as they begin to do business there.  Focus particularly on the evaluation and control system that will be needed to prevent a situation from occurring. 

Instructions for Assignment 8:

1. 500 Words 

2. Cover page 

3. Introduction 

4. Main body 

5. Conclusion

6. 3 Citations 3 References

1 page urgent essay

Discussion Topic: What are some oft he ways that an evaluation and control system can prevent problems in a global organization? 

History Assignment

SPRING 2022

HISTORY 140C FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS COREY

(READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY!!!!!)

ALL STUDENTS MUST ANSWER PART A. 20% THEN SELECT ONE QUESTION FROM PART B. 40% AND ONE QUESTION FROM PART C. 40% PLEASE RE-STATE THE ENTIRE QUESTION AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH ANSWER. (2 POINTS DEDUCTED FOR FAILURE TO RESTATE QUESTION.) ALL ESSAYS MUST HAVE THESIS STATEMENTS, PREFERABLY ONE OR TWO SENTENCES, HIGHLIGHTED OR WRITTEN IN BOLD. (2 POINTS DEDUCTED FOR FAILURE TO HAVE BOLD PRINT THESIS STATEMENT.)

THE ANSWER TO PART A SHOULD BY APPROX. 2 PAGES. ANSWERS TO AND C SHOULD BE 3-4 PAGES PER ESSAY. (DOUBLE-SPACED.) PLEASE USE PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS. IF YOU USE OUTSIDE SOURCES YOU WILL NEED A BIBLIOGRAPHY. BE SURE YOU KEEP A COPY OF YOUR ESSAYS IN YOUR FILES. NO COMMENTS ARE WRITTEN ON FINALS. THEREFORE, PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ME AFTER YOU GET YOUR GRADE AND ASK TO SEE YOUR EXAM. THERE IS NOTHING TO SEE. THE EXAM IS DUE ON TURNITIN ON WEDNESDAY JUNE 8TH BY MIDNIGHT.

PART A (20%) 2 PAGES

The year is 2008, when close to 200,000 American soldiers were on the ground in Iraq and Afghanistan. Your 19-year-old cousin who flunked out of high school and spends his time on the couch smoking weed and watching old war movies has decided to enlist in the Armed Forces. While you respect his desire to serve his country, his history of bad decision-making worries you. Does he know what it means to fight in a war? Has he thought this through? You have just read THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE for this class and you think it might be a good thing for him to read it before he shows up for his physical. Write the letter you would send to your cousin describing this book, its impact on you, and an explanation of why he needs to read it.

PART B (40%) 3-4 PAGES

1. Write an essay in which you examine the aftermath of the failure of LBJ’s Great Society to be fully realized and lnk this failure to the emergence of the Hip Hop Nation and ultimately the carceral state. Use lecture material, Pruitt-Igoe, Schulman and, of course the reading from Jeff Chang’s CANT STOP WON’T STOP

2. Stokely Carmichael once made the claim that what is good for Black people is good for American democracy. Discuss this claim and build a case for or against it for the period from 1954 to the present, drawing on course readings, lectures and films.

3.Cornel West has argued that America’s will toward racial justice is weak. Make an argument for or against this claim, using evidence gleaned from the text, lectures. films and most important James Baldwin’s The Fire Next Time.

4. Write an imaginary panel discussion (in the form of a script) concerning the history of race relations in the United States during the period we have studied. You can certainly include current issues and the matter of mass incarceration in the discussion. Include five of the following people on your panel: Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, James Baldwin, a member of the Black Panthers, Stokley Carmichael, or an artist or political leader of your own choosing. Please make sure that the words spoken by the panel members do, in some way, represent them as accurately as possible. Yes, you are putting words in their mouths but they need to be words they might have spoken. This question is not an invitation to blather on impressionistically. WARNING: This is not an easy question.

PART C. (40%)3-4 PAGES

1. I have stated that an apt title for this course could be: America Since Television. Write a well-organized essay describing the impact of television on U.S. history since its popularization in the late Forties. Be sure to include both fiction and non-fiction offerings.

2. The central philosophical underpinning of all of the significant social movements of the 60s and the 70s was the concept of participatory democracy. We now live in an age in which the gathering and the dissemination of information has been greatly democratized by a whole range of social media.  Write an essay in which you 1) trace the influence of participatory democracy on one of the following social movements, paying particular attention to the ways in which the broad participation of adherents shaped the movement as a whole: Women’s liberation, environmental, Black Power, Gay & Lesbian rights movement, Chicano Movement. 2.) In a brief conclusion you might want to imagine 21st century social media might have impacted that movement.

3. 5. Write an essay in which you analyze the factors leading to the development of Nixon’s “Southern Strategy” and the rise of a new political coalition. What social, political, and economic developments led the weakening of the old Democratic coalition and the rise of a new Republican one? Why were people willing to change long-standing political affiliations during the late 1960s and 1970s?

4.. One historian has argued that Watergate was the crucial event which brought down the “imperial presidency” which emphasized a powerful activist president. Evaluate this view, examining presidential power and challenges to this power between the 1960s and the Reagan Administration.

5.. Interview a family member or acquaintance about their participation in a significant historical event that took place in the period we have studied. Write out your questions in advance and make sure that they are well grounded in historical fact. The person must have been an active PARTICIPANT in a historical event. It doesn’t count if your father once saw a protest going on outside of his window when he was in school. This essay should be in Q & A format. And no, you can’t interview me.

[A SIGNIFICANT HISTORICAL MOVEMENT IS ONE THAT HAS MADE IT INTO THE HISTORICAL RECORD: LARGE SOCIAL REFORM MOVEMENTS, WARS, SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL STRUGGLES, RADICAL PROTEST MOVEMENTS, ETC.]

6. A historian has referred to the 1970s as a time in which it seemed like “nothing happened, “suggesting a more complacent and conservative decade after the social activism and upheavals of the 60s. Discuss. The Schulman is particularly helpful for this question.

7. Write an essay in which you describe the waves of social movements that took place in the 60s and 70s and discuss their influence upon one another as well as their ongoing legacy within the context of American political, social, and cultural life.

Strategies To Reduce The Contraction And Spread Of Infectious Diseases By Nurses

Use the rubric uploaded below and be sure to include the Matrix Table template. APA format!

1. Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work?
2. Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations.
3. Purpose: What will it do or describe? 

 Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary (Appendix A)

Required criteria
Categorize items in the Matrix Table, including proper in-text citations and reference list entries for each article.
1. References (recent publication within the last 5 years)
2. Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s)
3. Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D)
4. Study Design
5. Sample Size and Selection
6. Data Collection Methods
7. Major Findings (Evidence)

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDescription of FindingsRequired criteria
Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper in-text citations and reference list entries for each article.
1. Compare and contrast variables within each study.
2. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.?
3. Participant demographics and information.
4. Instruments used, including reliability and validity.
5. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question?
6. Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work.

1. Evidence to address your clinical problem.
2. Make a connection back to all the included sections.
3. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about.

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEvidence Matrix Table: Data Summary (Appendix A)Required criteria
Categorize items in the Matrix Table, including proper in-text citations and reference list entries for each article.
1. References (recent publication within the last 5 years)
2. Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s)
3. Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D)
4. Study Design
5. Sample Size and Selection
6. Data Collection Methods
7. Major Findings (Evidence)

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDescription of FindingsRequired criteria
Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper in-text citations and reference list entries for each article.
1. Compare and contrast variables within each study.
2. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.?
3. Participant demographics and information.
4. Instruments used, including reliability and validity.
5. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question?
6. Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work.

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConclusionRequired criteria
Review major findings in a summary paragraph.
1. Evidence to address your clinical problem.
2. Make a connection back to all the included sections.
3. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about.

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFormatRequired criteria
1. Correct grammar and spelling
2. Include a title and reference page
3. Use of headings for each section:
o Problem
o Synthesis of the Literature
 Variables
 Methods
 Participants
 Instruments
 Implications for Future Work
4. Conclusion
5. Adheres to current APA formatting and guidelines
6. Includes at least two (2) scholarly, current (within 5 years) primary sources other than the textbook

NR449 Evidence-Based Practice

RUA: Analyzing Published Research Guidelines

Evidence Matrix Table

ArticleReferencesPurposeHypothesisStudy Question(s)VariablesIndependent(I)Dependent(D)Study DesignSampleSize &SelectionData CollectionMethodsMajor Finding(s)
1(SAMPLE ARTICLE)Smith, Lewis (2013),What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112.How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes?D-Dietary modificationsI-EducationQuantitativeN- 18Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PAFocus GroupsSupport and education improved compliance with dietary modifications.
1
2
3
4
5

Discussion Board

Module 5 Discussion

For this module assignment I would like you to choose 3 of the covered topics in this module (Chapter Titles) and discuss the impact they have had on your life. You can be as specific or as general as you like but I would like you to connect your “way of life” to the impact that each of these social institutions have played in forming who you are.

Choose 3 of the Social Institutions that are covered this week as your focus topics.

Format as follows:

Highlight or Bold chosen Chapter topics from Module 5

1 page minimum – 600-650 words

Name in top left corner

Word Count at bottom of essay.

Assignment

 Research a scholarly paper on Unified Modeling Language (UML)”  and reflect on one of the following topics:

  • “Benefit”: What UML diagrams are most beneficial for organizations? 
  • “Most”: What organizations use UML diagrams the most?
  • “Effort”: Is the effort to create a UML diagram worth their benefit to the organization?

NOTE:
You must copy and paste the topic (“Benefit” or “Most” or “Effort”) at the start of your paper to provide a context for your answer.
This paper must be between 250-300 words on what caught your eye and reflect on what you read. 
Do not add extraneous text that does not address the question – do not add an introduction or conclusion.
Do not copy and paste text from the referenced resource.You must provide at least one APA reference for your resource and corresponding in-text citations..
You must provide the referenced resource URL/DOI in the APA reference.
Do not use the Textbook as a referenced resource. 

3330 HU MOD 6

Readings: Flannery O’Connor’s “Good Country People” (2428); N. Scott Momaday’s The Way to Rainy Mountain (2504); Anaya’s “The Christmas Play” (2515);  Kingston’s “No Name Woman” (2557); Ginsberg’s Howl (2732); Plath’s “Lady Lazarus” (2778) and “Daddy” (2781); and Li-Young Lee, all poems (2848). Be sure to read the introductions to each of the authors.  

Select one work from this week’s readings and make a case that this work does or does not belong in the American literary canon for a course like ours, a college survey course of American writers. 

Assignment

This is a required assignment, worth 20 points, and must be submitted by the due date.
Review the Grading Rubric before completing this assignment.Research a scholarly paper  on Business Processes, and Process Specifications” and reflect on only one of the following topics:

  • “Processes”: What type of Business Processes exist?
  • “Specifications”: How important is it to define the Process Specifications?
  • “Review”: How important is it to review the Processes on a regular basis?

NOTE:
You must copy and paste the topic (“Processes” or “Specifications” or “Review”) at the start of your paper to provide a context for your answer.
This paper must be between 250-300 words on what caught your eye and reflect on what you read. 
Do not add extraneous text that does not address the question – do not add an introduction or conclusion.
Do not copy and paste text from the referenced resource.You must provide at least one APA reference for your resource and corresponding in-text citations..
You must provide the referenced resource URL/DOI in the APA reference.
Do not use the Textbook as a referenced resource. 

1100 HCA 6 FINAL PROJECT ASSIGNMENT

 As introduced in Module 3, your Final Project in this course was to come up with your own personal solution to the issues of cost, quality, and access in the United States health care system. You may choose the final format/deliverable for how you will present this project to the class. Here are a few options: 

  1. Prepare your final project deliverable for submission.
  2. *Important! 
    • Be sure that you have used at least five (5) reliable and current sources (no older than 5 years old)

Assignment

The latest generation of mobile devices are portable enough to carry at all times, connected to voice and data networks, and contextually aware by using sensors and networks to preemptively complete tasks.  Many of today’s mobile applications are personalized, and are not useful if they can only access the data on the phone.  For a user to get, for example, sports scores, retrieve stock quotes, or perform accounting work, the mobile device needs to communicate with one or more servers, starting with the Window servers.

  • Discuss effective use of screen real estate
  • How does mobile user interface designs & websites reduce end-user self-efficacy?
  • What are the challenges of integrating mobile applications with multiple databases? 
  •  Late assignments will not be accepted. 
  • This is a required assignment and is worth 50 points.
  • You must apply and use the basic citation styles of APA.
  • Do not claim credit for the words, ideas, and concepts of others.
  • Use in-text citation and list the reference of your supporting source following APA’s style and formatting
  • Do not copy and paste information or concepts from the Internet and claim that is your work.  It will be considered Plagiarism and you will receive a zero for your work.

1100 HCA 6 DB

  1. What is the significance of an individual’s quality of life from the health care delivery perspective?
  2. What is the intermediary role of insurance in the delivery of health care?
  3. What is managed care?
  4. Why do employers  purchase insurance plans to provide health benefits to their employees?
  5. What are two main objectives of the health care delivery system?

Family Assessment And Psychotherapeutic Approaches

Family Assessment and Psychotherapeutic Approaches

A family’s patterns of behavior influences [sic] the individual and therefore may need to be a part of the treatment plan. In marriage and family therapy, the unit of treatment isn’t just the person—even if only a single person is interviewed—it is the set of relationships in which the person is imbedded.

—American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy, “About Marriage and Family Therapists”

When issues arise within a family unit, the family often presents with one member identified as the “problem.” However, you will frequently find that the issue is not necessarily the “problem client,” but rather dysfunctional family patterns and relationships. To better understand such patterns and relationships, and develop a family treatment plan, it is essential that the practitioner appropriately assess all family members. This requires you to have a strong foundation in family assessment and therapy. 

This week, you practice assessing and diagnosing client families presenting for psychotherapy. 

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information 

· Formulate differential diagnoses for patients using DSM-5-TR criteria 

· Formulate plans of care for patients that incorporate family psychotherapy interventions 

· Develop psychotherapy genograms

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/book/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787

Nichols, M., & Davis, S. D. (2020). The essentials of family therapy (7th ed.). Pearson.

Introduction

· Chapter 2, “Basic Techniques of Family Therapy” 

· Chapter 3, “The Fundamental Concepts of Family Therapy”  

· Chapter 4, “Bowen Family Systems Therapy

Therapist Aid. (2012–2020). Genograms for psychotherapy. https://www.therapistaid.com/therapy-guide/genograms

Therapist Aid LLC. (© 2012-2020). Genograms for psychotherapy. https://www.therapistaid.com/therapy-guide/genograms

Document: Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Note Template

Document: Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Note Exemplar

Optional Resource

Kaplin, D. (2021, Nov. 5).  Family systems therapy [Video]. YouTube.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVPENypTc4k

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/mother-and-daughter-a-cultural-tale

https://waldenu.kanopy.com/video/counseling-and-psychotherapy-theories-contex

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Assignment: Family Assessment

Assessment is as essential to family therapy as it is to individual therapy. Although families often present with one person identified as the “problem,” the assessment process will help you better understand family roles and determine whether the identified problem client is in fact the root of the family’s issues.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

To prepare:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide on family assessment. Be sure to review the resource on psychotherapy genograms.

· Download the Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Note Template and review the requirements of the documentation. There is also an exemplar provided with detailed guidance and examples. 

· View the Mother and Daughter: A Cultural Tale video in the Learning Resources and consider how you might assess the family in the case study.

·

· https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/mother-and-daughter-a-cultural-tale

· THIS IS THE VIDEO. THE TRANSCRIPT IS BELOW.

·

The Assignment

Document the following for the family in the video, using the Comprehensive Evaluation Note Template: 

· Chief complaint

· History of present illness

· Past psychiatric history

· Substance use history

· Family psychiatric/substance use history

· Psychosocial history/Developmental history

· Medical history

· Review of systems (ROS)

· Physical assessment (if applicable)

· Mental status exam

· Differential diagnosis—Include a minimum of three differential diagnoses and include how you derived each diagnosis in accordance with DSM-5-TR diagnostic criteria

· Case formulation and treatment plan

· Include a psychotherapy genogram for the family

·

: For any item you are unable to address from the video, explain how you would gather this information and why it is important for diagnosis and treatment planning. 

Video: Mother and Daughter: A Cultural Tale, Therapist Gonzalo Bacigalupe (Thousand Oaks, CA: Masterswork Productions, 2003)

Mother and Daughter: A Cultural Tale

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00:00:00TRANSCRIPT OF VIDEO FILE: 

00:00:00_____________________________________________________________________ 

00:00:00BEGIN TRANSCRIPT: 

00:00:00[music] 

00:00:35A MOTHER and A DAUGHTER: 

00:00:35A CULTURAL TALE 

00:00:35AN INTERVIEW WITH 

00:00:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE, PhD 

00:00:35Produced by 

00:00:35Andrews & Clark 

00:00:35Explorations, Inc. 

00:00:35copyright 2003 

00:00:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE When I’m asked to do a consultation, one of the first things I ask is, what will be the most benefit for the client and the therapist and in the case that you’re going to see I’m basically asked to have a reflecting team and what we did was first have an interview with the therapist and the family and ask them what they will find useful for the interview and basically to ask them about the history of the therapy and the history of what are the kinds of things that they have been working on. I ask the reflecting team to come in and I instructed them to think of themselves as so let the god mothers of the therapist, who in a way, put them, himself, or in this case herself at risk in front of her peers and another people. So, I wanted them, the reflecting team to address the therapeutic system as a whole not just to address the family, I wanted them to talk also about the therapist and to be protective of them. I also ask the reflecting team not to be too much of clinician, but to really react on a more personal level around the family. I sometimes reflected on what they were saying to clarify or to expand the idea or how I understood it to give voice to other possibilities, but respecting the personal peace, and then, I ask I ask the family to come back to, in a classical way, to respond to those comments what strike them. In the case that we watch, it seems that the family was dealing with sort of like two forms of trauma and/or three forms of trauma; one is, history of battering the domestic violence, child sexual abuse, a history of immigration that in some ways we lay it to that trauma getting away from it and basically the mother of five children deciding that they need to move out of the home, but in the process leaving one behind who is later on sexually, I mean, raped by the father. And then at the present moment mother dealing with a fairly traumatic illness that have her, very disable, unable to walk and to work. So, it’s sort of like the interview trying to address this different forms of trauma and the way in which the young adults are trying to make sense of their bicultural life and how the whole family is trying to make sense of being bicultural and being immigrants. The session doesn’t end with a need or incredible intervention of my part because I feel that this is the part of the therapist to try to decide, this is the family that’s been working this therapist for year and half. Therefore, they have a relationship I feel that I need to respect and so those are the basic intercomments. So tell me how is it that you came out with the idea of having this interview with me? 

00:04:30Sharleen 

00:04:30Patti 

00:04:30SANDI Okay. I’m going to go back when Patti came in for the first time. She came in because they were chaos at her household. 

00:04:45Sandi – their therapist 

00:04:45SANDI She came to this country twelve years ago with her four children and one was left behind, her daughter who was 10 years old at that time, eight years old at that time, was left behind. Just two years back, finally they were able to get her visa and she brought her to United States. So ever since she came here chaos was created inside the household. 

00:05:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE So I’m clear, Sharleen you are? 

00:05:25SHARLEEN Her daughter. 

00:05:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Her daughter. And how old are you? 

00:05:25SHARLEEN I’m 23. 

00:05:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE 23, and how old are your siblings? 

00:05:30SHARLEEN 24. 

00:05:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE And that’s sister or brother? 

00:05:35PATTI Sister. 

00:05:35SHARLEEN And then 21-year old sister and 18-year old brother and a 15-year old brother. 

00:05:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE Okay, and which one is the one that stayed there. 

00:05:50SHARLEEN 21. 

00:05:50SANDI 21. 

00:05:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE 21. Okay. All right. Okay. Go ahead, sorry. 

00:05:55SANDI And I met with the entire family for two couple of sessions and she really interested and wanted to be in therapy 21, so. 

00:06:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE What’s her name? 

00:06:10SANDI Shireen. 

00:06:15Shireen – the 21 year old sister 

00:06:15emigrated from Iran 2 years ago 

00:06:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE Okay. 

00:06:15SANDI She just felt that she needed the money more than coming to therapy and she refused the entire time and mom tried to she ask her, if she doesn’t feel comfortable with me. She said she has had all appointments with other therapists at this clinic, still she refused to come in, but they kept on seeing Patti and the oldest daughter Sheela for about a year and a half now. Ever since then, we started working on the chaos in the household, what is it that creating chaos and I found out that Patti lives with traditional ways of living, their daughters are trying to detach herself from Patti and grow on their own and find their own individuality. So would ask where they have been working on and every since then she had two surgeries. 

00:07:30Patti had surgery on both feet. 

00:07:30SANDI Every thing is started. 

00:07:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE Who had two surgeries? 

00:07:35SANDI Patti had two surgeries on her feet. 

00:07:40Surgery failed – she is disabled. 

00:07:40SANDI And that created more tension, anxiety in the family. 

00:07:50She is in constant pain. 

00:07:50SANDI So — and I have been seeing her after her surgery and she has been referred to a psychiatrist for medication because a lot of time she feels hopeless, helpless, she feels her children are out of control, she can’t be in charge, they no need her anymore. So those are the major. 

00:08:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE If you were to describe an accomplishment and you have accomplishment with the therapists during this time. Is there something that you will say, it’s an important accomplishment? 

00:08:35SANDI Awareness of the difference between individualist ways of living and collectivistic ways of living and awareness that how they to respect and understand the children are growing in this country and they are going to try to detach themselves from Patti to be able to grow on their own. 

00:09:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE What has been for you this work with Sandi? 

00:09:05PATTI She helped me to understand the kids grow up and left the house and they have been not to depend on them so many times and try to live my life alone and then to take care of my things, my problem in the life and respect them and give them their freedom. 

00:09:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you have a sense that that is sort word that has been accomplished that is more to be done. 

00:09:35PATTI I think I need more to be done, I’m not done. No. 

00:09:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you have of sense of what is that you would like to do? 

00:09:45PATTI Yeah, I’d like to learn to lead my life alone and depend on the kids a lot because in our custom when the parents get old and especially when they are in my situation they can’t walk or take care of theirself, the kids are always there for parents, but over here no, they have their own life. And I expect them to be there all of the time for me and they can’t, matter of fact, I had a big argument with her last night about that, I had a very bad back for few days I was done and last night, I called her and I said come and spend a night with me and she said no, I can’t. I said, you should and you have to and we got into a big argument. 

00:10:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE So, you are on your own right now, you’re living in your own and each of the kids have their own place or? 

00:10:35PATTI Three of them, two of the boys lived with me 18 and 15 years old, but the 15 years old was with her for three four days and I was with 18 years old a lot. I feel like they doesn’t do enough for me. 

00:10:50SHARLEEN She makes her own plans for me, she expects me to like to go with her and spend time with her because she is bored. I have too much to do, I can’t unwind your boredness, find something else to do, but I have plans, I’m 24 and my world around me is happening and I need to be there, I accomplish things. I can’t sit down and like chitchat for a whole day. 

00:11:15PATTI And I feel I’m depressed I cannot move, I need them to come and visit me, spend a night with me. 

00:11:20SHARLEEN I spend, I — out of the seven days, I saw her for six days, I make sure, I saw her for six days out of that week. I spent a day with a friend and I got some stuff done and she felt like I owe her something because I didn’t spend that time with her. And she did a nice job raising us, she was a wonderful mother, we all suffered through the good and the bad in the family like every family does, but we have all grown up, we can’t stay in the nest forever. I’m trying to experience life and my own good or bad, whether you approve it or not, it’s my life. 

00:11:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Sharleen, is this something that you have had a discussion, the three of you, I mean this particular or this is not like? 

00:12:00SHARLEEN I think, I have mentioned to her, but she takes it personal, she doesn’t hear me out. 

00:12:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Is this something that you have had conversations with the family? 

00:12:10SANDI Over and over, yes. Especially with the oldest daughter Sheela, she also, being the oldest, she feels that she has been the parentified child all her life, she has played a role of a man for — in her mother’s life and then the entire, I’ve seen her for about four times right, four, five times and she used to cry the entire time in the session. 

00:12:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE And I realize that you’re being very touched by this, I mean this is not something that. 

00:12:45SHARLEEN Yeah, it’s something that I strive so hard to accomplish and as soon as I feel like I got her on the right step, there she goes falling depart again asking for like, I give her what I can and she keeps on asking for more and more and that’s not how my life works. 

00:13:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE What do you right now? Are you working, studying? 

00:13:05SHARLEEN Yeah, I work and I’m trying to get my license. I’m trying to get accomplish things from now. 

00:13:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE What kind of work are you are doing right now? 

00:13:15SHARLEEN I just — I find promotional jobs and then, I’m trying to get my real estate license. 

00:13:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE And your sister? 

00:13:30SHARLEEN Sheela? 

00:13:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE Sheela, is she also on her own? 

00:13:30SHARLEEN Yeah. 

00:13:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE She is also working, studying? And the 18-year old, what is he doing? 

00:13:35PATTI He is a student. 

00:13:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE In high school? 

00:13:40PATTI Yes. 

00:13:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE So, he is finishing high school right now? 

00:13:40PATTI Yes, this year. 

00:13:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE And is he talking also about leaving home after finishing the high school or what are his plans? 

00:13:50SHARLEEN He is not sure yet, depends on how the family situation is going, you know, everybody looks for happiness and peace of mind, depends like how he feels around the home. 

00:14:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE How about the 15-year old? 

00:14:00PATTI I have lots of problems with him, I don’t get long with him at all. 

00:14:05SHARLEEN She has no patience. And she takes it out on other people. 

00:14:10PATTI Because I can’t do anything, I walk fewer step and that’s it, I have a horrible pain after fewer step. And I have to sit and wait for them to come and give me a glass of water. 

00:14:25SHARLEEN Well, the thing is I want her not to wait for us, I want her to be on her own, I want her to learn how to like, you know there is a — you know superman lost his both feet and he sits on a wheel chair, but he is still going on with life. 

00:14:40PATTI But Superman has money, somebody take care of him all of the time. 

00:14:40SHARLEEN You have to learn how to ease your own mind and not depend on other people. She is forty years old, if she was 60, poor dying lady, I would be more sympathetic, just 40 years old, there is much more for her to experience. It’s not time for her to start depending on her children yet. We’re only in our 20s, let me live life, let me experience and do what you can, while you can. Give it your best. 

00:15:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE Sharleen, how is that you decided to come today, I mean what’s it? 

00:15:10SHARLEEN Because I was with her last week and they asked me to, they invited me to, so I thought maybe you would like help as much as this is helping you. 

00:15:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you have a sense that you are sort of being representative of the other of your siblings that you are coming as a representative for all of them in some way? 

00:15:30SHARLEEN We are all trying to get her to be more positive and feel like do a little step at a day, but try your best to be better, to do a better in life. Every time I try to push her to be more independent and not as much like do that all stuff with her that she could do on her own, she keeps like she has a broken wing that she wants to buoy on us, after a while, it gets heavy. You just want it off because I want to breathe and I want to experience my life. I cannot live like a 20-year old from Iran. I have different things to experience than to sit at home. And the thing is like I don’t feel like I can accomplish with her when I’m at home because she is either watching TV or on the phone, which is just like sad people around and I can’t hang out like that. 

00:16:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Besides the — your five kids and yourself, is there anybody else in the family here who immigrated with you guys or –? 

00:16:25PATTI I have a cousin, but they live LA and I don’t even talk to them. 

00:16:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE And so, in a way, when you need something, basically the only thing that you feel like you can go for your kids? When you — we’re talking about chaos, there have been — there were some chaos about a year and half ago when we start through the work and can you tell me little bit about what the chaos was about or what — how you define that? 

00:17:00SANDI Okay. I just want to mention something about before her surgery Patti has been a very independent women as far as working hard, single mother, raising all her children and they are all proud of her in many ways. When they came she did not have the health problem as far as the pain in her feet, constant pain and feeling hopeless and helpless. They came for a different reason was for Shireen, because Shireen came form Iran and two weeks everything was wonderful, they all re-united, they enjoyed, celebrated for two weeks, and then, she started telling him about the stories that her father abused her sexually, physically and she was abandoned in their house. So, that’s where the explosion, the chaos started. Before that — 

00:18:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE When you say that the chaos started, what started to happen? 

00:18:05SANDI They were fighting, constant fighting, screaming, yelling and cursing each other. Before that, my understanding was that kind of was a very peaceful way of living, am I correct in this? 

00:18:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Okay. All right, so the tension has really sky rocketed after Sheela came back, I mean, two weeks after one, and then, he came out of that — there’s been this –? 

00:18:35PATTI As she came back, she was blaming me, why did you left me back home with my dad there, he did all of those things to me. And my husband used to tell her, you was a rotten fruit and she didn’t take you, you are a rotten one. She took the good ones and left you behind for me. And she was blaming me for everything. 

00:18:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE When you left, you had separated from your husband? 

00:19:00PATTI No, we were living together my daughter had a medical problem, Sheela and matter of fact, her, and they give me a medical visa to come here and Sheela and Sharleen born here many years ago. And when I went to get a Visa, they told me two of them are American citizen, you have to take them, we cannot say no. And my boys were four years old then 18 months old and Shireen was eight and they said, they decide Shireen should be stayed home and make it sure I’ll will be go back. But after I came here, my daughter didn’t have any problem any more and they were find and I used to stay here and I decided to live here. And my husband was keep telling me don’t come, don’t come, stay there, I will come some day and he never sent me any money, he never did anything for us at all except sending the letter 10 pages every single day, what to do, how to leave and how to raise the kids and I throw them all in the trash because I didn’t had a time to read them and I didn’t had time to practice anything he said and I ignored everything until like six, seven years later, he just wrote a letter, I want you to be back home, you are my wife, I order you to back home and I said, forget about you, I have my life here. And who wants to go back to that life. And I was thrown all of the time to bring Shireen and I couldn’t until three years ago. Finally, she came and for couple of days, weeks everything was fine until she started talking about every problem she had back home and for any little mistakes she made, my husband used to beat her up and keep her outside the house for all night and many, many things, the things he used to do to me. And I know what she talking about and what she had to go through, but I couldn’t do anything about it. I didn’t have the choice. When I came here few week after, few months after I was here I called my dad and I said, I’m worried about Shireen, I afraid to beat her and I’m not there to protect them because I was all this over to protect the kids. Each time he wants to beat them, I was right ahead of them and say, beat me, don’t touch my kids, do whatever you want with me. And my dad said you should imagine your house was in the fire, you took four of them off the fire, you left one behind, leave her behind and take care of those four you have and I thought about it, I thought, he is very right, absolutely right, I should take care of the four I have over here. Why should I go back there. He would be — make everybody miserable. I didn’t have a very good life but like she said, we all worked together and take care of each other and like I was out all of the time and like Sheela said, she was father of the kid, take care of the kids, take care of the bank account, his groceries, everything. And I used to be a care giver and save it all this and Sheela and Sharleen would stay home and take care of the kids, two younger brother and each other. And everything was okay until Shireen came. And then, after few months, for a couple of years, we had a problem until, thanks god, last May she got married with somebody behind our back. 

00:22:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Who got married? 

00:22:25PATTI Shireen, we were on the camping three when she ran away with one of my friend’s son and got married and she moved out the house and my house is so quiet and I enjoy the life so much except I get so depressed because I feel hopeless and I have so much pain and they can’t do anything about my pain, I’m always in pain. 

00:22:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE As you must have seen, when — do you work on how they make sense of what happen to Shireen, I mean, in Iran during the time that she was alone, was that workout with the whole family, they were some sort of a conversation in therapy? 

00:23:05SANDI Yes, I met, as I remember, I met with all of them and they expressed their feelings and shouting, yelling, everything was going on in our session. And they were expressing, Shireen was constantly blaming the mother for all her pain and what happened to her to lead on and a mother tried to explain her situation, the sisters also, brothers also. So, we had few sessions like that. 

00:23:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE What was your sense of how it can — that there were some sort a resolution around that that people were able to make sense that Patti and the kids were able to make sense of this or? 

00:23:50SANDI I was hoping for that, that was my really aim to discover, explore their meanings of the situation and. 

00:24:00PATTI They got in fight, we couldn’t keep coming back, I couldn’t make them to go back as a family. 

00:24:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Is it still something that is very hard to talk about or not? 

00:24:10PATTI About the rape you mean? 

00:24:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah? 

00:24:10PATTI What do you think? 

00:24:15SHARLEEN Well, I’m not very worried about, I mean, it’s affecting her life and I feel sorry for her, but I try not to think about it. 

00:24:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE And do you have the sense that that’s what anybody else in the family tries to do that tries hard so they doesn’t affect? 

00:24:30SHARLEEN Because we already did our crying over it and I’m over it, I’m ready to move on about it. 

00:24:40PATTI It’s like when somebody die, you grieve for it. When I heard about it, I was crying and crying and crying for months and months, and then later on, it’s something you can’t do any thing about this, something happened, what am I going to do about it. I tried to take her to counseling, I take her to Iranian psychologist, 200 dollars an hour. And she would then go back, then what can I do. And I think I’m over with it, I feel sorry for her, but what can I do. My older son doesn’t want to talk to this, his dad, nobody wants to contact him or have any relationship or any thing to — 

00:25:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Has he acknowledged that he did rape her? 

00:25:25PATTI I told him once, and he will start cursing at me and I hang up. I said, I pay a dollar fifty a minute, I don’t want to hear your cursing. I want to see what’s going on, what happened and you tell me if it happened or not and will start cursing and I hang up. And after that, I never called back, and he is remarried, he married to Iris after Shireen came, during the three years, he got married twice and he has moved on with his life. 

00:25:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Is there any, I mean, is there a way in which you think, I mean you, Sharleen and maybe some of your siblings, but just from your perspective, is there where you think about how the relationship with your mom should be, is it — do you have a dream for how? 

00:26:15SHARLEEN Yeah, I just wanted her to be more peaceful. I want her to lower her expectations and to accept a lot of things about life. 

00:26:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE What do you mean lower expectations, what? 

00:26:25SHARLEEN Not to expect so much from people, not to — I think what she does is, she thinks of an idea and she reacts on it so so quick without she calming herself down before she like takes the reaction. 

00:26:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you have a sense that your mom thinks that you can do more than what you can actually do? 

00:26:45SHARLEEN I have a sense that she is holding me back from doing all that I could be doing and as soon as I could get excited about her, every time I give her little bit of hope, there she goes back expecting more, and then, getting angry at. She has some thoughts then she is so hang up that these thoughts are like so true and she gets angry about them and she hold on to them, then she accuses people and all they are her thoughts in her mind. And I just ask her to leave them alone, let people be and everything is going to — just then it’s going to take its course. 

00:27:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE Am I trying to tell you, if you were to think about how your ambition, how you see it in the future, the relation how do you see it? I mean, if you were to move in a way the direction that you want it to move, how many times do you see yourself beside in her or interacting with her? 

00:27:35SHARLEEN I speak to her every day, I mean almost everyday. 

00:27:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE But again, I’m asking you more about — 

00:27:40SHARLEEN Like in the future, yeah, I just want her to like be more calm about like life so that I could like through her better. So that when I do spend time with her that I could enjoy it better instead of her frightening my other siblings or telling me about how so and so, this and that and this and that. I just want her to be more calm so we could just enjoy the moment when we hang out, rather than like. 

00:28:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE What kinds of things do you enjoy with her in the moment? 

00:28:10SHARLEEN I try to tell her about my ideas, how she is like be more relaxed and not — you know same things. 

00:28:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE Patti, how do you ambition the relationship with your daughter? 

00:28:20PATTI I saw her on Sunday, Sunday night and Sunday night, I went to visit my older daughter and she was aware that I took the dinner for them. And after I laid down fully at my daughter, older daughter house, I couldn’t get up, they pulled me and took me to the car and I came home. I didn’t see her until yesterday afternoon and I said, I have been done with my bag. I just want them to spend time with me. I’m lonely, I get depressed when I’m lonely. If she had a job, if she was working like the other people, I would understand she is working everyday like my older daughter, she go to her school, she work, I understand she doesn’t have a time, but I know she has time and I expect her to come and spend the time. And I said, I gave you whatever you want, whatever I have in the house like furniture, this and that, anything she said, mom can I have this? Sure, honey, doesn’t matter you or me, you can have it. And when I’m like that with you, I expect you to do something for me too. 

00:29:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Patti, I understand how also you are feeling upset about this, about and I know that the question I’m asking is hard, I mean, how do ambition the relationship with Sharleen? What will you like to happen in the future? 

00:29:40PATTI Between me and her? I want her to just spend time with me whenever she can. 

00:29:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE What kind of time for instance would you like to –? 

00:29:45PATTI She come and stay at my house because she knows I cannot live with two boys and go to her house. She most of the time ask me to come and stay at my house, but when I go to her house and I spend over there, I’m worried about 18 years old I have at home. 

00:30:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE And do you have a sense of how many times, how many nights that you would like her to spend with you in your home? 

00:30:10PATTI Once a week is good if she come and stay the day or night, once a week with me is fine, but when she come like one hour, half hour, she is for example, going to go see so and so to keep a board work, she will stop at my house to have a drink the water or say, hi mother, how are you? 

00:30:30SHARLEEN Two, three hours? 

00:30:30PATTI That’s not a visit for me, I wanted to come with me and spend the time with me and stay with me that day. 

00:30:35SHARLEEN When I go over there, she is either on the phone or she is watching TV, I’m very, very uncomfortable in her house like to where I cannot stand sitting down because she has two dogs around and I don’t like those things. I don’t like the hair on my body. When I touch an animal, I wash my hands before I eat. She has two dogs, there is dog here on the couch, dog here on the floor, dog here on the chairs, there is dogs all around. I don’t want to eat anything because the dishes smell like dogs, I’m not comfortable. I don’t enjoy that, it’s not pleasant to me. I could only do it so much at a time. I express that to her, you have dogs, I can’t eat either your dishes. That’s my culture, that’s how I was brought up and I thought that’s how she was brought up. So, she surprises me when she does these things, she makes the family unhappy because nobody wants to see dogs, it smells like dogs in her house. 

00:31:25PATTI How come you don’t do the other things, you grow up and have a cold chill like, that’s just the only thing you know. 

00:31:35SHARLEEN I don’t — I cannot stand it, I cannot stand it. 

00:31:35PATTI And they give me so much happiness, they make me so happy, I love them so much. 

00:31:40SHARLEEN I don’t like it. 

00:31:40PATTI And I never ever going to get rid of them. 

00:31:45SHARLEEN I don’t like it, don’t ask me to sleep in the pillow, it’s that the dogs stinks. 

00:31:45PATTI Actually, you know we have a guest room, the dogs doesn’t in that room. 

00:31:50SHARLEEN I cannot sleep in motels, I cannot use other people’s bed, I cannot sleep with dogs, I cannot do these things. 

00:31:55PATTI You know that bed brand new and you know the sheets and everything brand new in the guest room and you know that that door is closed. 

00:32:05SHARLEEN I’m not enjoying it, I cannot eat breakfast, when I’m thirsty I can’t drink water there. 

00:32:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Let me ask you, is this the kind of sometimes the — where the discussions go? 

00:32:10SHARLEEN Yeah. 

00:32:10GONZALO BACIGA And if I were to let you go over the discussion where will it end, one of you will leave the room or –? 

00:32:20SHARLEEN I will start screaming. 

00:32:20PATTI Screaming, yeah. 

00:32:20SHARLEEN And disrespecting and calling names. 

00:32:25PATTI I do. 

00:32:25SHARLEEN At this stage, I don’t — 

00:32:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE And you would be like, I don’t want to see you, I don’t want to talk to you anymore. 

00:32:30SHARLEEN I’m trying to become a woman, I’m trying to became a lady. And when I go to her house, she treats me disrespectfully like that about her dogs, she would curse me out and I just feel, oh, what a mother. 

00:32:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Would you say both of you that you would like that not to happen that you will not get into this. 

00:32:45PATTI Of course I love them. 

00:32:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you sometimes dream with, been able to relate to each other without having to get into this. 

00:32:55SHARLEEN Of course, I do. 

00:33:00PATTI I feel even we argue, we still love each other and I feel like, they are my kids, they will be still here for me if I need them really. And they have been until sometimes lately. 

00:33:10SHARLEEN I just want her to appreciate and not to expect and expect just like take what people give you and just be happy. 

00:33:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE We’re going to stop a little bit now. 

00:33:25Reflecting Team Enters 

00:33:25Isaac 

00:33:25ISAAC I’m Isaac and I really resonated with Sharleen. I come from, well my parents emigrated here. 

00:33:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Where your parents came from? 

00:33:40ISAAC Korea, and I was born in the States, but there are still this cultural tension that we experienced within our family. And so when she was talking about the difference of cultures and who she is and there was a little bit of disparity between her Iranian culture and the American cultures in her life and I experienced that in my life too. So, I really understood that and I thought, you know what? I’m not the only one that went through that. And if I’m not the only one then she is not the only one either, so something that I guess happens in a culture of people when they immigrate into another country. 

00:34:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE How old were you when you immigrated? 

00:34:30ISAAC I was born here. 

00:34:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE You were born here, but still — 

00:34:35ISAAC My parents, my parents moved here. When they were in their mid-20s, they moved here. And then I was born and shortly after they moved here. And so there was a been influence there. 

00:34:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE All right, cool. 

00:34:50Roberta 

00:34:50ROBERTA My name is Roberta and these things really struck out with me because I have seen Patti before. I have been on the reflecting team. And I’m amazed at the difference in her, how much younger she looks and more vibrant than the last month I had seen her. So, I was very impressed by her change. Another thing that just really struck out from me was when Sharleen was talking about what she didn’t want to do, and then, Patti talked about when her husband had sent her the letters and said, come home and Patti didn’t want to go home and it was almost like it was the same conversation, only held with different people. And I thought that was rather interesting that they are both having the same things happen in their life at different times, but they both wanted their independence. And I saw that realistic out from me, so that was very interesting. 

00:35:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah, it’s interesting, I was — I don’t know if it’s the same you are saying, but how can you have your independence, but at the same time, still stay connected? It’s a hard one. 

00:35:55ROBERTA And they are fighting to stay connected. 

00:36:00Dorothy 

00:36:00DOROTHY First of all, I’m really impressed with Sandi, the therapist and working with this family and having the care and the love that it concerns between all of them, including Sandi as a therapist. And I really relate it to Patti because I have six children and I watched them one leave one at a time and so I know what that feels like. 

00:36:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE What it feels like? 

00:36:25DOROTHY Well, it is — it feels like a tragedy really each time. There is always, there’s something to deal with because it’s a grieving, you are letting go. You are letting go and I really relate it to her on that level, completely, but I didn’t have the kind of real tragedies to deal with that Patti has had to deal with, in addition to this letting go, okay. She has had the, well, the disability to deal with in the pain, the constant pain that she deals with and also then the tragedy in her daughter’s life and what must come up for a mother in dealing with that. I mean, unavoidable in the situation, of course, but still she was dealing with that. At the same time, with all of this other emotional stuff that I know about. So, I just have a lot of respect for her and I noticed that she has done a good job with her children. How wise Sharleen is for a age, very wise, so. 

00:37:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE In a way, Roberta? 

00:37:40DOROTHY Dorothy. 

00:37:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Dorothy, in a way it is if it’s Sharleen’s need for independence is in a way due to her mom’s wanting her to be independent to and sort of like I mean she has to get it from somewhere right? 

00:37:55DOROTHY Yes. 

00:37:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah. 

00:37:55Amber 

00:37:55AMBER Yeah that was a kind of a question I had. Well, what were Patti’s dreams for her children in making this enormous transition from Iran, right. 

00:38:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah. 

00:38:05AMBER To the States, this huge transition, I mean, there must have been a dream, some purpose that was bringing her over here, and I was really curious what her thoughts back, I guess, 20 years ago or something like that. And I loved Sharleen’s metaphor of the birds, the wings feeling, really weighing her down right now. 

00:38:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE And at the same the time, the wings are supposed to be as somewhat you fly on. Yeah. 

00:38:35AMBER Yeah. And so at that kind tied into my thoughts about what were Patti’s dreams for her — duckling in a way. I do not just kind of rambling thoughts about duckling is calling around and the infant their mom and their mind they follow her around forever even when they grow up, but they do eventually gained some distance more than they had. 

00:39:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE Maybe one comment, so maybe you want to say something else, I mean, maybe there is a couple of burning comments that people want to — 

00:39:05ISAAC I know the family really loves each other. Even if they argue, you see that there is a sense of care and compassion there for each other and I don’t think that. 

00:39:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE And in that sense, it must be very frustrating to get into this stuff, it’s like. 

00:39:25ISAAC Oh yeah, absolutely. 

00:39:25AMBER Yeah Patti made that comment. Even when we are fighting, I know we love each other. 

00:39:30ISAAC I said they’re going, you know, that’s exactly right, when she said that and even though, Sharleen is — it seems like it’s little bit tough love going on, on behalf — from Sharleen’s part of she representing all the kids, from kids towards their mom, and saying, mom, they love you, but we want you to be able to function on your own and I don’t know how that kind of fits in with everybody. 

00:40:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah. I was wondering what it is for a kid even if it’s an adult, I mean and clearly these are — kids were becoming adults I mean, Sharleen put it very well. But it must be really hard to see your mom becoming a little bit, you know sometimes like a kid to, I mean, that they need to take care of so soon. 

00:40:25ISAAC Yeah. 

00:40:25ROBERTA And she made that comment if she was older it would be different, but she is younger. And I don’t think they expected, I imagine she is torn with wanting to live her own life and wanting to take care of her mom, I’m sure she is struggling deeply. 

00:40:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Any of you thinking as a therapist, putting yourself in Sandi’s shoes and anything that you may think that Sandi is having to deal with or some dilemma that she may be struggling with? 

00:41:00ROBERTA What I felt for Sandi, because I think this must be very difficult for her also to, because the families seems even though they have said they have grown and they have made changes that they are almost stuck on that and I imagine Sandi is probably having a hard time getting over that stuckness, and so that’s what I see Sandi probably struggling with. It’s just being stuck and where do I go from here, where do I take the family from here? 

00:41:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE I was wondering, I mean, and the reason I guess I had a self-interest in asking because I was wondering and wanted to check with you guys, I mean, since she’s also from Iran I mean, people might think that she is more of an expert on this family. And of course, there are things that have to do with being from Iran. Also, the things that probably have to do with being an immigrant, but also there is some tragic things that have happened in this family and that you know, so I wonder how she at sometimes might feel like not necessary knowing what to do and while at the same time, feeling very well connected with this family. 

00:42:05AMBER Oh I think she is. 

00:42:10ROBERTA She shows she’s well connected with that. 

00:42:10DOROTHY Oh yeah. And it must be very frustrating because how do you improve the quality of life for Patti, especially for the family in general, I mean, it must be very frustrating. I mean, what concrete steps do to take. 

00:42:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE Okay. Alright. Thank you. 

00:42:35Family & Sandi Return 

00:42:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE I generally ask after this, we call this is a reflecting team, if you had any reactions, any thoughts or — and you don’t need to address everything that was — I mean, anything that strike you? 

00:42:50SANDI For me, I really felt that they hit — they touched the right sensitive part as far as being stuck, I’m always thinking okay, what else, what can I do to really — what can I, I come with ideas of goal setting, achieving goals, and trying to figure out what else can I do, so the family can — 

00:43:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Move forward. 

00:43:25SANDI Move forward. 

00:43:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Patti, did you, of what, all what you heard, there was something that struck you something new or interesting or –? 

00:43:35PATTI Nothing, they just talk about discipline on this — think you were asking me about Shireen, how do I feel and I told you I have been grieved and it’s over, but I was thinking about, it’s always in my head. I don’t think I never going to forget it. It’s always in my head and sometimes I feel like, maybe if I was there, it wouldn’t happen and then I think about rest of them, what could have happened to the rest of them, maybe if I’d take them all, what would be happened to all of them. So, I don’t know. 

00:44:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you move back and forth between that. Sharleen how about you, anything that strike you as? 

00:44:25SHARLEEN Oh pretty much everything everybody said was really interesting to hear about. 

00:44:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE Anything in particular that? 

00:44:35SHARLEEN I don’t think so. 

00:44:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE You don’t think so. Is there a movement and this is something that it’s like you have been working for a year and a half, you have been going through some very difficult stuff. Do you see yourselves and maybe you can imagine your siblings thinking about this. Having other, so like very difficult conversations therapy, I mean do you see yourselves having to deal with tough issues? Or will you say that this is the worst so to speak? 

00:45:25PATTI This is the worst. Just argue with them because I love them and I don’t want to argue with them. I want them to have a good life and get married and move on with their life and I see them happy in their life. 

00:45:40SHARLEEN And sometimes she wants to choose our happiness for us, and that’s not going to work out here. 

00:45:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Tell me how that works, I mean, you guys are — 

00:45:45SHARLEEN She wants to like choose our friends or choose where I hang out or boyfriends or husbands. 

00:45:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE And she probably gave up already. 

00:45:55SHARLEEN No, no. That’s the thing. 

00:46:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE You really think that’s not the — 

00:46:00SHARLEEN No, that’s the thing, she hasn’t given up. 

00:46:00PATTI I was supposed to. 

00:46:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE She hasn’t given up? 

00:46:05SHARLEEN No. 

00:46:05PATTI I was 14 when my parents chose my husband for me and I got married. And he was a nightmare, he was a man from hell, I think, sometimes. But I hate to say that especially in front of the boys, but he was. But the thing is sometimes I think is not fair what happened to me, I do it to them, but sometimes, I feel like if I don’t get involved they don’t know what to do. 

00:46:30SHARLEEN She doesn’t leave things alone like if the water is all calm, she has to drop a rock. She doesn’t let things be. 

00:46:35PATTI I see there are good looking guys, I keep telling them, look at him, he is cute, look at him, get close to him or something like that, I want them to get married. 

00:46:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE But in a way you gave up the notion that you’re going to have to choose. 

00:46:50PATTI Not they choose, yes. 

00:46:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE A boy I mean, for them? 

00:46:55PATTI Choose, yes, I don’t want to choose her husband. 

00:46:55SHARLEEN Sometimes I feel like she suffocates us with her opinions and her thoughts and her beliefs. 

00:47:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Tell me about an opinion lately. 

00:47:05SHARLEEN I mean, they are nice, but. 

00:47:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE Some of the opinion that really — 

00:47:10SHARLEEN They make sense, but they make sense to you, not everybody has to go along with what you thing is the best way to do things. And she feels like, if you want to be a winner, you have to do it her way. 

00:47:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Who is the more opinionated at home? I mean, she has a strong opinion, but who else? 

00:47:30SHARLEEN I think we all are that’s why we don’t get along. Everybody has an input. 

00:47:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE And do you have a strong opinion of how your mom should behave, do you see –? 

00:47:40SHARLEEN Yeah, I just wish she should be more calm, and what just she acts, so. 

00:47:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE Is there any space in this, which I mean, you did say that before that you have the dream that things were, that you were more calm, so that you could relate with her in a different level. Is there some space for her not be so calm? 

00:47:55SHARLEEN I mean, her house is what she creates for herself, to be calm or not be calm right. 

00:48:00PATTI Sharleen, and most of the time you guys come over there even with my bad fit dinner is ready, lunch is is ready. 

00:48:10SHARLEEN Yeah. 

00:48:10PATTI We sit, talk and have fun, but sometimes like well, yesterday when I asked you to spend time with me you said, not it was an argument. 

00:48:15SHARLEEN I can’t, I had plans. 

00:48:20PATTI And most of the time they come over there and they have fun. 

00:48:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE But aren’t you — 

00:48:20PATTI It’s not always fun. 

00:48:25SHARLEEN Of course. 

00:48:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Are you willing to allow for your kids to sometimes not to respond to your demand of what you want, I mean, is there sometimes some voice in you says, you know, maybe I know I will like that, but it doesn’t make sense again. 

00:48:40PATTI I do. You should have seen me before. 

00:48:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Tell me about that. 

00:48:45PATTI No, honest, I used to want them to be there all of the time, but not now. 

00:48:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE I like your sense of humor actually. 

00:48:50PATTI Thank you. No, honest I used to be to be want them to be there all of the time. 

00:48:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Ah, ha. So, now you want them sometimes, not all the time. 

00:49:00PATTI Like when they moved out, the first one moved out, I want her to call every. 

00:49:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE You were crazy. 

00:49:05PATTI Every hour, every hour, tell me what is going on, where is she going, what’s she doing and everything. Now, I changed a lot. Thanks to Sandi, I give them lots of freedom and space and I let them to choose what they should do and give them lots of freedom, don’t I? 

00:49:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE Have you been looking for boys for her. 

00:49:25SHARLEEN Nobody remind her too. 

00:49:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE Won’t you remind her to look for boys for you. 

00:49:30SHARLEEN Yeah, too much. 

00:49:30GONZALO BACIGALUPE So sometimes, I mean, in a way you’re seeing the changes, but sometimes you get as obnoxious about it. 

00:49:40SHARLEEN No, sometimes I just give up on her because I feel like, I don’t know how to get through her. 

00:49:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Patti, let me switch a little a bit, because she said something that you probably guys can sort of like talk and addressing therapy. If you were not having this pain and you were not having this serious difficulty to walk, which is in a way sort of like a new member in the family, I mean, is a new situation I guess for you, it was not there. How — what would you be doing? 

00:50:10PATTI I was working first of all. 

00:50:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE What were you doing? 

00:50:10PATTI I was caregiver and I have told you. And — 

00:50:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE Oh I’m sorry. 

00:50:15PATTI I was a caregiver and I would be working 8, 12 hours a day and sometimes when I was off during the weekend I was shopping at the mall. When I go to a store I see, for example, meat are on sale I buy them all meats whatever it’s out there like, call her, I bought you meat, it’s awesome, it was all sometime I get it. Do things for them all. 

00:50:35SHARLEEN And that’s not right, because she is not letting us grow up and have responsibility, she wants to do things, these things for us and she — 

00:50:45PATTI Who said it is not right? 

00:50:45SHARLEEN She doesn’t understand. 

00:50:45PATTI Even if I don’t call and still you come and take it from the freezer. 

00:50:45SHARLEEN Mom, the thing I’m trying to — she cooks everyday as she delivers it to my sister’s food — house everyday. I tell her let her learn on her own, you do things for yourself, go for — don’t meat stuff, go for a massage, go for this and that, clean your room if you are bored. Learn how to read and write if you are bored, do something else, stop involving your plans so much around your children, find other hobbies, find other things to entertain your life with. 

00:51:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE What other things that she does for you or your siblings you will like her to continue doing? 

00:51:25SHARLEEN Be the same mother that she has always been, but just not expect so much because she gives, and then, she expects so much back in return, her expectations are too high. 

00:51:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE So you will like her to continue cooking and doing the things? 

00:51:35SHARLEEN Once in a while. Once in — don’t make it like, it’s a family ritual every week. Let it — let us — treat us like we have grown up and are out and doing our own life because that’s how it actually is. It’s just too much sometimes. I feel like, if it wasn’t because of my involvement with — so much of my energy involved with her, I would have probably take off to Europe for six months, work out there, do something, I would have a free mind to decide for myself, what to do for like a summer time. 

00:52:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE Do you have a sense that your mom may think that if she doesn’t do those things, that she would be thinking that she is sort of like neglecting with you guys? 

00:52:20SHARLEEN Yeah, she would feel like she has left us alone, that’s just her habit or how she grew up, her mom probably that these things. 

00:52:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE The time I will report her to child protector servants and doing the stuff. 

00:52:30SHARLEEN I don’t know about it, but she feels like she’s being the best mom. 

00:52:35GONZALO BACIGALUPE Are you ever thought about reporting her for, I mean for — 

00:52:35SANDI For great mom. 

00:52:40GONZALO BACIGALUPE For actually, no, for letting them be their — do their things. 

00:52:45SANDI On their own. 

00:52:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE Yeah. And have you thought about you could be reported, if you let them to be more independent or–? 

00:52:50PATTI No, not. 

00:52:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE I mean I never thought that in a way, I mean, negligence can be different. 

00:52:55PATTI I’d tell they love that. 

00:52:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE I was wondering if what it seems to bother you is not so much what she may do or what she may expect after she does it? 

00:53:05SHARLEEN I feel like I give her an inch and then she expects a mile. I give her like, I try to please her and please her let’s say, three days in a row, and she gets overexcited, then she thinks like it’s a shopping for everyday. 

00:53:15GONZALO BACIGALUPE What are you thinking Patti when you hear that? I mean, you are not getting angry at this point, you were so like maybe she has a point. 

00:53:25PATTI No, I will call her and I leave her home, but no. 

00:53:25SHARLEEN It’s really that’s how she things then, then I try to — 

00:53:25PATTI I swear to god, I will not call her. 

00:53:25SHARLEEN See, that’s — 

00:53:30PATTI I will not contact her and just leave her alone from now. 

00:53:30SHARLEEN She’s. I try to explain a point to her. 

00:53:35PATTI No that’s not the point., 

00:53:35SHARLEEN Then she feels this way, I’m here to like, you know I feel. 

00:53:35PATTI I will give you the space as much as you want. 

00:53:40SHARLEEN That’s how she feels and I feel like sometimes she’s like so in her zoom box that she’s not willing to like let them down. 

00:53:45PATTI As a mother, how old your kids get then you see them like they are catching the fire, you want to grab them and not let them burn theirself. 

00:53:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Your kids are going to be your kids. 

00:53:55SHARLEEN Yeah, but you can’t interfere. 

00:53:55PATTI It doesn’t matter how old they get, I want to go take them, especially because I had that abuser husband, I don’t want she marry somebody abuser. 

00:54:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE Let me — we are going to have to stop very soon and I was wondering Sandi, do you sometimes, in the sessions struggle with helping them to feed out how to negotiate these things. 

00:54:15SANDI I do constantly. 

00:54:20GONZALO BACIGALUPE And do you have a sense that that is sort of like that the struggle is that you know the man for mom to be more balanced, less the man they know or whatever, or controlling or intuitive or whatever the way the kids may see it, or the way Patti see it as, you know, this is the way I understand being a mother and this is the way I do things and this is when I want to take care of them. How each put the other one in sort of like a paradox, it’s like, love me, don’t love me kind of thing, you know. 

00:55:00SANDI Right, exactly. 

00:55:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE It’s care for me, but don’t care for me. It’s how to find that. 

00:55:05SANDI Right. 

00:55:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE That balance I guess. 

00:55:05SANDI Exactly. I have been focusing on more negotiation between them, and how they can compromise as far as what makes Patti happy and what makes the children happy. As for one big issue with Patti is the way they cloth also, the way they choose their clothing, that is another big issue. She is not happy with some of this stuff that you be talked about this before. So constantly I’m trying to balance between our way of living back home and our way of living over here, and by negotiation and compromise. 

00:56:00PATTI It’s mostly Shireen, the way she cloth, I don’t like it at all, I cannot even stand to look at her. I will have to steal it and throw it into trash can. 

00:56:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE Although, you know here you — it’s interesting because in a way here, you know in the stage you might seem like very conservative around it, but if you were to be Iran with all of the kids, you’ll be considered sort of like the revolutionary and almost hang you for allowing your kids to wear the clothing they are wearing right? 

00:56:25SANDI Exactly. 

00:56:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE And that’s that although, I don’t know how — although you are here, you saw you feel like you are there in some way, I mean, you carry your culture around is about you. 

00:56:40PATTI What do you suggest for me? 

00:56:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE What do I suggest for you? I don’t know. 

00:56:45PATTI Leave them alone. 

00:56:50GONZALO BACIGALUPE You cannot leave them alone. Right. But let me — I don’t think that you can leave them alone. 

00:56:55PATTI I’ll try it. 

00:56:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE But at the same time, I think that you need to add another something that you need to do, I mean, I don’t think that you can leave them. 

00:57:05SHARLEEN Yeah, find something to do. 

00:57:05GONZALO BACIGALUPE I don’t know. 

00:57:05SHARLEEN For real, find something to do. 

00:57:10GONZALO BACIGALUPE I don’t think that you can leave them alone. I think that you’re still going to be concerned about them. I mean it’s impossible for you, what impress me and this is something that coming to terms with what is happening to you and your body, it’s not an easy task, I mean, definitely it’s — it must be really, really, really hard, and how to have other people who can be a resource. I mean, you were having that conversation right now, how you can have other people who can be resourced to help you with that, I mean, that’s something that I think that should really be having conversation, the two of you. 

00:57:45SANDI Yeah. 

00:57:45GONZALO BACIGALUPE About what kinds of resources you can use besides you know, getting some help from your kids. I mean, because there are some things that your kids not able to do to help you with dealing with this pain and you know you were talking about your weight and how to heal this and on and on. I mean, this is sort of like a new adjustment. And before you were dealing something to happen in the past that came to visit during the present, you were happy a year and a half, you have always that sort of suddenly you were faced with this very traumatic event, series of events I, mean, what happened to you before you came here from what I understand was very traumatic. And sort of like now you are face something that is very traumatic. I mean, how do you deal with this excruciating pain, difficulty, I mean, how can you be able to walk in your own and having to — I mean, that’s — I find it very dramatic. It’s sort of like given up something, and you cannot just run away to another culture to run away from this pain. I mean, and clearly, you’re going to have to join something to be able to be aware, I mean, join, I don’t know exactly what, because that’s something that you probably know more about. 

00:59:00SANDI We’ve been exploring different options as far as resources. Patti came up and you came up with weight watchers idea. And she said, that’s some place I can join and it makes me feel good and I said, okay, then you are benefiting so many ways, your health, your weight and also the psychologically you are benefiting from that. 

00:59:25GONZALO BACIGALUPE Hope this was somehow helpful. And we don’t have more time. I’m really privileged for having you coming to the interview with someone you do not know anything about. I’m going to still thinking about this as I watch the video tape and I watch where we and I also would feel that there are things that maybe I didn’t ask, but that you would have asked and I would just share them with you. Alright, because I think that you guys said so much and shared so much with us. Alright. So, thank you. 

00:59:55SANDI Thank you. 

00:59:55GONZALO BACIGALUPE Thank you. 

01:00:00SANDI Thank you. 

01:00:00Family & Sandi Return 

01:00:00Epilogue 

01:00:00& 

01:00:00Afterthoughts 

01:00:00GONZALO BACIGALUPE I’m going to comment on some themes that had to with the interview per se with the family, the reflecting team for some conceptual ideas that I think that maybe important for people to know, and also to reflect on my own thinking as I was doing the interview and also about some of the things that I may have missed after having done the interview and having seen watch the video tape a couple of times. One of the things that I did not is in the case, in the Sandi’s case is how difficult it is for the reflecting team to react personally sometimes, but unknowingly to a family but to react to the overall therapeutic system although I may have emphasized that I find that sometimes it’s hard for therapists to think about the therapy system and not just the family. We are trying to observe the family and not to observe as interacting with the family and because it’s so compelling sometimes the story of the client, but I find that it is helpful to think about the relationship between the therapist and the family and some of the isomorphisms that happened there to understand what is happening in the family. In this case, one of the things that we find is that trauma occurs, I mean, at various levels. On the one side, you have the survival story, which is also at the same time a traumatic story. That is the husband, the father and the husband in this family will seem to have been very abusive towards his wife and the mother and towards the children. And that isn’t itself fairly traumatic. And then the survival story is leaving him and coming to the United States. And then, the second peace of this traumatic story is for the children to come to terms and for the mother to come to terms with having left one of the children in the home country. The other peace of the trauma is in itself the story of survival becomes — could become story of trauma as this family come and immigrate the United States. In the interview, we didn’t explore in detail the immigration story, we have enough time, because in some way, the conflict between the children and the mother, particularly one child and the mother, adult child takes over in terms of the interview, in terms of what becomes figure. And so, and then, as we — as that conversation moves along we’re moving to knowing little bit about acknowledging the trauma of coming to terms with the illness for mother. One of the things I did, I do in first interview of course, is to know who is in the family and try to build a basic genogram and that’s what I find myself doing in the first part of the interview. And also talking about how is it that they decide to come for a consultation. Conceptually a theme that I saw was interesting in this interview is the idea of leaving home, how is that this girl is struggling with independence, how mother is struggling with this independence. And how they are both in some ways struggling with the idea of dependence and independence and basically struggling with different notions of what it means to be independent or be dependent. And I would add that a lot of this course that is struggling with is that this course of how our society tends to see the kids leaving home, and tends to in some way, see independence as more important than dependence and work a lot around those polarities between dependents and independence rather think in terms of interdependence. And particularly now that they have to negotiate how mother is going to taking care by the children since she is getting ill. One of the things that I didn’t address in the interview is how the therapist define this process as detachment and I never addressed this idea of detachment, which is in itself, part of the process thinking about independence as separation rather than as joining. And it could have been, I think, I saw there was a last opportunity to talk about the therapist understanding of this process, since she understood it as detachment. One of the things that I also found myself doing a lot of was listening to the mother’s situation to the facts and the daughter, while they were showing some of the tension that existed between the two of them. And at the same time, as the competition evolve, I do acknowledge the emotional climate and how is it that in particular, the daughter is feeling in the session and at certain moment, she is very upset and sad and angry. And I knowledge that and maybe I too have acknowledged a little bit more mother’s emotional stands. One of the things that I didn’t also address that that doesn’t seem that the therapists could address later on is, how is that the daughter seems to know more about what’s going on with the siblings and to really validate her concern for the family in that way that in someway, she is being very protective of her mother as she takes care of the siblings. Another concern of mine and I think that I might have done that during the interview, was to always bring forth the voices of those who are present and those who are being represented in this case how, she, the daughter will represent the voices of the siblings. And another aspect of the interview includes how is it that I ask about social support and where is the family, what are the connections they have, and at the beginning, I ask about, is there is anybody else who immigrated with them and — or who is his close by as a relative. And at the end of the interview, I again suggest the possibility of thinking about social support, thinking of friends or other professionals or paraprofessionals who might provide support in particular around the new needs that mother, that the adult have right now in terms of the illness. The peace that was present in the session is this notion of agency. Although someone might have gone through a very traumatic period, I try to highlight the process of survival of overcoming that particular period and to think in terms of the future. And then think in terms of ambition and different kind of relationship and a couple of times in the interview I ask the mother and daughter to ambition how do they ambition in different kind of relationship. In the interviews, you can observe, and this is I think, basic in the collaborative approach, I often ask how — I mean, I check with the therapist and the clients around issues of how is this conversation moving, if this conversation were to continue this way, where will they go, and I ask the therapist to hypothesize what would happen if they were to continue talking in a particular way. During the reflecting theme, the basic conversation was around the dependence, independence and interdependence. And what I found very interesting is, how is it that the different place in the reflecting theme we’re able to understand the immigrant experience and the big cultural aspects of this family. And another piece that I saw that was important is to sort of like understand what it is to become more independent of your own parent while at the same time, coming to term with the notion that they would have — you would have to take care of your own parent, although this is in a very — at a early time, earlier than the usual. During the reflecting time, I thought to myself, I was reminded of how being close to the family coming from the same background, in this case, the therapist being also of some of from Iran may not necessarily ensure your success from a multi-cultural perspective. Although the relationship with the client maybe a very positive one and may not necessarily ensure the success and in that sense, the value of bringing the reflecting with very different voices. The peace that viewers may find interesting is, how I use words, in this case, the therapists, some are from Iran, I am also a non-English Irish speaker and how I use this an opportunity to play with words and to use humor with the family and the therapist, which I do often during the session. One of the questions I ask them and it will have different configuration with different families, I ask them who is more opinionated, who has a strong opinion, which in some way, is basically bringing — reflecting on something that could — we get them into trouble, something that will be seen as problematic, but at the same time, it maybe seen as validating. And when I ask who is more opinionated, a typical kind of secret questions I guess is, I’m basically, assuming that they are both opinionated that in a way they cheer some similarities, in fact, that with people are in conflict, often there’s, because they are seeing themselves as two different. And towards the end of the interview, I term on that I like her sense of humor and her daughter smile and I see how important it is to always validate both, any member, all the members of the family attending the session, so that the other one — so that the other one can feel okay about criticizing the other members of the family, but not having the therapist sort of like completely in coalition with that same statement. That is, if I can see and I can validate each members of the family, the other ones may also see that particular validation. Often in a consultation, I will mention that there’s themes that can be talked in therapy later and I may say maybe we can, I could have same, maybe, we can think about this idea between now and then if I were to be alone as a therapist. Often in a consolidation, I may say, this is something that maybe helpful to talk about in the future in a therapy session. I may say something of that sort in a reflective way. Another aspect that I noticed in this session like in many other sessions is, how expectations about the others, are they ones that may — high expectations about another member of the family might bring a lot of conflict. In terms of assimilation and I — towards the end I term on that she’d always be concerned about the children. And that there might be other ways, in which you can get resources. I also try to reframe some of the difficulties using multi-cultural framework, for instance, by saying that there is some things that you might be thinking here, that here it could be conservative, but in home country couldn’t because couldn’t be considered very radical and very different. And I also try to help them to think about this different transitions they are going through, including — and this different traumas they are dealing with in the past, in the present and in the future. 

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01:15:45END TRANSCRIPT 

About “Mother and Daughter: A Cultural Tale”

Therapist  Gonzalo Bacigalupe  (Thousand Oaks, CA: Masterswork Productions, 2003), 1 hour 16 minutes

An interview with an Irani immigrant mother and her 23 year old daughter highlights the difference that their cultural lenses create in their mutual expectations. Very typical of children becoming Ame…See full details

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NRNP/PRAC 6645 Comprehensive Psychiatric

Evaluation Note Template

INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE EXEMPLAR AND TEMPLATE—READ CAREFULLY

If you are struggling with the format or remembering what to include, follow the Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template AND the Rubric as your guide. It is also helpful to review the rubric in detail in order not to lose points unnecessarily because you missed something required. Below highlights by category are taken directly from the grading rubric for the assignments. After reviewing full details of the rubric, you can use it as a guide.

In the Subjective section, provide:

· Chief complaint

· History of present illness (HPI)

· Past psychiatric history

· Medication trials and current medications

· Psychotherapy or previous psychiatric diagnosis

· Pertinent substance use, family psychiatric/substance use, social, and medical history

· Allergies

· ROS

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

In the Objective section, provide:

· Physical exam documentation of systems pertinent to the chief complaint, HPI, and history

· Diagnostic results, including any labs, imaging, or other assessments needed to develop the differential diagnoses.

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

In the Assessment section, provide:

· Results of the mental status examination, presented in paragraph form.

· At least three differentials with supporting evidence. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for each differential diagnosis and explain what DSM-5 criteria rules out the differential diagnosis to find an accurate diagnosis. Explain the critical-thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case .

· Read rating descriptions to see the grading standards!

Reflect on this case. Include what you learned and what you might do differently. Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations ( demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment !), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

(The comprehensive evaluation is typically the initial new patient evaluation. You will practice writing this type of note in this course. You will be ruling out other mental illnesses so often you will write up what symptoms are present and what symptoms are not present from illnesses to demonstrate you have indeed assessed for all illnesses which could be impacting your patient. For example, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, bipolar symptoms, psychosis symptoms, substance use, etc.)

EXEMPLAR BEGINS HERE

CC (chief complaint): A brief statement identifying why the patient is here. This statement is verbatim of the patient’s own words about why they are presenting for assessment. For a patient with dementia or other cognitive deficits, this statement can be obtained from a family member.

HPI: Begin this section with patient’s initials, age, race, gender, purpose of evaluation, current medication, and referral reason. For example:

N.M. is a 34-year-old Asian male who presents for psychotherapeutic evaluation for anxiety. He is currently prescribed sertraline by (?) which he finds ineffective. His PCP referred him for evaluation and treatment.

Or

P.H. is a 16-year-old Hispanic female who presents for psychotherapeutic evaluation for concentration difficulty. She is not currently prescribed psychotropic medications. She is referred by her mental health provider for evaluation and treatment.

Then, this section continues with the symptom analysis for your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis.

Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. This section contains the symptoms that is bringing the patient into your office. The symptoms onset, the duration, the frequency, the severity, and the impact. Your description here will guide your differential diagnoses. You are seeking symptoms that may align with many DSM-5 diagnoses, narrowing to what aligns with diagnostic criteria for mental health and substance use disorders. You will complete a psychiatric ROS to rule out other psychiatric illnesses.

Past Psychiatric History: This section documents the patient’s past treatments. Use the mnemonic GChMP.

General Statement: Typically, this is a statement of the patients first treatment experience. For example: The patient entered treatment at the age of 10 with counseling for depression during her parents’ divorce. OR The patient entered treatment for detox at age 26 after abusing alcohol since age 13.

Caregivers are listed if applicable.

Hospitalizations: How many hospitalizations? When and where was last hospitalization? How many detox? How many residential treatments? When and where was last detox/residential treatment? Any history of suicidal or homicidal behaviors? Any history of self-harm behaviors?

Medication trials: What are the previous psychotropic medications the patient has tried and what was their reaction? Effective, Not Effective, Adverse Reaction? Some examples: Haloperidol (dystonic reaction), risperidone (hyperprolactinemia), olanzapine (effective, insurance wouldn’t pay for it)

Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: This section can be completed one of two ways depending on what you want to capture to support the evaluation. First, does the patient know what type? Did they find psychotherapy helpful or not? Why? Second, what are the previous diagnosis for the client noted from previous treatments and other providers. (Or, you could document both.)

Substance Use History: This section contains any history or current use of caffeine, nicotine, illicit substance (including marijuana), and alcohol. Include the daily amount of use and last known use. Include type of use such as inhales, snorts, IV, etc. Include any histories of withdrawal complications from tremors, Delirium Tremens, or seizures.

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History: This section contains any family history of psychiatric illness, substance use illnesses, and family suicides. You may choose to use a genogram to depict this information (be sure to include a reader’s key to your genogram) or write up in narrative form.

Psychosocial History: This section may be lengthy if completing an evaluation for psychotherapy or shorter if completing an evaluation for psychopharmacology. However, at a minimum, please include:

· Where patient was born, who raised the patient

· Number of brothers/sisters (what order is the patient within siblings)

· Who the patient currently lives with in a home? Are they single, married, divorced, widowed? How many children?

· Educational Level

· Hobbies

· Work History: currently working/profession, disabled, unemployed, retired?

· Legal history: past hx, any current issues?

· Trauma history: Any childhood or adult history of trauma?

· Violence Hx:Concern or issues about safety (personal, home, community, sexual (current & historical)

Medical History: This section contains any illnesses, surgeries, include any hx of seizures, head injuries.

Current Medications: Include dosage, frequency, length of time used, and reason for use. Also include OTC or homeopathic products.

Allergies:Include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately. Provide a description of what the allergy is (e.g., angioedema, anaphylaxis). This will help determine a true reaction vs. intolerance.

Reproductive Hx:Menstrual history (date of LMP), Pregnant (yes or no), Nursing/lactating (yes or no), contraceptive use (method used), types of intercourse: oral, anal, vaginal, other, any sexual concerns

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, X-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines).

A ssessment

Mental Status Examination: For the purposes of your courses, this section must be presented in paragraph form and not use of a checklist! This section you will describe the patient’s appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought processes, thought content, perceptions (hallucinations, pseudo hallucinations, illusions, etc.), cognition, insight, judgment, and SI/HI. See an example below. You will modify to include the specifics for your patient on the above elements—DO NOT just copy the example. You may use a preceptor’s way of organizing the information if the MSE is in paragraph form.

He is an 8 yo African American male who looks his stated age. He is cooperative with examiner. He is neatly groomed and clean, dressed appropriately. There is no evidence of any abnormal motor activity. His speech is clear, coherent, normal in volume and tone. His thought process is goal directed and logical. There is no evidence of looseness of association or flight of ideas. His mood is euthymic, and his affect appropriate to his mood. He was smiling at times in an appropriate manner. He denies any auditory or visual hallucinations. There is no evidence of any delusional thinking.   He denies any current suicidal or homicidal ideation. Cognitively, he is alert and oriented. His recent and remote memory is intact. His concentration is good. His insight is good. 

Differential Diagnoses:You must have at least three differentials with supporting evidence. Explain what rules each differential in or out and justify your primary diagnosis selection. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

Also included in this section is the reflection. Reflect on this case and discuss whether or not you agree with your preceptor’s treatment of the patient and why or why not. What did you learn from this case? What would you do differently?

Also include in your reflection a discussion related to legal/ethical considerations (demonstrate critical thinking beyond confidentiality and consent for treatment!), health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural background, etc.).

Case Formulation and Treatment Plan.   

Includes documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other health care providers, therapeutic interventions with psychotherapy, education, disposition of the patient, and any planned follow-up visits. Each diagnosis or condition documented in the assessment should be addressed in the plan. The details of the plan should follow an orderly manner. *see an example below—you will modify to your practice so there may be information excluded/included—what does your preceptor document?

Example:

Initiation of (what form/type) of individual, group, or family psychotherapy and frequency.

Documentation of any resources you provide for patient education or coping/relaxation skills, homework for next appointment.

Client has emergency numbers: Emergency Services 911, the Client’s Crisis Line 1-800-_______. Client instructed to go to nearest ER or call 911 if they become actively suicidal and/or homicidal. (only if you or preceptor provided them)

Reviewed hospital records/therapist records for collaborative information; Reviewed PCP report (only if actually available)

Time allowed for questions and answers provided. Provided supportive listening. Client appeared to understand discussion. Client is amenable with this plan and agrees to follow treatment regimen as discussed. (This relates to informed consent; you will need to assess their understanding and agreement.)

Follow up with PCP as needed and/or for:

Write out what psychotherapy testing or screening ordered/conducted, rationale for ordering

Any other community or provider referrals

Return to clinic:

Continued treatment is medically necessary to address chronic symptoms, improve functioning, and prevent the need for a higher level of care OR if one-time evaluation, say so and any other follow up plans.

References (move to begin on next page)

You are required to include at least three evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting.

Debate

Debate continues over the use of honeypots. Select one side of the argument (for or against) and research your position. Also, note weaknesses on the other side of the argument. Be sure to address all issues surrounding your argument. 

OUTLINE

FOLLOW THE OUTLINE EXAMPLE ATTACHED IN THE FILE.  

Identify local, state, and national resources which facilitate safe and effective transitions of care for older adults.

Your supervisor at  Home Health Services is satisfied with the resources described in your annotated bibliography and is eager for you to continue your work. As a next step, your supervisor wants you to develop and share the following items with them.

Write an introduction about your in-service presentation topic.

Create an outline that identifies and describes the important content areas for your in-service presentation topic.

Write a conclusion.

Provide an APA formatted References list that contains at least 2 credible references that you intend to cite in your presentation.

OUTLINE EXAMPLE

Increased Risk of Falls

Everyone strives to feel safe and comfortable in their living surroundings. With age comes the necessity to keep one’s mind at ease while going about one’s everyday tasks. In older individuals, falls are the primary cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Because of the increasing incidence of frailty and a limited physiologic reserve among the aging population, fatal falls occur in persons of all ages, but those over 75 experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Falls are the primary cause of injury-related emergency room visits, especially among the elderly. Falls can cause injuries such as hip fractures, brain injuries, and rib fractures. Depression, social isolation, and limitations in their other activities are some of the additional drawbacks. Falls, whether they cause harm, have a significant influence on one’s quality of life, especially for the elderly. As a result of their fear of falling, an increasing number of older adults are limiting their activities and social engagements. Therefore, as nurses, ensure assess fall risks and prevent falls in older adults.

I. Falls are a frequent clinical condition that affects approximately half of all Americans over the age of 65.

A. An older adult is treated in the emergency room after a fall every 11 seconds.

1. Because of the higher incidence of frailty and a limited physiologic reserve among the elderly, falling causes higher rates of morbidity and mortality among individuals over 75.

a. It is typical for elderly adults to have multiple chronic health conditions, as well as a loss of physical strength and bone density. Those are the ones who induce them to fall and easily fracture their bones.

b. Muscle strength, balance, and reaction time all decline as we age which put older adults at a significant risk of falling.

II. There are many risk factors of fall in elderly.

A. Polypharmacy, antipsychotic drugs, visual deficit, and cognitive impairment can cause falls in older adults.

1. Many older adults take multiple drugs daily and receive treatment from different physicians. As well as they tend to take antipsychotic drugs for depression or other mental illnesses.

a. For instance, many elderlies have hypertension, and sometimes they take both diuretics and antihypertensive medication for it. These combined medications may cause severe hypotension and risk for falls.

b. Many older adults must depend on other people with ADLs, lost their loved ones, lonely, and depressed, so they take antipsychotic drugs to minimize these conditions. Antipsychotic medications might cause drowsiness and risk for falls.

III. Nursing management of falls

A. Management of fall is challenge for nurses, but there are several ways to reduce falls.

1. Encourage fall risk clients to wear slip resistant socks or shoes, reinforce to use call light before getting up, rise and reposition slowly, use walker, stay within arm’s reach, use bed alarm or chair alarm, and answer call lights promptly. These interventions produced a 30% reduction in falls in an Australian subacute hospital.

a. Some facilities use video monitor or one to one sitter to prevent falls in high-risk older adults.

b. Wear a high-risk fall bracelet to alert all staffs that the patient requires assistance with ambulation.

c. Keep high fall-risk patients closer to nursing stations so that staffs can get to them faster.

In conclusion, falling is becoming more common among older adults, and it is not a natural part of the aging process. Fall prevention is particularly important in older adults because falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in this age group. Because falls in the elderly have such serious effects, it’s vital to watch for signs and symptoms, as well as risk factors. Patients over 65 who have fallen should be thoroughly assessed. By detecting and treating the underlying cause of a fall, patients can regain baseline function and reduce the risk of recurrent falls. These methods help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with falls.  If left untreated, it can result in serious harm and even death. As competent nurses, we strive to protect our patients from falling and provide them with the highest quality of life possible.

References:

Hoffmann, V. S., Neumann, L., Golgert, S., & von Renteln-Kruse, W. (2015). Pro-active fall-risk

management is mandatory to sustain in hospital-fall prevention in older patients-

validation of the Lucas fall-risk screening in 2,337 patients. The Journal of Nutrition,

Health & Aging, 19(10),1012-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12603-015-0662-1

Meiner, S. E. ([Insert Year of Publication]). Gerontologic Nursing (6th Edition). Elsevier Health

Sciences (US). https://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/books/9780323498111

Sci256 Last Minute Project

Assignment Content

  1. A local middle school science teacher is teaching students how information collected about the health of the environment can be used to positively change human behavior. The class wants to learn about a local environmental challenge and if there are any related local regulations or policies. They also want to know how they, individually, can make a difference. As a member of the community and a person interested in environmental science, you have volunteered to create a video presentation to share with the middle school science students to help. Keep in mind that middle school students are typically in grades 6–8 and are 11–14 years old. Your presentation must be comprehensive and at the appropriate level for your audience to understand.


    Consult the following resources to create a video:
    1. Identify a local environmental challenge.
    2. Summarize the local environmental challenge. Support your summary with at least 2 sources from the University Library, reputable environmental groups, or government websites.
    3. Explain why this challenge is relevant to the middle school class. Remember that while it is important to be honest with children about the realities of the health of the environment, be sure not to scare them. Focus on why it should be important to them, and that they can take action to help.
    4. Identify any local regulations or policies that have been created in response to this challenge. Remember, the purpose of this presentation is to help the students think about how they can change their behavior, not to teach them about regulations. Only mention the regulations so that students can understand how society has used regulations to change behavior. Do not spend too much time explaining details of the regulations to the students.
    5. Recommend 3 sustainable actions the middle school students can do in response to this challenge to help.
    6. Submit your assignment.

      Resources

3090 Mod 6 DISCUSSION BOARD

Discussion Questions:Real-world leaders can be teachers of change management through their example – whether effective or not.  In conjunction with this week’s resources we will discuss with each other just such real-world examples and explain how a leader encourages change or fails to do so. 

  1. Using credible news sources, locate a leader who is leading or attempting to lead change (look at the Media Bias Chart to ensure your source is not biased).
  2. The leader you select can be local, national, or international.
    1. Make sure to select a different leader from other students. 
  3. There must be news coverage about this leader.
  4. Cite the news coverage you use in APA format.
  5. Discuss how that leader is encouraging change or failing to encourage change.

Week 11 Disc

Reflect on where your academic journey has taken you, and where you want to go in your professional career in accounting. How will you use the knowledge and skills you gained while participating in this graduate accounting capstone course towards your job in the United States Army?

Assess your preparedness for a business leadership and management position based on what you have learned in your graduate degree program.

Be sure to respond to at least one of your classmates’ posts.

Comparative Advantage

International economics is dominated by the idea of comparative advantage – that different endowments and activities in different countries make them relatively more or less efficient at different economic activities.  In other words, countries (and organizations) should specialize in the economic activities where they have a competitive edge against the competition.

APA style, elaborate on the concept of comparative advantage and how this concept is the determining factor in the long-term stability of a country and profitability of an organization.  In particular, research and determine the following:

  • Define and explain the concept of comparative advantage.
  • Select any country that interests you.  Then, determine one product or service where the country has a comparative advantage and one where they have a comparative disadvantage.  Discuss the factors within the country that created this comparative advantage, and also the factors that contributed to their comparative disadvantage.
  • Finally, where the country has a comparative advantage, detail the strategy the country should adapt to maintain this advantage for the next five years.  Importantly, comparative advantages fade rapidly and countries (and organizations) should constantly strive to maintain and expand their existing comparative advantages.

Nursing Urgent Assignment

Explain the disease  DIABETES MELLITUS  AND ITS TREATMETS 

4 PAGES IN TOTAL 

PAGE 1 SHOULD BE THE TITLE

PAGES 2-3 WORK 

PAGE 4 REFERENCES AT LEAST 3

COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING

community and public health nursing

from Learning by Experience and Reflection:

· Develop your vision of the ideal health care system.

·  List some of the characteristics that constitute such a system. What would be the goal or goals of your ideal system?

· Think about how you would go about implementing your ideal system.

· Consider some of the problems you are likely to encounter.

·   Must address all of the topics.

·  150-word minimum/250-word maximum without the references

.  The paper must be written in APA format

· Minimum of two references (the course textbook can be one of the references, as well as the organizational website) in APA format. If additional articles were chosen, they must have been published within the last 3-5 years.

Political And Legal Differences Assignment

Evaluate how differences in political and legal systems create vast misunderstandings and tremendous opportunities in the international marketplace; then propose how an organization can overcome these misunderstandings and take advantage of these opportunities. 

Biological Basis And Ethical/Legal Considerations Of Psychotherapy

Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy

Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology?

Psychotherapy is used with individuals as well as in groups or families. The idea of discussing confidential information with a patient in front of an audience is probably quite foreign to you. However, in group and family therapy, this is precisely what the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner does. In your role, learning how to provide this type of therapy within the limits of confidentiality is essential.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

For this Discussion, you will consider whether psychotherapy also has a biological basis and analyze the ways in which legal and ethical considerations differ in the individual, family, and group therapy settings.

To prepare:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources, reflecting on foundational concepts of psychotherapy, biological and social impacts on psychotherapy, and legal and ethical issues across the modalities (individual, family, and group).

· Search the Walden Library databases for scholarly, peer-reviewed articles that inform and support your academic perspective on these topics.

Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis.Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments.Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy, and explain how these differences might impact your therapeutic approaches for clients in group, individual, and family therapy. Support your rationale with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources. 3 PAGES PAPERLEARNING RESOURCESNichols, M., & Davis, S. D. (2020). The essentials of family therapy (7th ed.). Pearson.Chapter 2, “Basic Techniques of Family Therapy” (pp. 33–35 only)Petiprin, A. (2016). Psychiatric and mental health nursing. Nursing Theory. https://www.nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/psychiatric-and-mental-health-nursing.phpWheeler, K. (Ed.). (2020). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing.Chapter 1, “The Nurse Psychotherapist and a Framework for Practice”Chapter 2, “The Neurophysiology of Trauma and Psychotherapy”Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Getting Started: Analyzing Journal Articles

In this course, you will be asked to support your work with references to peer-reviewed, scholarly references. Scholarly journals publish papers by professional authors and experts in the field using a peer-review process to review the work and assure quality before publishing. The purpose of a scholarly journal is to provide accurate information for scholars and other researchers. The focus is on content rather than advertising, a direct contrast to popular media. Scholarly journals publish both primary source and secondary source papers; the former usually is noted as original research and the latter as reviews and commentaries. You may still use professional publications (e.g., professional competencies or practice guidelines) or textbooks, but these should be supporting resources in addition to the required peer-reviewed, scholarly resources. Popular resources that are open source, rely heavily on advertising, or are opinion pieces should be avoided or used only sparing for a specific purpose and identified as such.

Review the following resources for more information about scholarly articles and evaluating resources:

Carnegie Vincent Library. (2013, March 22). Scholarly and popular sources [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/tN8S4CbzGXU

Walden Academic Skills Center. (2020). Critical reading for evaluation. https://waldenacademicskills.wordpress.com/2020/02/24/critical-reading-for-evaluation/

Walden Library. (2020). Evaluation resources: Introduction. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library

Globalization And Risk Assignment

One goal of a multinational organization is to build, protect and exploit its unique resources to establish a competitive advantage.  A similarly important goal of a multinational organization is to diversify the organization’s financial risk portfolio.  Discuss how globalization allows organizations to diversify their financial/business risks and amortize their fixed costs and resource investments throughout the organization. 

PowerPoint Presentation

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
OVERVIEW
For this assignment, you will create a professional looking PowerPoint presentation on an
operations management topic covered in this course. The scenario is that your supervisor has
assigned you the task of presenting a 30-minute training session on this topic. You need to
research your topic and prepare an engaging PowerPoint that would be used as a visual aid in for
your presentation.
Topic Ideas
The course textbook will be a great resource when looking for a topic that relates to some aspect
of operations management. Some examples of topics include (but are not limited to):
 How to deploy a successful quality improvement program
 Tips to effective demand forecasting
 How to create a meaningful and impactful mission statement
 What the keys to successful project management are
It is recommended that you pick a topic of interest and then do some research to make sure you
can find five credible sources – more about credible sources below. Once you are certain you can
locate five credible sources, begin creating your PowerPoint presentation.
INSTRUCTIONS
PowerPoint Requirements:
I. Title Slide
 This will be the first slide of your PowerPoint (and is NOT considered a content slide).
 This slide will include the following: title of your presentation, your full name, class
name & section number, and your institution (Liberty University).
II. Content Slides
 A minimum of 10 content slides must be included.
 All content slides must contain speaker notes.
 Speaker notes are a presenter’s “cheat sheet” if you will. In other words, speaker notes
are hidden from your audience, but you are able to view them while presenting.
 Speaker notes are NOT a copy of the information on your slide. Instead, speaker notes
expand upon and/or offer further clarification regarding points on each slide.
o To add speaker notes, go to the Notes pane under the slide where you will see
“Click to add notes”.  
III. Reference Slide
 This slide will be the last slide(s) of your PowerPoint (and is NOT considered a content
slide).
 This slide (or slides) will contain all sources used in your PowerPoint presentation.
 Sources must be formatted according to current APA formatting guidelines.




BUSI 411
Page 2 of 3
 In addition to current APA formatting guidelines, the inclusion of the complete URL
(sometimes called a permalink) is required for all full-text, peer-reviewed/scholarly
articles retrieved from Liberty’s online library journal database. Note that this is not the
same as the doi #. The URL must take your reader directly to the full text article within
Liberty’s online library journal database. If you’re unsure about the specific URL/link,
you can copy the entire web address from the top of the browser’s address bar once you
are viewing the full text article within Liberty’s online library journal database.
IV. Sources
 A minimum of four credible sources must be used within your presentation.
Required, credible sources include:
o Four full-text, peer-reviewed/scholarly articles retrieved from Liberty’s online
library journal database.
o Two of the above four full-text, peer-reviewed/scholarly articles must be
within the last 7 years.
o The course textbook (as listed on the course syllabus).
o You are able to include additional sources, other than the four credible sources
listed above; however, they must be full-text articles retrieved from Liberty’s
online library journal database.
 Sources NOT acceptable for this assignment:
o No textbooks (including e-books), other than the course textbook/ebook (as
listed on the course syllabus)
o No general Internet searching is acceptable.  Therefore, no blogs, education
sites, commercial sites, Wikipedia, About.com, editorials, abstracts, online
books, book reviews, etc.
V. Avoiding Plagiarism
 Create an original PowerPoint presentation; previously submitted work from this or
another course is considered self-plagiarism and is prohibited.
 Provide citations for the following:
o All statements, ideas, & thoughts (whether paraphrased or directly quoted) used
from an outside source.
o Tables, data, images, etc. used from an outside source.
o All citations should be formatted according to the most current APA formatting
guidelines and should directly follow the information used from an outside
source.
o All sources used must be formatted on your reference slide(s), according to
current APA formatting guidelines.
VI. Other Requirements and Reminders:
 Must be created in Microsoft PowerPoint and uploaded through the assignment link as a
.ppt or .pptx file.
 Individual slides and the overall design of your presentation must be professional and
engaging.
 A running header or page numbers are not required.
 An abstract is not required

Week 5 H

The DECIDE framework provides a good plan for product evaluation. Evaluate any personal device, such as a TV’s remote control, using the DECIDE framework. Discuss the usability of this framework in the device. What challenges did you face while applying the framework to the device?

PRAC 6645 – Assignment 2 – Week 1

Assignment 2: Clinical Skills Self-Assessment

Before embarking on any professional or academic activity, it is important to understand the background, knowledge, and experience you bring to it. You might ask yourself, “What do I already know? What do I need to know? And what do I want to know?” This critical self-reflection is especially important for developing clinical skills such as those for advanced practice nursing.  

The Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) Clinical Skills List and Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form provided in the Learning Resources can be used to celebrate your progress throughout your practicum and identify skills gaps. The list covers all necessary skills you should demonstrate during your practicum experiences.

Just as you did in PRAC 6635, for this Assignment, you assess where you are now in your clinical skill development and make plans for this practicum. Specifically, you will identify strengths and opportunities for improvement regarding the required practicum skills. In this practicum experience, when developing your goals and objectives, be sure to keep assessment and diagnostic reasoning in mind.

Instructions Assignment

1. Use the PMHNP Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form to complete the following:

· Rate yourself according to your confidence level performing the procedures identified on the Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form.  

· Based on your ratings, summarize your strengths and opportunities for improvement.   

· Based on your self-assessment and theory of nursing practice, develop 3–4 measurable goals and objectives for this practicum experience. Include them on the designated area of the form.  

· Use at least 3 references.

2. Please review the Self-Assessment for the previous class NRNP – 6635 (See attachment), so you don’t repeat the strengths and opportunities for improvement and the goals  

Self-assessment of Clinical Skills

Ariel Cordova Lopez

Walden University

PRAC 6635: Psychopathogy and Diagnostic Reasoning Practicum

Dr. Brandy Benson

March 05, 2022

Introduction

According to the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, NPs are licensed clinicians with a doctorate or master’s education who provide advanced health care to clients in collaboration with other health care professionals. Clinical training is an educational module that provides psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners an opportunity to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with mental and behavioral disorders. Clinical training offers PMHNP with essential skills to undertake their job functions. The clinical assessment form identifies and discusses my strengths and weaknesses concerning clinical skills. During the practicum experience, goals and objectives are necessary to maintain focus throughout the experience (Kleinpell et al., 2018).

Desired Clinical Skills forStudents to AchieveConfident (Cancompleteindependently)Mostlyconfident (Cancomplete withsupervision)Beginning (Haveperformed withsupervision orneedsupervision tofeel confident)New (Haveneverperformed ordoes not apply)
Comprehensive psychiatric evaluation skills in:
Recognizing clinical signs and symptoms of psychiatric illnessConfident
Differentiating betweenpathophysiological andpsychopathologicalconditionsMostly confident
Performing and interpreting a comprehensive and/or interval history and physical examination (including laboratory and diagnostic studies)Mostly confident
Performing and interpreting amental status examinationBeginning
Performing and interpreting apsychosocial assessment andfamily psychiatric historyMostly confident
Performing and interpreting afunctional assessment(activities of daily living,occupational, social, leisure,educational).Mostly confident
Diagnostic reasoning skill in:
Demonstrate knowledge ofpsychopathology of mentalillnesses through discussionfor different age groups andmental illnessesBeginning
Developing and prioritizing adifferential diagnoses listBeginning
Formulating diagnosesaccording to DSM 5 based onassessment dataBeginning
Differentiating betweennormal/abnormal age-relatedphysiological andpsychologicalsymptoms/changesBeginning
PsychotherapeuticTreatment Planning
Provide psychoeducation toindividuals and/or anycaregiversBeginning
Promote health and diseaseprevention techniquesMostly confident
Self-Assessment skill:
Develop SMART goals forpracticum experiencesMostly confident
Evaluating outcomes ofpracticum goals and modifyplan as necessaryMostly confident
Documenting and reflectingon learning experiencesMostly confident
Professional skills:
Maintains professionalboundaries and therapeuticrelationship with clients andstaffConfident
Collaborate with multidisciplinary teams to improveclinical practice in mental health settingsConfident
Identifies ethical and legaldilemmas with possibleresolutionsConfident
Demonstrates nonjudgmental practiceapproach and empathyConfident
Practices within scope ofpracticeConfident
Selecting and implementingappropriate screeninginstrument(s) andinterpreting results:
Demonstrates selecting thecorrect screening instrumentappropriate for the clinicalsituationBeginning
Implements the screeninginstrument efficiently andeffectively with the clientsBeginning
Interprets results forscreening instrumentsaccuratelyBeginning
Identifies the need to refer toanother specialty providerwhen applicableBeginning
Accurately documentsrecommendations forpsychiatric consultationswhen applicableMostly confident

Summary of strengths

Patient-centered care is my greatest strength during my daily routines with my patients. my patient-centered approach enables me to obtain relevant historical information and perform a complete physical and mental status exam. My culturally competent communication methods make me aware of patients’ empathic interview techniques. Patient-centered care enables a nurse practitioner to treat clients with respect and dignity. Another strength is delivering personalized and supportive care to my clients (Chambers & Ryder 2018). Over the years, I gained experience maintaining a positive attitude while communicating with patients to avoid annoying them. Empathic interview techniques allow me to perform a comprehensive examination of patients to develop an accurate diagnosis of their condition. To maintain these skills, I practice them daily in community health clinics and medical wards. I can describe the variations in the patient presentation according to age and cultural background.

Another essential skill that is quite beneficial to me is recognizing and making recommendations on the possible use of psychotropic drugs. I usually embrace a warm demeanor during my interactions with my patients, which is essential in obtaining historical data from multiple sources. I have a complete understanding of each component of the mental status exam which enables me to describe common abnormalities and their causes. The principle of communication has allowed me to conduct myself professionally and be more empathetic to accept criticism and learn from my mistakes. Documentation is another notable strength that I utilize to note down clinical findings, diagnoses, and clinical reasoning. At times, laboratory findings may be unavailable; hence, I use my communication skills to obtain information with the patient and other professionals. My multifaceted skill sets have been an immense help, especially in the early identification of psychopathology symptoms.

Opportunities for growth

I need to develop more interview techniques for challenging situations, such as dealing with hostile, potentially assaultive, and cognitively impaired patients. There are many complications when it comes to diagnosing mental and behavioral disorders. Most psychological and pathophysiological disorders are challenging to diagnose because they require extensive knowledge; hence I need to gain a more comprehensive understanding and better my assessment skills. I need to focus on psychopathological differential diagnosis in that it becomes my priority. Another area of improvement is distinguishing between psychopathology and pathophysiology since they are two broad fields that require more profound understanding. The mental diagnosis process is lengthy in that it begins with the conduction of a physical examination of the patient (Phillips, 2020).

A mental status examination is then done, followed by a psychological assessment to do away with differential diagnosis to arrive at an accurate psychosocial diagnosis. Over the years that I have been caring for patients with behavioral disorders, it goes unnoticed that psychopathological diagnosis and treatment require in-depth knowledge and assessment skills. As a result, most diagnostic tests are unreliable during diagnosing psychopathological diseases. I need to widen my knowledge of psychopathological conditions to improve these weaknesses. I have to take advantage of every opportunity during the clinical rotations to apply the acquired knowledge. I also have a liability in the performance and interpretation of mental status examinations. I have to embark on vigorous clinical practice sessions to boost my experience in the interpretation of mental status examinations. Another way to improve my knowledge at the clinical sites is by continuous practice and personal and professional development. The newly acquired skills will encourage the provision of evidence-based and patient-based care as PMHNP (Price & Reichert, 2017).

Possible Goals and objectives

1. Goal: Incorporate knowledge on clinical reasoning and differential diagnosis

a) Objective: Identify signs and symptoms predisposing to any psychopathological disorder

b) Objective: understand basic test outcomes and other professional reports

c) Objective: Develop differential diagnosis of some clients with psychiatric disorders.

2. Goal: Independently develop psychiatric diagnosis at the end of the practicum

a) Objective: demonstrate the practical application of advanced techniques in the assessment process

b) Objective: Identify differential psychiatric diagnosis by utilizing patient’s concerns and physical assessment

c) Objective: Apply laboratory and other medical tests to evaluate clients

3. Goal: Expand mental status examination skills by the end of the period

a) Objective: monitor patients and perform cognitive assessments

b) Objective: recognize and differentiate clinical features to make accurate recommendations

c) Objective: perform mental status exams and interpret its results accurately

References

Chambers, C., & Ryder, E. (2018). Compassion and caring in nursing. Routledge.

Kleinpell, R., Cook, M. L., & Padden, D. L. (2018). American Association of Nurse Practitioners National Nurse Practitioner sample survey: Update on acute care nurse practitioner practice. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 30(3), 140-149.

Phillips, K. (2020). Mental illness is not anyone’s fault: a review of NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, 24(1), 75-81.

Price, S., & Reichert, C. (2017). The importance of continuing professional development to career satisfaction and patient care: meeting the needs of novice to mid-to late-career nurses throughout their career span. Administrative Sciences, 7(2), 17.

PMHNP PRAC 6645 Clinical Skills 

Self-Assessment Form

Desired Clinical Skills for Students to AchieveConfident (Can complete independently)Mostly confident (Can complete with supervision)Beginning (Have performed with supervision or need supervision to feel confident)New (Have never performed or does not apply)
Comprehensive psychiatric evaluation skills in: 
Recognizing clinical signs and symptoms of psychiatric illness across the lifespan
Differentiating between pathophysiological and psychopathological conditions 
Performing and interpreting a comprehensive and/or interval history and physical examination (including laboratory and diagnostic studies) 
Performing and interpreting a mental status examination 
Performing and interpreting a psychosocial assessment and family psychiatric history 
Performing and interpreting a functional assessment (activities of daily living, occupational, social, leisure, educational).
Diagnostic reasoning skill in:
Developing and prioritizing a differential diagnoses list
Formulating diagnoses according to DSM 5 based on assessment data 
Differentiating between normal/abnormal age-related physiological and psychological symptoms/changes
Pharmacotherapeutic skills in:
Selecting appropriate evidence based clinical practice guidelines for medication plan (e.g., risk/benefit, patient preference, developmental considerations, financial, the process of informed consent, symptom management) 
Evaluating patient response and modify plan as necessary 
Documenting (e.g., adverse reaction, the patient response, changes to the plan of care)
Psychotherapeutic Treatment Planning:
Recognizes concepts of therapeutic modalities across the lifespan
Selecting appropriate evidence based clinical practice guidelines for psychotherapeutic plan (e.g., risk/benefit, patient preference, developmental considerations, financial, the process of informed consent, symptom management, modality appropriate for situation) 
Applies age appropriate psychotherapeutic counseling techniques with individuals, families, and/or groups
Develop an age appropriate individualized plan of care
Provide psychoeducation to individuals, family, and/or groups
Promote health and disease prevention techniques
Self-Assessment skills:
Develop SMART goals for practicum experiences 
Evaluating outcomes of practicum goals and modify plan as necessary 
Documenting and reflecting on learning experiences
Professional skills:
Maintains professional boundaries and therapeutic relationship with clients and staff
Collaborate with multi-disciplinary teams to improve clinical practice in mental health settings 
Identifies ethical and legal dilemmas with possible resolutions
Demonstrates non-judgmental practice approach and empathy
Practices within scope of practice
Selecting and implementing appropriate screening instrument(s), interpreting results, and making recommendations and referrals:
Demonstrates selecting the correct screening instrument appropriate for the clinical situation 
Implements the screening instrument efficiently and effectively with the clients
Interprets results for screening instruments accurately
Develops an appropriate plan of care based upon screening instruments response
Identifies the need to refer to another specialty provider when applicable
Accurately documents recommendations for psychiatric consultations when applicable

Summary of strengths:

Opportunities for growth:

Now, write three to four (3–4) possible goals and objectives for this practicum experience. Ensure that they follow the SMART Strategy, as described in the Learning Resources.

1. Goal:a. Objective:b. Objective:c. Objective:2. Goal:a. Objective:b. Objective:c. Objective:3. Goal:a. Objective:b. Objective:c. Objective:4. Goal:a. Objective:b. Objective:c. Objective:

Signature:

Date:

Course/Section:

Competitor Analysis Excel Project

Pageof 4ZOOM

ACCT 370
Page 1 of 4
EXCEL PROJECT: COMPETITOR ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
OVERVIEW
Competitor #1 Income Statement (Tab 5), Competitor #1 Balance Sheet (Tab 6), Competitor #1
Cash Flows (Tab 7), Competitor #2 Income Statement (Tab 8), Competitor #2 Balance Sheet
(Tab 9), Competitor #2 Cash Flows (Tab 10), Historical and Competitor Ratios (Tab 11)
INSTRUCTIONS
 Continue in the same Excel workbook prepared in Module 2: Week 2, adding the following
tabs:
o The 5th tab and 8th tabs in your Financial Statement Analysis Template must be
labeled (Competitor Company Name) Income Statements.  (Replace
“Competitor Company Name” with the name of the competitor.)
 Include  the  latest  three  years  of  income  statements  for  your  competitor
based on SEC filings.
 Ensure that the worksheet includes a header with:
 Company Name
 Financial Statement Name (Income Statements)
 Financial Statement Dates
 Denomination level ($s in millions or thousands, etc.)
o The 6th and 9th tabs in your Financial Statement Analysis Template must be labeled
(Competitor Company Name) Balance Sheets.  (Replace “Competitor
Company Name” with the name of the competitor.)
 Include  the  latest  three  years  of  balance  sheets  for  your  first  competitor
based on SEC (10-K) filings.  (Note: Some 10-Ks only provided 2 years of
balance sheet data.  You may need to download the second most recent 10-K
for your company in order to obtain 3 years of balance sheet data.)
 Ensure that the worksheet includes a header with:
 Company Name
 Financial Statement Name
 Financial Statement Dates
 Denomination level ($s in millions or thousands, etc.)
o The  7th  and  10th  tabs  in  your  Financial  Statement  Analysis  Template  must  be
labeled  (Competitor  Company  Name)  Cash  Flows.    (Replace  “Competitor
Company Name” with the name of the competitor.)
 Include the latest three years based on SEC (10-K) filings.
 Make  sure  that  the  Income  Statement,  Balance  Sheet,  and  Cash  Flows
Statement tie in as follows:ACCT 370
Page 2 of 4
 Net Income from Income statement agrees with Net Income on the
Statement of Cash Flows
 Ending  Cash  Balance  from  Statement  of  Cash  Flows  agrees  with
Cash in the Balance Sheet
o The  11th  tab  in  your  Financial  Statement  Analysis  Template  must  be  labeled
Historical and Competitor Ratios
 The  list  of  ratios  to  be  included  are  as  follows.    They  should  be  grouped
under the headings, as shown:
 Liquidity Ratios
o Current Ratio
o Quick Ratio
 Leverage Ratios
o Debt to Total Assets Ratio
o Debt Equity Ratio
o Long-Term Debt to Equity
o Times Interest Earned Ratio
 Activity Ratios
o Inventory Turnover
o Fixed Assets Turnover
o Total Assets Turnover
o Accounts Receivable Turnover
o Average Collection Period
 Profitability Ratios
o Gross Profit Margin
o Operating Profit Margin
o Net Profit Margin
o Return on Total Assets (ROA)
o Return on Stockholders’ Equity (ROE)
o Earnings Per Share (EPS)
o Price Earnings Ratio
 Calculate the ratios for your chosen company for the last three years, linking
the ratio calculations back to the historical financial statement tabs (Tabs 2-
4) using formulas.ACCT 370
Page 3 of 4
 Calculate  the  ratios  for  each  of  your  company’s  competitors  (most  recent
year only), linking the ratio calculations to the competitor financial
statements shown in Tabs 5-10 using formulas.
 Using the internet, locate the industry averages for the ratios listed above,
and include them in the final column of the ratio tab.  Include a footnote on
the tab to identify the source of the industry averages.
o Other instructions:
 The Excel workbook should be professionally formatted.  Professional
formatting includes:
 All numbers are formatted similarly.  The use of decimals, commas
for thousands, and other formatting is consistent.
 Dollar  signs  are  included  in  the  first  and  last  numbers  of  each
column.
 Subtotals and totals are preceded by a single underline.  Totals are
followed by a double underline.
 Line  descriptions  are  indented/bolded  in  a  manner  that  makes  the
spreadsheet easy to read.  
 All totals and subtotals in the competitor financial statements as well as the
ratio calculations should be calculated using formulas.  
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.ACCT 370
Page 4 of 4

DISCUSSION 5

Multi-National Corporation (IKEA)

Choose and research the organizational structure and organizational culture of your chosen MNC. Discuss the components and type of structure as explained in the textbook. Through news and articles try to make sense of organizational culture and explain with linkages to the class lessons.

Textbook

International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace

13th Charles W. L. Hill and G. Tomas M. Hult

2 pages

PALM

Do a literature review and provide an overview of the significant literature published on Diabetic Fiber diet. Develop a PICO question, as the elements of a PICO question are used as the key terms for searching electronic bibliographic databases. Present your question using relevant PICO elements and discuss the strategy you used to locate current and relevant literature. Identify the most relevant and current literature that makes a contribution in understanding Diabetic Fiber Diet. What are the problems identified. Present an overview of the similarities and differences. What are the major issues, controversies, etc. that impact Diabetic Fiber Diet? 

Need Health Care Management Assistance

Need assistance with the following question….

In the last five weeks of the course, what lessons would you share with other health care leaders about creating a strategic plan?

This is for a health care strategic management course

Software -9A

Please read chapter 24 and review PP slides and IGU online library and reputable resources and discuss:

What is software standards? Importance and problems with Standards. Are you in favor or against standards? 

Need Health Care Management Assistance.

Need assistance with the following question….

What are common challenges that can be barriers to change initiatives?

This deals with Health Care Strategic Management and Commutation Styles 

Help 5.1

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapters 9 and 11 in your course textbook as well as the resource  Evaluation Guide: Developing and Using a Logic Model  (Links to an external site.) .

As part of your final paper, design a novel intervention that is a logical conclusion based upon your literature review of existing intervention studies.

In your paper,

· Describe the rationale for your novel theoretical intervention.

· Create a logic model figure to showcase the intervention, its activities, elements or components, and its outcomes.

· Logic Model Example: Logic Model 1 – Promoting Health and Healthy Behaviors Download Logic Model Example: Logic Model 1 – Promoting Health and Healthy Behaviors

For guidance on using the SmartArt tool in Microsoft Word, view the video –  Tutorial on SmartArt within Word (Links to an external site.) .

NOTE: Utilize PowerPoint and SmartArt (under Insert) to create logic model. Typically, the ‘Process’ options or ‘Hierarchy’ options are most effective.

· Describe the framework used to create your logic model (i.e., the theoretical constructs that were targeted and integrated), behavior change techniques, the intervention components, and strategy.

The Final Paper Part 5: Intervention and Conclusion paper

· Must be two to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to  APA Style  (Links to an external site.)  as outlined in the Writing Center’s  APA Formatting for Microsoft Word  (Links to an external site.)  resource.

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

· Title of paper in bold font

· Space should appear between the title and the rest of the information on the title page.

· Student’s name

· Name of institution (The University of Arizona Global Campus)

· Course name and number

· Instructor’s name

· Due date

Any Strategic Health Care Experts

Part 4: Implementation

Write a 700- to 1,050-word report describing how you plan to implement your strategic plan. In your report:

· Determine the potential barriers you anticipate and how you plan to overcome them.

· Create a plan for communicating your plan to all the organization’s employees.

· Describe market entry strategy and the procedure you plan to use to implement your strategic plan.

· Choose methods and strategies to support implementation processes.

Part 5: Evaluation and Control

Write a 700- to 1,050-word evaluation plan in which you:

· Determine what measurement guidelines should be used to verify strategy effectiveness.

· Explain when you would consider altering the strategic plan you have suggested if implementation does not go according to plans.

· Determine what tolerance range should be in place that would call for corrective action if exceeded.

· Determine what corrective action you would need to make if the organization’s performance fell outside the tolerance range.

Format your plan according to APA guidelines.

Please include an intro and conclusion

Introduction EDU100

Using 100 words or less answer the following-

· What your challenges, and how we can support you in reaching those goals throughout our five weeks together!

· Start awakening your curiosity! Share with us how you view the role of question asking will enhance your ability as both a student and a future educator.

Living Well With HIV/AIDS – A Manual On Nutritional Care And Support For People Living With HIV/AIDS”

For this discussion you will review “Living well with HIV/AIDS – A manual on nutritional care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS” http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4168e/y4168e00.HTM

Then respond to the following:

1. What are three diet therapy considerations that must be made for people living with HIV/AIDS?

2. Why is it important for them to adhere to these dietary requirements?

3. What may happen if they don’t?

4. What two strategies can you use to facilitate adherence?

Please make an initial post by midweek, and respond to at least two other student’s posts with substantial details that demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and critical thinking. Remember that your posts must exhibit appropriate writing mechanics including using proper language, cordiality, and proper grammar and punctuation. If you refer to any outside sources or reference materials, be sure to provide proper attribution and/or citation.

ProTK5

Competency

In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency:

· Use flowcharts and pseudocode to describe and develop programming logic

Scenario

Recall that you are applying for a position as a software developer for a company that develops educational games for children. As part of the application process, the company has given you three different possible programming problems, from which you are responsible for selecting one to solve.

Prior to developing the Coral program for the programming problem you choose, the company would first like to see your flowchart design and the written pseudocode that you would use to guide your later work on the code. While flowcharts are very useful for walking through the logic of a program, pseudocode is more widely used in industry, so it will be important to develop both.

The three possible programming problems are as follows:

1. Cracked Egg Game: There are a dozen eggs in a basket; some are hard boiled and some are raw. The object of this game is for the user to guess the number of hard-boiled eggs prior to playing the game. The computer then simulates cracking all 12 eggs, using a random number 0 or 1 to simulate raw or hard boiled. The number 0 should represent raw eggs and the number 1 should represent hard boiled. The computer must keep track of the number of hard-boiled eggs. At the conclusion of cracking all 12 eggs, the actual number of hard boiled is compared to the user’s guess, and whether the user won or lost is given as output.

1. Spaceship Race: There are two spaceships racing across the galaxies toward a distant star. The spaceships make progress by getting a “boost,” or a value between 0 and 10. The first spaceship to reach the distant star wins. The distance of the star the spaceships are racing toward is provided as input by the user (a value between 25 and 100). The boost value is determined from the computer generating a random number between 0 and 10. The object is to have the spaceships race, and then as soon as one spaceship reaches the destination, which spaceship won or if there was a tie is provided as output.

1. Rock-Paper-Scissors: This is a game of chance normally played between two people. Similar to flipping a coin or drawing straws, it can be used as a method for determining a random winner. The rules of the game require that each player forms one of three shapes with their hand at the same time. The shapes are as follows:

· Rock, which is represented by a closed fist, will beat scissors because rock can crush scissors.

· Paper, which is represented by a flat hand, will beat rock because paper can cover rocks.

· Scissors, which are represented by the index and middle fingers forming a V, will beat paper because scissors can cut through paper.

In the computer version of this game, the user will play against the computer. The human user will choose rock, paper, or scissors, and the computer will also randomly choose rock, paper, or scissors. Use the integer value 1 to represent rock, 2 to represent paper, and 3 to represent scissors. The human user will input either 1, 2, or 3. The computer will then choose a random number between 1 and 3. Based on the rules of the game, the computer will give output to show whether the user or the computer wins the game, or if it is a tie. The user will play 10 games and, at the conclusion of those 10 games, the computer will output the number of times the user won, the number of times the computer won, as well as the number of tied games.

In this project, you will not be doing any programming. Using the flowchart and pseudocode from this project, you will later implement a program using Coral for Project Two.

Directions

This project will consist of two deliverables: a final flowchart that illustrates the logic of your solution and a pseudocode description of the flowchart logic. You have already selected a game and created a first draft of the flowchart in a previous milestone. Now you will continue work on the game you have already begun; be sure to focus on implementing feedback for your flowchart before moving on to developing the pseudocode.

Flowchart Finalize a flowchart that follows the solution’s logic and works through a sequence of steps for the game you have selected. As the three programming problems are quite different, the flowcharts will be different as well. But for each flowchart, you should have between approximately 15 and 20 steps.

1. Illustrate the appropriate inputs and outputs for your selected game. Recall that you will need the following from a user in order to begin the game:

· Cracked Egg Game: Obtain the user’s guess for the number of eggs that are hard boiled.

· Spaceship Race: Obtain the distance of the star that the spaceships are racing toward.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: Obtain the user’s selection of rock, paper, or scissors (1, 2, or 3).

1. Design conditionals (branches) to establish the logic of the solution for your selected game. Each path should have an outcome that makes sense with the logic of the solution. The paths should be easily represented and readable. The appropriate branches for each game are as follows:

· Cracked Egg Game: Two IF statements will be required for this game. You will need one to determine if the cracked egg is hard boiled or raw. Then you will need a second IF statement to determine if the user correctly guessed the number of hard-boiled eggs at the conclusion of the game.

· Spaceship Race: One IF statement will be required at the conclusion of the game to determine which spaceship won the race, or if it was a tie.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: There will be multiple IF statements determining whether the human user or computer won a game or if it was a tie, based on the rules for rock-paper scissors. For one round, you will use IF statements to account for what happens when a user chooses each option and when the computer chooses each option.

1. Design appropriate loops to establish the logic of the solution. For each game, the loops you will need are slightly different. The following provides additional guidance for each:

· Cracked Egg Game: As it is known in advance how many times this is played, a FOR loop will be an appropriate loop for this game.

· Spaceship Race: The Spaceship Race game is played until one of the spaceships reaches the distant star, so a WHILE loop will be more appropriate for this game.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: As it is known in advance how many times this is played, a FOR loop will be an appropriate loop for this game.

1. Apply correct symbols to convey the intent of the logic in the flowchart. Each node in your flowchart will need to be identified with the proper symbol. Focus on the following symbols:

· Oval: Indicates the end or beginning

· Rectangle: Indicates a step in the flowchart process

· Diamond: Indicates a decision or conditional

· Parallelogram: Indicates input and output

· Arrows: Indicate directional flow

1. Implement feedback to improve the design. Make sure your flowchart is as finalized as possible before beginning to develop pseudocode. Look over and implement any instructor feedback that you received from your previously submitted milestone. This will help ensure that you have an overall clear and correct design.

Pseudocode Based on the logic in your completed flowchart, you will next express the flowchart by writing it as a series of numbered steps in pseudocode. This pseudocode should be written in plain language, not in Coral code.

1. Apply plain language to design the flow and logic of the game. Be sure you are writing out your pseudocode using simple sentences that are clear to read and understand. The work you do will be completed in a series of numbered statements corresponding to obtaining the required input and output, necessary branches, and loops.

1. Create pseudocode statements for appropriate inputs and outputs. This should match your flowchart. Make sure you have an appropriate output message at the conclusion of each game.

1. Develop statements that evaluate user input and execute instructions logically. These statements will involve IF statements to provide branching, using appropriate conditionals based on the required logic to play the game. Be sure to reference your flowchart as you work since all the information you need should already be outlined there. Review the following for reminders on the IF statements you will use in your game:

· Cracked Egg: Your input would be a numeric guess.

· Spaceship: Your input would be the distance.

· Rock-Paper-Scissors: Your input would be your choice.

1. Develop statements that indicate loops to appropriately control program flow. These statements will require using either FOR or WHILE loops. Your flowchart should already outline which to use, so be sure to check your previous work in this area.

What to Submit

To complete this project, you must submit the following:

Flowchart Complete your flowchart in Lucidchart, and then submit the downloaded version of the flowchart. Refer to the guidance in the Lucidchart Tutorial, linked in the Supporting Materials section, for additional support in using Lucidchart. Also remember to make any updates to your original flowchart design based on feedback you received from your instructor.

Pseudocode Submit a numbered, step-by-step series of statements written in pseudocode that reflects the logic in your flowchart. This may be submitted as a Microsoft Word document.

Supporting Materials

The following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:

Lucidchart Tutorial Refer to the tutorial if you have any questions about how to create a Lucidchart account as well as how to create different types of documents and diagrams.

Table  Description automatically generated
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I Need Help With Creating A Personal Financial Plan Assignment

Sheet1

ECON1010 Taking Charge of Your Economic FutureName:
Unit 2 Touchstone TemplateDate:
ANNUAL BUDGETNote:
AmountPercentTo increase the height of a row, hover over the bottom border of that row in the far left margin until your cursor becomes and up-down arrow. Then click and drag the bottom border to the desired row height. If you make an error, you can use the shortcut Ctrl + Z to undo it.
Income$50,000100%
Expenditure
Housing
Food
Transportation
Education
Utilities
Taxes
Health Care
Family Care
Miscellaneous
SavingsSavings Goal:
Total
PART 1: CREATING A PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANPART 2: REFLECTION QUESTIONS
SCENARIO: Imagine that you are in a position where you need to move—this could be because of a change in job, a need to modify your living arrangements, or something else. In addition to searching for different housing, you want to begin saving for a specific financial goal.QUESTION 1. In step 4, you selected a time frame to achieve your savings goal. How can you tell that the time frame you chose is realistic? Explain.Your Answer (75 words or less):
STEP 1: Think about the productivity strategies you’ve learned in this course. Make a mental plan for how you will break down creating your financial plan into smaller steps. Think about ways you can stay organized and be productive. With your ideas in mind, move on to step 2.QUESTION 2. In step 5, you selected a housing option. Explain the reasons for your housing choice in terms of the following: • The time frame needed to achieve your savings goal • Your family’s anticipated living arrangements • Your desired quality of life • Any trade-off decisions • OtherYour Answer (75 words or less):
STEP 2: Choose an annual income as a starting point for your financial plan and insert the value in the ANNUAL BUDGET above. Select from the following: • Use the provided annual income of $50,000. • Use your current annual income. • Use the average (or median) income of a career that you’re interested in. Consider doing a quick online search.QUESTION 3. In step 6, you entered more annual expenditures into the budget. A. What process did you use to make those choices? B. How do your expenditures align with the financial goal you selected?Your Answer (75 words or less): A. B.
STEP 3: Choose a financial goal you would like to save for. It can be a short-term goal (1 to 2 years) or a long-term goal (more than 2 years). You’ll use this value in step 4. Select from the following: • Create an emergency fund of $1,000. • Save for a vacation that will cost $2,000. • Save to buy a $15,000 vehicle. • Save for a down payment of $40,000 to buy a house. • Save $50,000 for education for you, a spouse, or a child.QUESTION 4. In step 1, you thought about productivity strategies that you might use to break your annual budget into smaller steps for staying organized and productive. A. How closely did you follow the plan that you thought about? B. How does a step-by-step and organized approach help you adjust priorities in a financial plan? C. How did creating the annual budget draw from productivity strategies that you learned in this course?Your Answer (150 words or less): A. B. C.
STEP 4: Now set a realistic time frame (in years) for reaching the goal in step 3. The recommended range is one to 10 years. This will yield a required rate of savings: • To understand your savings rate ($ per year), divide your financial goal by the number of years you plan to save for it. • Enter the result in the Savings cell of the ANNUAL BUDGET. • Briefly describe your overall savings goal and the time to achieve it next to the ANNUAL BUDGET in the space provided.
STEP 5: Choose a housing cost (rent or mortgage) and enter the amount in the Housing cell of the ANNUAL BUDGET. Select from the following: • Pay an annual mortgage of $15,000 per year. • Rent an apartment for $12,000 per year. • Rent a room only for $9,000 per year. • Use your current annual rent or mortgage.
STEP 6: Fill in the other expenditure amounts in the ANNUAL BUDGET according to your preferences. Do some online research, if necessary. For this exercise, be sure to use all the income that you designated ($50,000 or otherwise). Look ahead to step 7 to see how you can use formulas to help you balance your budget as you work.
STEP 7: Your ANNUAL BUDGET may or may not be balanced. To check, do the following: • Enter a formula to calculate your total expenditures. Adjust your expenditures until the total equals your annual income. • Next, enter formulas in the percent column to calculate each expenditure as a percentage of the total expenditure. • Finally, using your ANNUAL BUDGET as a reference, complete the REFLECTION QUESTIONS on the right side of this spreadsheet.
Sophia Learning, LLC. Copyright © 2021. All rights reserved.

DIKCL5 Assignment

Part 1

· Describe a problem that you currently or recently experienced in your life (whether it’s personal or related to your student life or professional life). Be mindful not to disclose personal information that you do not want us to know about; discuss a problem that you experienced that you are open to sharing with others. In your description of your problem, you should also provide some context as to who you are, what your needs are, and why this problem should be addressed.

· Propose a potential IoT solution to meet and address your problem.

Part 2

· Provide another IoT solution that meets other’s needs and explain how your idea addresses their user problem(s).

· Then explain potential capabilities and vulnerabilities of your IoT solution.

Cultural Orientation Paper

Compose a Cultural Orientation Paper. Using concepts from Schein (Chapters 1–2) and Bolman and Deal (Chapter 1), write a five- to six-page paper that describes the culture of your current organization (or an organization which you have been a part of in the past).

While this paper should be academic in nature (using properly-cited quotations and paraphrases throughout), assume that your instructor is about to join the organization! With that in mind, write it as a “cultural orientation letter” to him or her that addresses, at very least, the following:

a.    Explain the organizational culture in detail using Schein’s three levels of culture (approximately two pages).

b.    Which of Bolman and Deal’s four frames (see page 20) best describe your culture? Why? Which culture is primary and why is it primary? Which is secondary and why is it secondary? (This should be approximately one page.)

c.    What aspects of the organizational culture do you appreciate and why (approximately half a page)?

d.    What aspects of the organizational culture do you not appreciate and why (approximately half a page)?

e.    If a new manager (whether mid- or senior-level) were to survive and thrive within your organizational culture, list a variety of dos and don’ts that he or she should follow (approximately one page).

Include a title page, an abstract, section titles, a title page, and a references page—all in APA format.

CL5_TEK Assignment

Competency

In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency:

· Implement a cloud-based system that meets organizational needs

· Interface with cloud-based databases to support organizational operations

Image of YODAE logo

Scenario

Imagine that you are a solutions architect at a start-up organization, Your Online Database Architecture for Education, or YODAE. YODAE recently launched in the educational technology industry. The company hired you to lead the design of its cloud database, which will be used by teachers in the K-12 education system. Teachers will be able to use the cloud-based IT system and database that you design to better manage their classrooms and to create various online learning experiences for their students. The database should store information about teachers, students, and classrooms. For this project, you will design the architecture of the database system by creating an entity relationship diagram (ERD). Then you will implement your design by creating a cloud database system. The cloud database system’s architecture consists of a database, web server, webpage, and client- or server-side scripting.

Directions

To complete this project:

Review the YODAE Business Case: Review the Business Case document in the Supporting Materials section to gain a better understanding of YODAE, and of how your cloud solution will meet its organizational needs and operations.

As part of the design of the cloud-based database, create an entity relationship diagram (ERD) to show the architecture of the cloud database system. To create your ERD, refer to the  YODAE ERD Example , which already includes some components of your diagram. You must add to this diagram by including the following components:

· All of the appropriate entities: What are the entities that need to be included in the ERD that are described in the business case?

· All of the appropriate attributes: What are five attributes for each entity?

· Necessary relationships: How will the relationships between the entities be accurately presented in the diagram?

Explain Your ERD: Write 2 to 5 paragraphs about how your diagram meets the needs of YODAE and its clients. You are required to provide a brief explanation about the entities, attributes, and relationships depicted in your diagram.

After you have designed the architecture of your cloud-based application, you will be required to create it in the AWS Console through your AWS Academy Learner Lab-Foundation Services course. To implement this, you are required to:

Set Up Virtual Server: Create an EC2 instance. Then be sure to properly install Apache web server, PHP, and MySQL on the instance. Take screenshots to confirm that you have successfully created your EC2 instance and installed the appropriate language and database system.

Deploy a Front-End Component: Install WordPress on the instance that includes connecting to your MySQL database. However, be sure that you are using the AWS Console through AWS Academy. Copy and paste the public URL to the instance to ensure that your instructor can assess your work.

Implement Database Tables: Install the database plug-in phpMyAdmin and create the database tables that you designed in your ERD, which include all columns/keys. Take a screenshot to confirm that you have created the appropriate databases depicted in your ERD.

Data Manipulation: After you have installed the database plug-in and created your new database tables, manipulate the data by completing the following:

· Insert some test data into each table.

· Do a Select statement that shows only students registered to a specific course.

· Show a Delete statement removing a course from the Courses table.

· Show a statement that changes the entry_year for a particular student.

Be sure to submit a screenshot for each of these tasks.

Interface with Database: Create a new page within the WordPress admin panel. To complete this successfully, you will need to follow the steps in the PHP code tutorial (Database Interface Instructions) in the Supporting Materials. Be sure to include screenshots of:

· Your working WordPress admin page and the installed plugin.

· The front-end form and view pages. Make sure to use your own name when adding a student.

What to Submit

To complete this project, you must submit the following:

Entity Relationship Diagram You may use LucidChart, Visio, or another software application of your choice to create your diagram. The file you upload should either be a PDF, .jpeg, or .doc format.

Screenshots and Descriptions Submit between 4 and 7 screenshots to show that you have successfully completed each step in the directions. For each screenshot, write a 1- to 3-sentence description that explains what the screenshot is showing. Your screenshots should be uploaded in .jpeg or PNG format.

Public URL for the EC2 Instance  Submit your public URL link either in a separate document that you attach, or in the comments section when you upload your files.

Supporting Materials

The following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:

YODAE Business Case This business case provides you with more organization background and the business needs.

Database Interface Instructions The PHP code tutorial in this document will allow you to connect to the database.

Visio 2016 This series shows you how to use Visio to create diagrams.

Getting Started in LucidChart: The Basics This resource shows you how to use LucidChart to create diagrams.

How to Take and Annotate Screenshots on Windows 10 This resource shows you how to capture screenshots if you are using Windows 10.

How to Take a Screenshot on Your Mac This support resource will walk you through the process of capturing a screenshot if you are using Mac OS.

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 YODAE ERD Example

For the entity relationship diagram (ERD) example, note that each entity (table) can have more attributes added to it, but the ones shown below must be included as they are for use later in this project. Your diagram should have a one-to-many relationship shown in crow’s foot notation with the relationship line above. (For more information about this notation, go to Crow’s Foot Notation: https://www.vertabelo.com/blog/crow-s-foot-notation/.)

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YODAE Business Case

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Help With Assignment & Discussion Due In 24 Hours

Unit 5 Assignment: Overcoming Speaker Anxiety Video Journal

Unit 5 Assignment: Overcoming Speaker Anxiety Video Journal

Due: Wednesday by 11:59 p.m.

Worth: 100 points

After taking the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) on the link in your unit resources, reflect on your results in a brief 2-3 minute video journal.  Were you surprised at your results?  Do they match how you feel about public speaking? What tips or tricks have worked for you to overcome any fear you may have had about public speaking?  How are you feeling about the upcoming speech presentation? Is there anything in particular that worries you the most about the speech?

Instructions:

In your video Journal address the following:

· Were you surprised at your results? 

· Do they match how you feel about public speaking?

· What tips or tricks have worked for you to overcome any fear you may have had about public speaking? 

· How are you feeling about the upcoming speech presentation?

· Is there anything in particular that worries you the most about the speech?

You may record the video using your cell phone or webcam.  You will then upload your video to Youtube, ensuring you select the “unlisted” option.  This will keep your video private and allow access only to those who have the video link.  You will then post the video link in the Overcoming Speaking Anxiety video journal discussion forum. You are encouraged to watch each speech but are not required to comment.  Any comments left on this discussion will not be graded.

Please refer to the attached document for full guidelines and grading rubric.

Readings and Resources

Readings and Resources

eBook:

Wood, J.T. (2017).  Communication in our lives (8th ed.).  Stamford, CT: Cengage.

· Chapter 13: Researching and Developing Support for Public Speeches (pp. 247-261.

· Chapter 14: Organizing and Presenting Public Speeches (pp. 270-288).

Articles, Websites, and Videos:

Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety . Retrieved from   http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/measures/prpsa.htm .

Communication Coach Alex Lyon discusses some realizations about public speaking anxiety and offers some tips and strategies to overcome this fear.

 Watch Video

Public Speaking Anxiety Tips

Duration: 6:09 User: Communication Coach Alex Lyon – Added: 2/18/17

Anne Ricketts, founder of Lighthouse Communications, discusses the importance of an exciting introduction to a speech and offers a 4 step formula for building an introduction that will hook your audience from the beginning.

 Watch Video

How to Start Your Presentation: 4 Step Formula for a Killer Intro

Duration: 4:18 User: Lighthouse Communications – Added: 1/23/17

A public speaking outline is the structure of your speech in basic form. So that might be bullet points on how you are going to progress through things. It could even be a mind map. Here are some tips to help you create a speech outline.

 Watch Video

A Public Speaking Outline Example

Duration: 7:07 User: n/a – Added: 1/1/14

YouTube URL:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjAtJF24jqs

Unit 5 Discussion: Digital Marketing Tactics

Overview:

Digital selling is the use of online, mobile and social media to engage customers, build stronger customer relationships, and augment sales performance. Have you ever wondered why certain websites appear on Google when you search keywords? If person A and B both search for “Blue Car” different result would appear based on their location, previous searches, and more. SEO is an important technique for brands because it helps them appear on top of the Google search pages.

Take a look at this short video before jumping into this week’s business scenario.

Simulated Business Scenario:

Samantha was recently hired as a sales team leader for Google Analytics. Sanjay, the Regional Vice President, has tasked Samantha with reaching a target sales quota in the current quarter. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, a small mom and pop clothing store that has little/no online presence has come to Samantha and her team for help and advice to grow its customer base.

Questions:

· What are the top three strategies Samantha might offer the mom & pop clothing store, relative to adopting a digital marketing campaign?

· How would Samantha incorporate search engine optimization into her suggestions to the mom & pop store?

We want to hear your opinions so please try to post more than the ABSOLUTE MINIMUM of 3 times in this weekly conversations. Here’s a set of recommendations:

· Try to post your initial post on Monday or Tuesday (no later than Wednesday)

· Try to post at least 2 responses (absolute minimum requirement) to other students on separate days of the week

For example:

· 1 on Thursday  

· 1 on Friday

However, if you are interested being eligible for top grades… please consider entering a total of 5 (or more) contributions to the weekly conversations on separate days of the week!

All this provides the rest of our group with additional time to respond in a thoughtful way and contribute meaningful insight to the conversations! We all have our individual perspectives so please share your personal experiences as they relate to the weekly conversation!

Readings and Resources

Readings and Resources

eBook:

Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2021). Principles of Marketing (18th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Digital marketing is one of the fastest-growing forms of marketing (online, social media, and mobile marketing). Because of this shift, marketers are able to be more precise in targeting their audience through digital methods. As you will learn, for companies like Amazon and Geico, direct marketing has become a complete way of doing business.

· Chapter 17: Direct, Online, Social Media, and Mobile Marketing

Articles, Websites, and Videos:

The internet enables us to market our products across the world! This video showcases the different types of digital marketing.

Neil Patel shares how digital marketing is changing.

8310 Dis 2 Week 1

Is there a topic or idea that has been on your mind that you are thinking about for your dissertation or doctoral study? Is there a problem in your work or social sphere that you feel compelled to understand and act upon? Have you read a story or viewed a documentary and thought “I could do something like that”?These are just a few of the ways Walden students become inspired to choose what they would like to study for their dissertation or doctoral study.Once you have watched this week’s Scholar of Change video, you have the opportunity to reflect on how that student merged their academic studies with their passion for making a difference. In this Discussion, you have an opportunity to start that journey, to consider a topic you would like to explore.For this Discussion, you will explore topics in your discipline of interest to you that you want to research using a qualitative approach.To prepare for this Discussion:• Review the Learning Resources related to qualitative research.• Consider a topic in your discipline that is of interest to you. This could come from a prior course or something from your work or personal setting for which you have a passion.Topic of interest: The Impact of Virtual Leaning in Early Childhood Education

EDDD-8310

Discussion 2: What Would You Like to Explore?

Is there a topic or idea that has been on your mind that you are thinking about for your dissertation or doctoral study? Is there a problem in your work or social sphere that you feel compelled to understand and act upon? Have you read a story or viewed a documentary and thought “I could do something like that”?

These are just a few of the ways Walden students become inspired to choose what they would like to study for their dissertation or doctoral study.

Once you have watched this week’s Scholar of Change video, you have the opportunity to reflect on how that student merged their academic studies with their passion for making a difference. In this Discussion, you have an opportunity to start that journey, to consider a topic you would like to explore.

For this Discussion, you will explore topics in your discipline of interest to you that you want to research using a qualitative approach.

To prepare for this Discussion:

· Review the Learning Resources related to qualitative research.

· Consider a topic in your discipline that is of interest to you. This could come from a prior course or something from your work or personal setting for which you have a passion.

Topic of interest: The Impact of Virtual Leaning in Early Childhood Education

ASSIGNMENT TASK PART 1

Based on your initial understanding of qualitative research, post a description of the topic you chose in terms of how it could be conceptualized as a qualitative study. Include:

1. What is the phenomenon of interest?

2. What experiences or contextual issues might influence how this phenomenon could be studied?

3. In what setting(s) could a topic like this be explored?

4. What connection do you have to this topic, and why do you think it is important to explore this as a qualitative study?

5. What possibilities could the results of this research have for social change?

Be sure to support your main post and response post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA style.

ASSIGNMENT TASK PART 2

Based Respond to one of your colleagues’ posts and provide additional insight as to what other opportunities your colleague might want to explore further in their research.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Then, repost under your first post your reflections on your choice of topic. Would you like to adjust, re-direct, or start over?

Human Health And Physiology – Human Health And Physiology 1

My part is the Cardiologist, please only use the cariologist section

The chart is in the attachment

For this assignment, each member of your group will be taking on the role of a different medical specialist. Each person in your group should have a different role, so before you write your post, check to see which roles have been taken. 

  • Cardiologist 
  • Endocrinologist 
  • Nephrologist 
  • Pulmonologist 
  • Gastroenterologist

Post Requirements

This assignment requires one post. Title your post with the name of your medical specialty.

Be sure to write the answers to the following questions in your own words; no direct quotes! Please also cite all sources fully, including in-text citations and a full reference list at the end, for full credit.

  1. In your expert role, what body system(s) do you specialize in?
  2. What are the main organs of that system(s)?
  3. Identify all of the health conditions that you believe are relevant to your medical specialty. (You should have at least two for full credit.) Explain your reasoning for why each health condition is relevant to your medical specialty. Your explanation should briefly discuss the physiology of the condition and include at least one in-text citation for each comorbidity, with a properly formatted reference list at the end.
  • High blood pressure
  • Cancer (except skin cancer)
  • Asthma
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Diabetes
  • Heart attack
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Low birth weight
  • Obesity
  • Stroke 
  1. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health is piloting an educational outreach program to communities with low overall life expectancy within the county. You will use public health data to identify a community with poor health outcomes for conditions related to your medical specialty. Using your answer to #3, analyze the health condition data below to determine which city has poor health outcomes related to those health conditions compared to other cities. Choose one community (Arleta, El Monte, West Athens, West Whittier, Boyle Heights) and briefly explain your reasoning. 

Pl3

Explain the difference between transactional and litigation law.
2. Describe what disputes go to state court versus federal court.
3. Explain the concept of stare decisis.

Cardiovascular Alterations

For this assignment, you will be completing a template ( download here  Download download here) on Cardiovascular Alterations.  Each item in the template must be filled out. This assignment will help you understand the sign and symptoms of the disease and their treatment options. The template will be at least 6 and no more than 12 pages long, not including the title page and reference page (8-14 total).  Use APA format in the template as much as possible.  A minimum of 2 scholarly sources are required.  However, to earn exemplary in the decision-making and clinical reasoning category, 3 or more scholarly sources are required.  Sources need to be less than 5 years old.  Follow the guidelines below: 

· Use double spacing for your introduction and conclusion—double spacing is not required in the table. 

· 12-point Times New Roman font. 

· Include an introduction. 

· Spelling, grammar, and organization are appropriate, professional, and correct. 

· Include a conclusion. 

· Use in-text citations throughout. 

· Include a reference list. 

For the conditions listed below, the description, symptoms, treatment, complication, medications, and patient goals/outcomes must be provided. 

· Stable angina 

· Unstable angina 

· Variant angina 

· STEMI 

· NSTEMI 

· Heart Failure 

· Inflammatory heart disease 

· Pericarditis 

· Endocarditis 

· Aneurysm 

For the treatments listed below, the description, what it treats, complications, and patient goals/outcomes must be provided. 

· Primary angioplasty 

· Thrombolytic therapy 

· PTCA 

· Intracoronary stenting 

· CABG 

· Transmyocardial revascularization 

· Ablation 

· Permanent pacemaker 

· Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 

1
2

Cardiovascular Alterations

Name

Nightingale College

BSN 445-01 Concepts of Nursing in the Complex Patient

Professor name and title(s)

Due Date

Cardiovascular Alterations

“Begin your introduction with a ‘hook’ that grabs your reader’s attention and introduces the general topic. After your ‘hook.’ write a sentence or two about the specific focus of your paper. What is your paper about? Why is this topic important? This part of the introduction can include background information on your topic that helps to establish its context” (Ashford University, 2019).

STABLE ANGINA
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatments:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
UNSTABLE ANGINA
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatments:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
VARIANT ANGINA
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
STEMI
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
NSTEMI
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
HEART FAILURE
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
INFLAMMATORY HEART DISEASE
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
PERICARDITIS
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
ENDOCARDITIS
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
ANEURYSMS
Description:
Symptoms:
Treatment:
Complications:
Medications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
PRIMARY ANGIOPLASTY
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
PTCA
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
INTRACORONARY STENTING
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
CABG
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
TRANSMYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
ABLATION
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
PERMANENT PACEMAKER
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:
IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATOR
Description:
What does it treat:
Complications:
Patient Goals/Outcomes:

Conclusion

A conclusion works to remind your reader of the main points of your paper and summarizes what you want your reader to ‘take away’ from your discussion. Consider these tips when writing your conclusion: Begin with your rephrased thesis statement to remind your reader of the point of your paper. Summarize the points you made in your paper and show how they support your argument; tie all the pieces of your paper together. Tell your reader what the significance of your argument might be. Why is the discussion important? Do you want your reader to think differently, question something, or perform some action? Make a recommendation of what your reader should ‘do’ with the information you just gave them, or share the importance of the topic” (Ashford University, 2019).

References

Ashford University. (2019). Introductions & conclusions. https://writingcenter.ashford.edu/introductions-conclusions

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2020a). APA sample paper. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_sample_paper.html

Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2020b). General Format. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

8310 Dis 1 Week 1

As you make your way through the readings and resources for this week’s Discussion, you begin to realize that social and political forces as well as scientific curiosity shaped the development of modern qualitative research. These readings also make it clear that qualitative research is not a single, homogenous endeavor. Rather, qualitative researchers:• come from a variety of disciplines,• engage their objects of study from multiple perspectives,• present their results in numerous formats,• extend scientific knowledge beyond the confines of the experiment or survey,• engage the audience to be self-reflective, and• potentially illuminate opportunities for social change. This week’s course of study provides you with a contextual understanding of qualitative research, which will form the foundation for understanding the methods and rationale. These will also help you begin a thoughtful process for considering the choice of qualitative research as your methodology for your doctoral research. For this Discussion, you will explore the foundations and history of qualitative research methods. You also will consider the unique characteristics that distinguish qualitative research from other forms of inquiry. To prepare for this Discussion: Review the Learning Resources related to qualitative research and consider the reasons researchers choose qualitative research methods for exploring a phenomenon of interest. Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help in the Learning Resources to help you search for other books, encyclopedias, or articles that introduce and describe qualitative research.

EDDD 8310

Discussion 1: Qualitative Research: Making It Real

As you make your way through the readings and resources for this week’s Discussion, you begin to realize that social and political forces as well as scientific curiosity shaped the development of modern qualitative research. These readings also make it clear that qualitative research is not a single, homogenous endeavor. Rather, qualitative researchers:

· come from a variety of disciplines,

· engage their objects of study from multiple perspectives,

· present their results in numerous formats,

· extend scientific knowledge beyond the confines of the experiment or survey,

· engage the audience to be self-reflective, and

· potentially illuminate opportunities for social change.

This week’s course of study provides you with a contextual understanding of qualitative research, which will form the foundation for understanding the methods and rationale. These will also help you begin a thoughtful process for considering the choice of qualitative research as your methodology for your doctoral research.

For this Discussion, you will explore the foundations and history of qualitative research methods. You also will consider the unique characteristics that distinguish qualitative research from other forms of inquiry.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review the Learning Resources related to qualitative research and consider the reasons researchers choose qualitative research methods for exploring a phenomenon of interest.

Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help in the Learning Resources to help you search for other books, encyclopedias, or articles that introduce and describe qualitative research.

Assignment Task Part 1

Consider the statement: 

Qualitative researchers study people in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. 

Using the Learning Resources and other academic sources you found, expand on this simple statement. In 4 paragraphs , explain several dimensions of this paradigm that make qualitative research interesting and unique. Be sure to use the terminology you are learning (including but not limited to “phenomena”, “constructivist,” and “naturalistic”), and provide historical context.

Be sure to support your main post and response post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA style.

Assignment Task Part 2

Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ posts in 125 words or more and explain how you might see constructing phenomena differently and why. Use proper APA format and citations to support your response.

Bible Assignment

BIA2119 Bible Study Methods

Final Presentation Project Plan

Your selected passage/text
Brief Summary of your passage/text
Your reason for this selection
Delivery method (sermon, video, blog, etc.)
Your plan to bring this passage/text to life for a modern audience

This is my passage/text Acts 16:16-31

Psalm and Poetry

Choose two genres from this week’s readings.

· Summarize the reading

· Find a passage from scripture that exemplifies the genre

· Comment on your passage

Pl2

 Fill out an application, as if you were, to become a notary public in either, the District of
Columbia, Maryland, or Virginia. Attach a copy of your completed application. (Note: If
you must pay for the application, you are doing it incorrectly.) 

POND

1. Describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples. Explain the following:

· What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?

· Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?

· What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

2. Explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

3. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. Explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

4. Explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Discussion Question

How do existing criminal justice and social policies create barriers for effective prisoner reentry and rehabilitation?

8084 Dis1 Module 1

Program evaluation: What is “it” and how do I know if “it” is working? These questions cross the mind of almost every person involved in the evaluation process. Whether it is a family filling out a survey or a teacher logging assessment results, the questions of “what am I doing?” and “why?” are very common. In fact, the Early childhood program evaluations: A decision-maker’s guide (presented in this module’s Learning Resources), places the question, “Does ‘it’ work?” at the root of all program evaluations. Their research indicates that no matter the evaluation form, the focus of “what” is to be evaluated and whether the program is succeeding at “it” will prove to be at the forefront of all evaluation discussions, decisions, and stakeholder communications. In this Discussion, you explore the many forms of and approaches for evaluating a program. You also consider how evaluation provides early childhood programs with meaningful information on program quality. To prepare. Review the Early childhood program evaluations: A decision-maker’s guide,https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/early-childhood-program-evaluations-a-decision-makers-guide/ reflecting on the question, “Does ‘it’ work?” Then, explore the measurement tools overview provided by the National Center on Parent, Family, and Community Engagement to identify the many forms of and approaches for effectively evaluating program quality.

EDDD-8084

Discussion 1: Program Evaluation, What Is “It”?

Program evaluation: What is “it” and how do I know if “it” is working?

These questions cross the mind of almost every person involved in the evaluation process. Whether it is a family filling out a survey or a teacher logging assessment results, the questions of “what am I doing?” and “why?” are very common. In fact, the Early childhood program evaluations: A decision-maker’s guide (presented in this module’s Learning Resources), places the question, “Does ‘it’ work?” at the root of all program evaluations. Their research indicates that no matter the evaluation form, the focus of “what” is to be evaluated and whether the program is succeeding at “it” will prove to be at the forefront of all evaluation discussions, decisions, and stakeholder communications.

In this Discussion, you explore the many forms of and approaches for evaluating a program. You also consider how evaluation provides early childhood programs with meaningful information on program quality.

To prepare

Review the  Early childhood program evaluations: A decision-maker’s guide ,

reflecting on the question, “Does ‘it’ work?” Then, explore the measurement tools overview provided by the National Center on Parent, Family, and Community Engagement to identify the many forms of and approaches for effectively evaluating program quality.

Assignment Part 1

Post the following:

In 1 ½ page response  Describe one form of program evaluation, including its purpose and the major components or steps involved. Then, explain how a program would use the information gathered from this evaluation to identify whether “it” is working. Incorporate appropriate resources. Give specific examples of what “it” might be, as well as how a program might decide if results are successful (“working”) or unsuccessful (“not working”).

Read selections of your colleagues’ postings.  

Assignment Part 2

Respond to two  of your colleagues’ postings in the following way in 125 words each:

· Explain how results from each colleague’s selected evaluation can be used to gather information on program quality.

· Provide evidence of personal learning as a result of collegial interactions. Support your writing with in-text citations and cite appropriate references following APA format to substantiate your thinking.

Note:  Throughout the Module (Weeks 1 and 2), continue the professional dialogue in Discussion 1 by responding to questions and insights your colleagues have posted.

Certification And Licensure Plan

  • Review practice agreements in the state of Delaware.
  • Identify whether your state requires physician collaboration or supervision for nurse practitioners, and if so, what those requirements are.
  • Research the following:
    • How do you get certified and licensed as an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) in your state?
    • What is the application process for certification in your state?
    • What is your state’s board of nursing website?
    • How does your state define the scope of practice of a nurse practitioner?
    • What is included in your state practice agreement?
    • How do you get a DEA license?
    • Does your state have a prescription monitoring program (PMP)?
    • How does your state describe a nurse practitioner’s controlled-substance prescriptive authority, and what nurse practitioner drug schedules are nurse practitioners authorized to prescribe?

Debate (RUA) Project

Purpose

For this assignment, you will examine an ethical dilemma that exists in pediatric settings with a group of your peers. You will examine the ethical dilemma from two opposing positions and consider ethical principles, conflict between the principles and the relationship of the ANA Code of Ethics in relation to both positions. You will develop a plan for resolving the issue (for patient, family and the nurse). You will then present this information in class and engage in a debate format activity presenting arguments, grounded in scholarly sources, for both positions of your group’s dilemma.

Course outcomes: This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:

CO1: Provides individualized comprehensive care for children and their families with multiple health problems in institutions and community care settings from birth through adolescence. (PO 1)

CO4: Utilizes critical thinking skills in clinical decision making in the care of pediatric clients. (PO 4)

CO6: Utilizes legal, ethical, and professional standards and principles, including those related to child abuse recognition and intervention, as a basis for pediatric clinical decision‐making. (PO 6)

CO8: Utilize research findings as a basis for nursing interventions in pediatric healthcare settings and the development of professional nursing papers. (PO 8)

Due date: Your faculty member will inform you when this assignment is due. The Late Assignment Policy applies to this assignment.

Total points possible: 100 points

Preparing the assignment

Follow these guidelines when completing this assignment. Speak with your faculty member if you have questions.

1. An ethical dilemma with opposing positions will be assigned by your instructor.

2. Although you may not agree with arguing one of the positions, reflect on your views, respect other perspectives, and examine scholarly literature on both positions.

3. Form a group of 5‐6 students.

· Your group must meet in person a minimum of one time with all members present.

4. Each student assumes an assigned role:

a. Moderator

· Introduces the dilemma and the team’s roles to the class. Asks the three (3) questions alternately to each position for debate. Present a plan for resolving the issue (for patient, family and the nurse). Fields questions from the class and moderates the debate. Presents concluding remarks after the debate.

b. Researcher (2)

· Perform preliminary research on the assigned ethical dilemma. Determines the ethical principles that apply to each position, possible conflicts in principles, and components of the ANA Code of Ethics that apply using three (3) Provisions. Disseminate information found to all group members.

c. Pro Debater

· In the debate activity, the pro debater argues for the “pro” side of the dilemma, and presents why this is the correct or most ethical position. Uses the applicable ethical principles, the ANA Code of Ethics, and scholarly source to support the position. Discusses possible outcomes of position being argued.

d. Con Debater

· In the debate activity, the con debater presents on the “con” side of the dilemma, and presents why this is the correct or most ethical position. Uses the applicable ethical principles, the ANA Code of Ethics, and scholarly source to support the position. Discusses possible outcomes of position being argued.

e. Recorder

· Prepares and submits the Power Point Presentation on behalf of the group. Assist with making notes for debaters and assists them during the debate as needed.

NR328 Pediatric Nursing

RUA: Ethical Dilemma Assignment Guidelines

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5. Make a case for both positions and possible outcomes by formulating three (3) questions the moderator will ask each side, focusing on the ANA Code of Ethics to support the nurse’s perspective as caring for the patient.

6. Practice as a group how you will debate this issue, with your moderator serving as the leader.

7. Make notes for your reference during the debate and be prepared to defend your positions based on your research.

8. The debate will last no more than 15 minutes.

9. Use this link to take you directly to the ANA website to access the Code of Ethics. When prompted, choose “No I do not wish to register at this time. Take me to the Code now.” https://www.nursingworld.org/practice‐policy/nursing‐ excellence/ethics/code‐of‐ethics‐for‐nurses/

10. For APA, formatting, or grammar assistance visit the APA Citation and Writing page in the online library.

11. Include the following sections (detailed criteria listed below and in the Grading Rubric):

a. Professionalism ‐5 points/5%

· Team members are professionally dressed.

· Team is introduced and assigned roles are identified prior to starting the debate.

· Full group participation.

· Respectful and professional language is used throughout the debate.

· Adhere to the time limit of 15 minutes for the debate.

b. Debate ‐50 points/50%

· The opposing positions debated are made clear.

· Argue the issue from a Pro position crediting a supporting scholarly source.

· Argue the issue from a Con position crediting a supporting scholarly source.

· Present arguments in a clear and articulate manner.

· Use appropriate ethical principle(s) to support each position.

· Consider which, if any, ethical principles are in conflict with the opposing positions.

· Use three (3) provisions of the ANA Code of Ethics that apply to the ethical dilemma.

· Discuss possible outcomes of each position being argued.

· Present a plan for resolving the issue (for patient, family and the nurse).

c. Post‐Debate Discussion ‐ 15 points/15%

· Elicit questions from the class after the debate.

· Respond professionally and appropriately to questions from the class and faculty.

· Include concluding remarks by moderator.

d. PowerPoint ‐ 20 points/20%

· Title page

· Brief description of the assigned case

· Ethical dilemma the case presents

· Ethical principles that relate to the case

· Three (3) provisions from the ANA code of Ethics that apply to the case

· Possible outcomes

· Plan for resolving the dilemma

· At least 2 sources used to support work

· Reference page

· 10‐12 slides (Do not exceed 12 slides)

e. APA Style and Organization ‐ 10 points/10%

· References are submitted with assignment.

· Uses current APA format and is free of errors.

· Grammar and mechanics are free of errors.

· At least three (3) scholarly, peer reviewed, primary sources from the last 5 years, excluding the textbook, are provided.

· One (1) scholarly source must be the ANA Code of Ethics and each position must be supported by a scholarly source.

Grading Rubric

Criteria are met when the student’s application of knowledge demonstrates achievement of the outcomes for this assignment.

Assignment Section and Required Criteria(Points possible/% of total points available)Highest Level of PerformanceHigh Level of PerformanceSatisfactory Level of PerformanceUnsatisfactory Level of PerformanceSection not present
Professionalism(5 points/5%)5 points4 points3 points2 points0 points
Required criteria1. Team members are professionally dressed.2. Team is introduced and assigned roles are identified prior to starting the debate.3. Full group participation.4. Respectful and professional language is used throughout the debate.5. Adhere to the time limit of 15 minutes for the debate.Includes no fewer than 5 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 4 requirements for section.Includes no less than 3 requirement for section.Includes no less than 2 requirement for section.Includes 1 or no requirements for section.
Debate(50 points/50%)50 points40 points30 points20 points0 points
Required criteria1. The opposing positions debated are made clear.2. Argue the issue from a Pro position crediting a supporting scholarly source.3. Argue the issue from a Con position crediting a supporting scholarly source.4. Present arguments in a clear and articulate manner.5. Use appropriate ethical principle(s) to support each position.6. Consider which, if any, ethical principles are in conflict with the opposing positions.7. Use three (3) provisions of the ANA Code of Ethics that apply to the ethical dilemma.8. Discuss possible outcomes of each position being argued.9. Present a plan for resolving the issue (for patient, family and the nurse).Includes no fewer than 9 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 8 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 7 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 6 requirements for section.Includes 5 or fewer requirements for section.

( NR328 Pediatric Nursing RUA: Ethical Dilemma Assignment Guidelines )

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Post-Debate Discussion(15 points/15%)15 points7 points5 points0 points
Required criteria1. Elicit questions from the class after the debate.2. Respond professionally and appropriately to questions from the class and faculty.3. Include concluding remarks by moderator.Includes no fewer than 3 requirements for section.Includes no less than 2 requirements for section.Includes no less than1 requirements for section.No requirements for this section presented.
PowerPoint(20 points/20%)20 points15 points10 points5 points0 points
Required criteria1. Title page2. Brief description of the assigned case3. Ethical dilemma the case presents4. Ethical principles that relate to the case5. Three (3) provisions from the ANA code of Ethics that apply to the case6. Possible outcomes7. Plan for resolving the dilemma8. At least 2 sources used to support work9. Reference page10. 10‐12 slides (Do not exceed 12 slides)Includes no fewer than 10 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 9 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 8 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 7 requirements for section.Includes 6 or fewer requirements for section.
APA Style and Organization(10 points/10%)10 points8 points6 points4 points0 points
Required criteria1. References are submitted with assignment.2. Uses current APA format and is free of errors.3. Grammar and mechanics are free of errors.4. At least three (3) scholarly, nursing, peer reviewed, primary sources from the last 5 years, excluding the textbook, are provided5. One (1) scholarly source must be the ANA Code of Ethics Provisions and each position must be supported by a scholarly source.Includes no fewer than 5 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 4 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 3 requirements for section.Includes no fewer than 2 requirements for section.Includes 1 or no requirements for this section presented.
Total Points Possible = 100

Project

Please answer below in 3 pages. Should be in APA format with references and citations 

Company Name: Alphabet
Symbol: GOOG

Research and then describe your company’s primary business activities. Include:

  1. A brief historical summary,
  2. A list of competitors,
  3. The company’s position within the industry,
  4. Recent developments within the company/industry,
  5. Future direction, and
  6. Other items of significance to your corporation.

NRNP 6645 – Discussion Week 1

**THIS DISCUSSION IS DIVIDE IN TWO PARTS –

1. MAIN DISCUSSION POST BY WEDNESDAY 6/1/2022 BEFORE 8:00 PM EST

2. TWO REPLIES BY FRIDAY 06/03/2022 BEFORE 8:00 PM EST

Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy

Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology?

Psychotherapy is used with individuals as well as in groups or families. The idea of discussing confidential information with a patient in front of an audience is probably quite foreign to you. However, in group and family therapy, this is precisely what the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner does. In your role, learning how to provide this type of therapy within the limits of confidentiality is essential.

By Day 3

DISCUSSION – INSTRUCTIONS

1. Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis.

2. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments.

3. Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy, and explain how these differences might impact your therapeutic approaches for clients in group, individual, and family therapy.

4. Support your rationale with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly.

5. Attach the PDFs of your sources. 

Capacity Discussion

Utilizing one of the internet search engines, find an organization that has recently been forced to increase or decrease capacity dramatically to align with customer demand. Discuss specifically the key drivers for the change in demand along with the steps that were taken and the expected impact. Be sure to provide any URLs you used as a reference source for your answer. The selected article must provide well-rounded information and address the topic. You must post the annotation in the reference section. 

Post must be at least 350 words and contain at least 3 references.

I need help fast on this one….

Professional Issues In Nursing

In 500 words 

Discuss some Workplace hazards which nurses are challenged with and how can we as nurses avoid or minimize these hazards. 

Please cite your references.

Sociology

SOCIOLOGY 110: Research Methods Spring, 2022

GUIDELINES for RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL PAPER

This course in Research Methods has two objectives: 1) for students to gain an understanding of contemporary social science research, and 2) for students to practice strategies and skills for gathering/analyzing information, and developing/writing a coherent grounded research proposal.

Students will get direction and feedback at each step of proposal preparation (i.e., selecting a topic, obtaining/analyzing/synthesizing literature, proposing a project). You are strongly encouraged to meet with the TA/Instructor to get individual feedback. The final paper grade reflects the quality of the final product, but also the development shown over the quarter.

Project Proposal Paper (25%)

The final paper will be based on an analytical literature review of a research topic in sociology, and a proposed project to further social science inquiry on that topic. The course paper will consist of an introduction, background/literature review, proposed methods and data analyses, discussion and conclusions and will be outlined in the last section.

Exercise 1 and consultation meeting (4%)

Select a topic of inquiry. Obtain 6 social science scholarly research articles on the topic, include three based on quantitative (survey) research designs, and three based on qualitative field (participant observation, ethnography, focus groups, content analysis) research designs. Experimental and Archival research are not included in this course exercise. Provide an annotated bibiliography of these articles.

Exercise 2 (8%)

Detailed methodological analysis of each survey research article, and an integrative summary of the three articles. Create proposed alternative method including a short questionnaire (6 items). You will pre-test the questions on a few respondents and report your findings about the instrument in your final proposal paper.

Exercise 3 (8%)

Detailed methodological analysis of each field research article, and an integrative summary of the three articles. Create proposed alternative method including an interview guide (with one brief pilot intensive interview) and a field guide (with one brief pilot systematic observation). You will pilot test these guides and report your findings about the instruments in your final proposal paper.

Further details on these Exercises are provided in the following pages.

Exercise 1 (DUE April 14)

Select a topic of inquiry. Obtain 6 social science scholarly research articles on the topic, include three based on quantitative (survey) research, and three based on qualitative field (participant observation, ethnography, focus groups, content analysis) research. Provide a brief annotated bibliography of each of these articles. Additional articles are permitted for the final proposal paper (eg., experimental or archival research) when appropriate.

A. Your introductory paragraph describes your research topic, the main concept(s) you are interested in studying, and the scope of previous research.

Describe why it matters. Opening statements might address some of the following issues: Why is it worth studying? Why is this an interesting topic to a sociologist (not “to society”)? Is the study of primarily practical and/or theoretical significance? What is generally known or of concern about the topic? What, specifically, do you hope to contribute with your research? You must provide indication that the topic is sociological (how it engages sociological perspectives or theories).

Then, state the problem/research question.

This should generally take one of the following forms: “What are the causes of y?”, “What are the consequences of x?”, “Is there an association between x and y?” “How does x influence y?” “To what extent does x impact y?”

For the quantitative portion of your mixed methods design, you will need to clearly specify your hypothesis linking x and y. Include a definition of your measurable independent and dependent variables (these must be measurable) and the ideas linking them (why/how they are related must be sociological). For this course, your research hypothesis (and your quantitative articles) must be testable with a survey method.

For the qualitative portion of your mixed methods design, you will need to clearly describe your research focus. What specifically do you want to learn more about in depth – who, what, when, where, and perhaps why? For example, what are the causes, consequences, or process of x or of y?

Thinking Outline

· Statement of the “problem.” I overheard a conversation about…

· Why important. I found the topic (theoretically, sociologically) interesting for the following reasons…

· Theoretical Perspectives. Several people chimed in on various aspects of the topic.

· One individual talked about it in this way….

· Another person looked at it from a different angle…

· Someone else added the following insights…..

· Entry point. Finally I spoke up to add my “two cents” and explained what appeared to be lacking/needed correcting in what was said….

B. The annotated bibliography will then include a very short descriptive paragraph (your notes about the article in your own words) on each of the SIX sources (three quantitative and then three qualitative) that you have so far obtained related to your topic. These sources should be published within the last ten (preferably five) years.

Clearly label which of your sources are quantitative and which are qualitative.

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations (articles, books, documents). Each citation is followed by a concise descriptive and evaluative paragraph (approximately 150 words) called the annotation. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of sources on your list. It is also used to jog your memory about articles you have already read as you continue forward with your literature review and research design preparation.

It should include:

A full citation that includes the author, date, title, and publication information.

Following, a brief paragraph addresses

1) The research question, theoretical framework, and general methodological design of the study,

2) Significant findings and substantive conclusions of the study (ONLY as regards YOUR research question),

3) A brief, critical analysis of the quality (strengths and weaknesses) of the study.

Proper citation:

The American Sociological Association publishes a “Quick Style Guide,” which provides all the information you need to cite properly both in-text and in your bibliography. The Guide can be found on the course website (and cited in your text).

· See next page for an example –

An example:

Waite, L.J., Goldscheider, F.K., and Witsberger, C. 1986. “Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations among Young Adults”. American Sociological Review. 51:541-554.

“The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.”

Notice that in this example, particular attention is given to gender differences, presumably because the reviewer’s research question focuses on gender differences among young adults. In addition, the last sentence notes an important contradictory finding in a similar study. Think of the annotations as representing a “conversation” between the authors of the various articles you are using. Comparing and contrasting the three studies will assist you in identifying the important themes/issues/problems associated with your research topic. While not reflected in this example, the discussion between the studies might also involve competing theories or paradigms.

Exercises 2/3

Now that you have developed your research question, you need to begin the process of developing your research design. Since your proposal will ultimately involve a multiple methods proposal, recognize that the process will differ for your qualitative and quantitative studies. You will move toward the development of your proposed design by first providing a more detailed analysis of the research articles on your chosen topic (from Exercise 1).

Exercise #2 (DUE May 12) Quantitative Survey Research

A. You will complete Parts I-IV for each of your quantitative/survey research articles. The issues you need to address are outlined below, and your critical analysis will be approximately three typed pages for each article.

I. Theoretical Orientation.

What is the research question/topic? What theory is presented? Why is the research important? What are the hypotheses?

II. Methods.

1. What is the unit of analysis? What is the time dimension? What sampling procedure was used? Was it appropriate for the research question/ the population under consideration? Discuss the sample size (and demographic characteristics), and representativeness.

2. What are the independent and dependent variables? What other key (control) variables are identified? How are the central concepts defined and operationalized? (Include the names/definitions, and indicators of each major concept.) Is the level of measurement appropriate? How does the study assess reliability and validity?

III. Data Collection and Analysis Critique

1. What was the response rate, and does the author address the issue of nonresponse bias? Do the questions asked of respondents (number, wording) adequately reflect the concepts? For closed-ended questions, were the response categories appropriate, exhaustive, and mutually exclusive? For open-ended questions, how were the responses categorized? Were the questions clear and unambiguous, avoiding social desirability, etc.?

2. What statistical analyses were are applied to the data? What are the key research results? Are the findings clearly presented, with appropriate inference about the strength and direction of the association and statistical significance of hypothesized relationships? Does the author make causal inferences? What evidence is presented regarding direction of influence and nonspuriousness?

IV. Conclusions and Reporting.

Is the method used appropriate, or well-suited, to addressing the research question or testing the hypothesis?

How do the researchers address ethical concerns? Are procedures implemented that adequately protect participants’ rights and welfare?

What substantive conclusions are drawn from the study? Are the conclusions appropriate to the design and the representativeness of the sample? Does the author discuss alternative explanations of findings or results? Does the research replicate, modify, extend, or contradict previous studies?

Has the researcher reported any shortcomings in the study design or execution? Does the author discuss the implications of study results for future research?

What do you think of the quality of the research?

RECOMMENDED: Construct a matrix with rows summarizing the Theory, Methods (population, sample, concepts, variables), Findings, Conclusions, Limitations, with the three articles on the columns. This will greatly facilitate your ability to compare across the three articles for the next section:

B. Proposed Research Design – this is the MAIN POINT of the exercise.

This section will be approximately four typed pages.

First, provide a critical integration (compare and contrast) of the articles to summarize “what is known” about the topic. You might note important similarities or differences in theoretical orientation, sampling/methods, data analysis/results, conclusions, strengths and limitations. Taking the articles together, what do you now know overall about your research topic, and what gaps in existing knowledge remain?

Then, propose an original survey design to replicate, extend, or improve upon the studies you reviewed, particularly addressing any noted errors, limitations, or deficiencies.

What population/sampling procedure would you use; why? What mode of survey administration will you use: why? How will you define your main concepts? Will you use the same or different questions as those in your literature; why?

Include your questionnaire. You will need at least two indicators (or an existing scale) each for your independent variable, dependent variable, and control variables.

ImportantAFTER these are approved, you will “pre-test” them on about five cases, and you will include the results (a summary of what you learned) in your final proposal paper as an Appendix. You will not be collecting data. The pre-test is for the purpose of checking that the questionnaire questions are understandable and can elicit the kinds of information needed to address the research questions, and should include at least five people (in person, email, discord, whatever).  You will not be statistically analyzing the data, but rather considering whether the questions are valid – this will be discussed in your paper. 

Exercise #3 (DUE May 24) Qualitative Field Research

A. You will complete Parts I-IV for each of your three qualitative research articles. The issues you need to address are outlined below, and your critical analysis will be approximately two typed pages for each article.

I. Theoretical Orientation.

What is the research question/topic? What theory is presented? Why is the research important? What are the hypotheses (if any)?

II. Methods.

What is the unit of analysis? What sampling procedure was used (if any)? Was it appropriate for the research question/ the population under consideration? What was the research setting? How was it appropriate for the research topic?

III. Data Collection and Analysis Critique

1. Has the research set out to test hypotheses or generate theory? How are the main concepts/variables ultimately defined and measured? How does the study assess reliability and validity? How were people interviewed/observed? Evaluate the interview/field guides. How does the author discuss relationships with participants and reflexivity? How much did the researcher participate-observe, or reveal their identity (overt-covert)? How might the researcher’s feelings, experiences, or background have influenced the observations and interpretations?

2. What form of qualitative analysis does the author apply? Are the analytic techniques (e.g., coding) adequately described? Does the analysis lead to an in-depth understanding of the topic? Does the author discuss member checking and/or negative cases?

IV. Conclusions and Reporting.

Is the method used appropriate, or well-suited, to addressing the research question or testing the hypothesis?

How do the researchers address ethical concerns? Are procedures implemented that adequately protect participants’ rights and welfare?

What substantive conclusions are drawn from the study? Are the conclusions appropriate to the design? Does the author discuss alternative explanations of findings or results? Does the research replicate, modify, extend, or contradict previous studies?

Has the researcher reported any shortcomings in the study design or execution? Does the author discuss the implications of study results for future research?

What do you think of the quality of the research?

RECOMMENDED: Construct a matrix with rows summarizing the Theory, Methods (sample, setting, guides, concepts), Analysis/Findings, Conclusions, Limitations, with the three articles on the columns.

B. Proposed Research Design – this is the main point of the exercise

This section will be approximately three-four typed pages.

First, provide a critical integration (compare and contrast) of the articles to summarize “what is known” about the topic. You might note important similarities or differences in theoretical orientation, sampling/methods, data analysis/results, conclusions, strengths/limitations. Taking the articles together, what do you now know overall about your research topic, and what gaps in existing knowledge still remain?

Then, based on these gaps, propose an original qualitative design to replicate, extend, or improve upon the studies you reviewed, particularly addressing any noted errors, limitations, or deficiencies. What population/sampling procedure would you use; why? What qualitative design will you use; why? How will your qualitative design (intensive interview plus participant-observation) differ from the studies you reviewed? What type of individual will you interview; why? What research setting/observations will you use; why?

Include your tentative interview guide (an introductory statement, prepared general questions/probes) and your tentative field guide (who/what you will observe in what setting).

IMPORTANTAFTER your tentative interview guide and field guide are approved, you will “pilot test” one brief interview and one observational session.

The pilot test for your qualitative design includes a ten minute intensive interview (with the two or three broad questions/prompts; include thoughts, feelings, experiences, behaviors); the interviewee does not have to be a member of your specified population, just anyone you can chat with and record.  You are required to provide the transcription (in an appendix), and to spend some time practicing analyzing it (last pages of the guidelines provide suggestions).

The pilot also includes a ten minute observational session (again, you were to outline the guide for the exercise), and you should submit your field notes also as an appendix.   Again, it does not have to be the kind of setting you would use in your  proposed study if this is not possible – the purpose is to see if the interview/field guides work to provide the kind of information you need to address your research topic.  If circumstances do not permit you to be among people, you might even have to try watching ten minutes of a video.

In your proposal paper (Not this exercise), you will include a summary of what you learned in your pilot study, and in an appendix a transcription of your brief intensive interview, and your field notes from your observation. Pilot studies are standard for a scientist; you are conducting a validity check for your instruments and analysis strategies to inform/improve your project proposal (not conducting the proposed project).

FINAL Proposal Project PAPER GUIDELINES

Final Paper –You will submit an integrated course paper based on your critical analyses and synthesis of empirical studies, and proposed project design to further investigate your research topic. Do not write your paper as though you have already conducted the project; you have conducted only a pre/pilot-test.

Your paper must include the following: I. Introduction II. Literature Review III. Method and Data Analysis proposal (both quantitative and qualitative) V. Discussion and Conclusions. Detailed guidelines are provided following.

General REQUIREMENTS

1. The final course paper is to be approximately sixteen pages, double-spaced, typewritten paper. See Writing Guidelines for specifics. It will be structured as outlined below.

2. References. A minimum of six references of empirical studies on your topic as specified in Exercise 1.

3. Format. The paper is to be written in ASA style in three ways:

a. Bibliographic references at end of paper

b. Use of references in text

c. Use of headings – major headings are centered and in capital letters, sub-headings are in lower case letters, underlined, and to the left side.

STRUCTURE (USE these headings and sub-headings)

INTRODUCTION

(2 pages – 10 points)

1. What are you studying? Clearly specify your research question and its sociological importance in the first paragraph of the paper. (This is a more developed version of your introductory paragraph from Exercise 1.)

2. What is generally known about this topic? How is your research question related to prior research and theory?

This portion is a very brief version of the issues you will address in the Literature Review. In order to place your study in context, identify/develop at least two themes, issues or problems that relate to the broader topic you are investigating; your study will contribute to the literature in addressing these issues. You can provide demographics, descriptive information, an historical overview of the topic, or other background material in this section if you choose.

3. HINT: Include that you will be using a “multiple-method” approach in designing your research, and discuss why/how this could be beneficial.

BACKGROUND/LITERATURE REVIEW

(5 pages – 34 points)

Review of your six (minimum) empirical studies. The information will be drawn from your previous Exercises/feedback, but you will describe only the relevant points from each article to include in your literature review. Again, do NOT just summarize the articles or include the pages from your exercises; write only about what matters (themes, issues, or problems) for your proposed research.

For each study, cover the following in about one-two paragraphs (4 points each):

1. What research questions or hypotheses did the researchers study? (Identify article by author and (date) of study.) As appropriate to your themes, BRIEFLY describe: the research methods used, characteristics of the sample, main findings and conclusions (as they relate to their main research questions or hypotheses), and your critique (strengths and limitations of the study). This is a much refined version of your initial annotation. Focus on the themes/issues you have stated in your introduction. Notice this is a significantly shortened presentation revised from Exercises 2/3 which will focus only on the information relevant to the design of your proposed research.

Then, in about two-three pages (10 points):

SYNTHESIS – putting it all together.

2. Compare and contrast the theories/findings/conclusions in the various studies, and how they went about contributing explanations about your topic. In what important ways are the studies similar/different? What are the unique quantitative and qualitative contributions? Taking all six of the articles together, what do you now know overall about your research topic, and what gaps in existing knowledge still remain? This is an improved version from part B of your exercises.

3. In the last paragraph of the literature review, specify the research questions/hypotheses to be investigated in your proposed research based on the findings of your literature review and your thoughts on your topic.

METHODS AND DATA ANALYSES

(10 pages – 40 points)

Since this is a research proposal, you will specify how you would do the study; a multiple method approach is required. You must describe how you would use each method to draw your sample/select the setting, collect your data (how will you get it, and what will it look like?), and analyze your data (what is the data analysis process, what will the results look like, and how might you present them). (This is a much more developed version of your proposed design from Exercises 2/3.)

Quantitative Research Design

Your proposed survey research design will be approximately four pages. You must describe how you would use a quantitative survey method (sampling, data collection, analysis, etc.), focusing on the issues covered in the course material and Exercise 2. Be sure to address concerns unique to quantitative methods, including ethical issues. Be as specific and detailed as possible within the suggested pages. (10 points)

Include a copy of your final questionnaire (in the Appendix). Summarize what you learned about your questions and responses from your pre-test data, noting any necessary revisions in your instrument or survey design. Describe appropriate data analyses procedures. (10 points)

Qualitative Research Design

Your proposed field research design will be approximately six pages. You must describe how you would use qualitative methods, focusing on the issues covered in the course material and Exercise 3. Be sure to address concerns unique to qualitative methods, including ethical issues. Be as specific and detailed as possible within the suggested pages. (20 points for design, analysis/coding)

1. Your fieldnotes from your pilot test will include the following (10 points):

Describe When/Where you conducted the interviews/observations? How did you gain access, if necessary? How did you locate informants or establish roles and relationships (develop rapport) with your participants? What questions did you ask, in what order? How long did the data collection take? How did you record the data? Note any events during the data collection, and characteristics of the setting.

For intensive interviews, you will include a complete transcription (typed word for word record of your recorded interview). For observations, you will need to submit your complete raw field notes (including transcriptions of conversations/casual interviews). These should be in an Appendix.

Was your social location similar to/different from your participants? How did that shape the experience and the data you collected? How did you feel as the researcher? How well could you listen/observe? How did your participants react? Did you encounter any challenges? What ethical considerations did you take into account?

Describe your data analyses procedures. Read your literature review and all field notes for guidance. Consider the following: For the initial pattern-seeking/coding, go line-by-line. Ask of each discrete event, behavior, or place: 1. What does this represent? What it is this an example of? What is going on (what are people doing, or saying)? What are the assumptions made? Pay attention to meaning, tone, frequency, and emphasis.

In your focused coding, make a list of all of the categories/themes that emerge (including subcategories). Think about the relationship between the different categories. Compare the data from your observations/informants. As you stay focused on the research question, make notes of the most important similarities and differences between them.

2. Now, clearly describe your finalized qualitative design – sample, setting, interview/field guides, proposed analysis strategy, etc. (10 points).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

(3 pages –14 points)

1. Briefly summarize the expected contributions of your proposed research, including results, interpretation of the results, and the limitations of each method.

2. Synthesize the results, comparing and contrasting each method in terms of the overall product (how will the findings fit together or complement each other?).

3. Conclude with a statement of what you hope to discover about your subject matter. Summarize what you learned about your topic in terms of the current state of theory and research findings. What issues remain to be investigated? How will future theory (and application of alternative theoretical paradigms) need to be refined?

REFERENCES

(as many pages as you need to cite all sources – 2 points)

Follow ASA bibliography format.

WRITING GUIDELINES

All papers must be typewritten and double-spaced with margins of 1” all around. All papers should have a cover page stating the name of your topic, your name, the class name or number and the date. Papers must be written in a size 12 font, using Ariel or Times New Roman print. The cover page should also be in size 12 font – not in boldface print. Pages must be numbered in the upper right corner. The cover page is page one (1). Do not show the page number on this page. The first typed page is page two.

Do NOT use any direct quotes from articles, text etc. in your paper without explicit quotation and citation, and even these should be used sparingly. Paraphrase the author’s key ideas in your own words (and cite the author, year). If you copy word for word without citation (parentheses, author, date and page number), you are committing plagiarism. This is against the law. Reference format must follow the ASA format and style of references in text of your paper and on your list of references at end of paper.

Clarity of Communication: A well-written paper communicates ideas of information in a clear-cut, understandable-to-the-reader style. Poorly written papers, even when written in English, slow the reader down so that he/she may have to “translate” the paper. This distracts the reader from the basic ideas of your paper. Follow the steps necessary for you personally to avoid spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence construction, and syntax (wording, word order) errors.

Papers not meeting these specifications will have their grade lowered.

Coding Qualitative Interviews – Suggestions for the Process

Steps to Successful Coding :

1) Read the textbook!

2) Get reacquainted

a. Re-read your literature review. Make sure that you know what you are trying to study! It is more important at this point that you know your dependent variable. You are not wedded to an independent variable at this point.

3) Shake off your biases

Do not “fish” for your desire outcome, But, don’t let a fear of bias immobilize you!

4) Take a walk in your data

Listen to the recording again. Read your transcription at least 3 times. When you can anticipate what they will say next, you are ready to start coding.

5) Initial Coding

a. Go line-by-line. Ask of each discrete event, behavior, or place:

i. What is this? What does it represent?

ii. What is this an example of?

iii. What is going on? What are people doing? What is the person saying? What are the assumptions made?

b. Pay attention to meaning, tone, frequency, and passion

c. Make a list of all of the categories/themes that emerge. There can be subcategories also.

d. Think about the relationship between the different categories and jot memos to remember

e. Keep the list on a separate sheet of paper. Assign a color or symbol to each category that you will use in your coding.

6) Focused Coding

a. Build on initial coding. Select a number of the core initial codes.

i. You will discard many of the original codes and combine others. This is normal.

7) Memo to self

a. Note your reflections on deeper meanings, relationships between categories/themes.

b. Note ideas about the potential social types you are creating.

c. Note quotes that poignantly highlight certain themes or categories.

d. Note exceptions, or things that appear to conflict with the theory you are creating.

8) Create your types

a. Compare Informant/Observation #1 to Informant/Observation #2 transcriptions and memos.

b. As you stay focused on the research question, make note of the most important similarities and differences that arose between the informants.

c. Create social types for your informants.

i. Clearly define the types using the characteristics and themes you coded.

ii. Create a pictorial image of your types.

iii. Use quotes to support your argument.

11

Running head: Sociology 2

Sociology 2

Introduction

Organizational change is a crucial factor in any organization. Every organization has to experience a variety of changes in either the business strategies or the composition of the management. In implementing changes in an organization set up, leaders and senior managers use their power and influence in trying to influence their subordinates into following their strategies. However, there is no defined way in which power associated with managerial positions influences organizational change processes. It matters in that there is a need to determine the impact of power on organizational changes.

Problem statement

There is a need to determine how power impacts organizational change in any organization. Personal political dynamics amongst leaders who know something is coming up increase in the months leading up to a key initiative’s public disclosure. Individuals and groups utilize their power to persuade others to help them achieve their goals. Even if a shift’s formal organizational structure is not well defined, uncertainty, risk, and power opportunities grow. When both covert and apparent power dynamics emerge, it can lead to turbulence, competitiveness, and even malevolent action. This is a regular occurrence in the business sector. However, past research does not explicitly indicate the impact of specific power on the success or failure of the organizational change process.

Qualitative sources

Ahlborg, H., & Nightingale, A. J. (2018). Theorizing power in political ecology: the where of power in resource governance projects. https://nmbu.brage.unit.no/nmbu-xmlui/handle/11250/2574182

Power and politics have always been fundamental to Political Ecology’s early days. Different and sometimes competing views of power exist in this discipline, which depicts power as a resource, personal trait, or relation at various points in time. The researcher’s goal is to contribute to the growing body of theoretical work on power by examining competing theories about how it affects social change and by outlining an alternative theory of power that draws on political ecology and sociotechnical approaches from the field of science and technology studies (S&TS). There are three tendencies in political ecology that have affected modern debates about power. The researcher’s conceptual discussion then progresses, and we ask specifically where power develops in the process of resource governance projects. 

Lalancette, M., & Raynauld, V. (2019). The power of political image: Justin Trudeau, Instagram, and celebrity politics. American behavioral scientist63(7), 888-924. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0002764217744838

Canadian celebrity politics and digital eternal campaigning are examined along with how online image management affects leadership in this article. Visuals can have a significant impact on how the public views politicians, according to recent studies. In order to make a judgment about who to elect, voters are looking for specific qualities in political leaders including honesty, intelligence and kindness. In order to appear to have these qualities, politicians can employ image-management techniques. The usage of stunning images and videos on social media by heads of state has become the new normal. On October 19, 2015, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was elected to a four-year term. Using a quantitative-qualitative approach, this study explores how Trudeau and his party project a certain image to voters during an ongoing and increasingly personalized campaign.

Svarstad, H., Benjaminsen, T. A., & Overå, R. (2018). Power theories in political ecology. https://oda.oslomet.no/oda-xmlui/handle/10642/6587

The concept of political ecology is heavily influenced by the concept of power. Research in this discipline also tends to provide extensive presentations of diverse uses of power, including corporate and conservation initiatives that influence access to land and natural resources. Conflict and strife are the inevitable outcomes. There is, however, a dearth of theoretical explication on how power might be understood in political ecology. To fill this void, we begin by analyzing the various theoretical approaches to power that have dominated this discipline. From the 1980s onward, neo-Marxist and actor-oriented methodologies were applied, resulting in various mixtures of influences. Case studies of environmental initiatives at various scales, from the local to the global, are typically given. Processes and outcomes for various social groups have been the primary focus of these initiatives, as well as the actors involved. Environmental conflicts and governance can now be studied through the lens of three distinct methods (actor-oriented; neo-Marxist; and Foucauldian) that combine to generate a powerful synergy of power views.

Quantitative sources

Perugini, M., Gallucci, M., & Costantini, G. (2018). A practical primer to power analysis for simple experimental designs. International Review of Social Psychology31(1). https://www.rips-irsp.com/article/10.5334/irsp.181/

Useful in research design is power analysis. For the sake of this post, we’ll go over why power analysis is so important. The researchers go over some examples of when and how it can be put to use in practice. From two-group independent and paired groups to factorial designs one-way analysis of variance comparisons trends regression analyses analysis of covariance and mediation analyses after starting with simple two-group independently and paired groups are discussed. Moderators and predictors can be binary or continuous, and power analysis can be applied to both types of designs. The importance of increasing statistical power cannot be overstated. As the sample size and effect size rise at a given degree of statistical power, so does the power of the experiment. It’s easy to increase the number of people who take part in a study. To maximize an effect’s magnitude in the short term, the researchers concentrated on a few key concepts. The study’s unique design and the variable’s level of measurement both influence the choice of an effect size indicator.

Oreg, S., & Berson, Y. (2019). Leaders’ impact on organizational change: Bridging theoretical and methodological chasms. Academy of Management Annals13(1), 272-307. https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/annals.2016.0138

In recent years, the terms “leadership” and “organizational change” have been used interchangeably and in conjunction. We know a lot about leadership and change, but we don’t know nearly as much about how to bring the two together. In the literature on organizational change, managers and change agents are frequently referred to as change leaders because of their influence on organizations during periods of change. Despite this, the role of leaders in influencing change has not been researched in depth. It was found that there were major gaps in the literature on leadership and transformation across disciplines, methodological approaches, and levels of analysis through a comprehensive examination of the literature. A conceptual framework is provided to bridge these gaps and emphasize the primary mechanisms through which leaders generate organizational change and affect its beneficiaries. In order to effectively execute changes, leaders need to identify the essential leadership functions and the accompanying change management processes. In addition, we identify a number of potential research avenues. Many questions remain about how leaders’ strategic choices influence employees’ reactions to change and how context and time influence the effects of leaders’ actions during times of transition, to name just two examples.

Koeslag-Kreunen, M., Van den Bossche, P., Hoven, M., Van der Klink, M., & Gijselaers, W. (2018). When leadership powers team learning: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research49(4), 475-513https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1046496418764824

Adapting and acquiring knowledge at the level of the team is one of the most effective team processes, as evidenced by research showing the importance of team-level learning behaviors like sharing, discussing, and reflecting on knowledge and actions. A leader’s position as a catalyst is seen as vital when it comes to building an environment that encourages team learning. Team learning research has grown, but the link between it and individual learning has remained unclear. The relationship between team leadership behaviors, team learning behaviors, and the task type was investigated using a meta-analytic technique. 43 empirical research produced 92 different impact sizes. There is an 18% association between team leader behaviors and team learning behavior, according to the study’s findings. Results also demonstrate that leaders who focus on people help teams learn both for adaptive and developmental objectives, whereas leaders who focus on tasks only help teams learn for adaptive reasons.

Sociology Research

Sociology Research

Theorizing power in political ecology: The where of power in resource governance projects

Since the initial periods of Politics Ecological, the key themes have been authority and governance. Diverse and often contradictory views of authority exist in this discipline, which depicts dominance as a commodity, personal trait or connection at various points in time. I examine competing ideas about their role in social transformation by offering a particular understanding of authority, which relies on both politics and social and technical methods in interdisciplinary research. Our analysis of political ecology’s conceptualization of power reveals three fundamental tendencies that have affected the present debate. The next step in our conceptual debate is to inquire where power develops in the operations of the asset management framework.

Examples of rural electrification projects in some countries show how sustainable power services may help boost socio-economic development. Non-human factors play a crucial role in the co-construction of civilization, innovation, and environment, as we show in our study, which relies on interdisciplinary research. As a result, we regard the exercise of power as having confusing and conflicting implications. Finally, we summarize by looking at how individual activity and power are intertwined; we can explain why purposeful acts truly do matter for how resources stewardship initiatives are implemented in the real world.

Importance of Analysis

it seeks to add to power theorizations in PE by investigating power in resource governance initiatives in general and localized illumination in Tanzania. Therefore, propose a paradigm that allows us to analyze power as relational, contextual, and spontaneous in ways that yield conflicting and confusing outcomes that are difficult to manage. Our theory views power relations as dynamic and affected by numerous tensions: influence, individual agency authority, and completion. We sought to answer one of Amy Allen’s queries by investigating the contradictions between personal interaction and generative power. We did this to broker peace in PE research among researchers who favour the Marxist notion of “structure” and those who prefer the Foucauldian concepts surrounding “fundamental authority.” Our study is unique in that we directly inquire where power is situated and strive to offer real answers. We define power, how it works, and where and when it destabilizes social hierarchies, dominant discourses, and behaviors.

To address the issue of where power develops in resource governance initiatives, we offer four general sites as analytical entrance points. Instead, they signify where the argument has gone and why competing theories and power models might be detrimental. We want to clarify prior work by revealing discrepancies and common ground in how power is operationalized in PE research. We deal with two of Amy Allen’s three critical conceptions of power – action-theoretical and constitutive. With these two in tension, we keep politics alive in our analysis, stressing that individual actors’ purposeful decisions and power exercises are more important for how projects play out and affect people’s lives.

Encouraging human relations over constitutive power, which is decentered from human agency and linked to discourses, institutions, and non-human elements (technologies and nature), obscures critical political dimensions related to how discourse formations, institutions and infrastructures enable or constrain space for action, and co-produce pressures. So, we investigated how human agency generates, produces, and constrains constitutive power. Then we utilized examples of how a specific electric power system shapes, interacts with and embodies power in hardware and software. Instead of assigning power to individuals or things, we may explain why power creates unclear outcomes in resource governance programs that attempt to influence society actively. The introduction of electricity and power relations co-produce an expanded area for individual and communal action – with anticipated and unexpected possibilities – where privileged persons are better positioned to mobilize assets and employ the new system (Oreg and Bersoon,2019).

As a result of these developments in daily life, electricity as a resource permit spread usage and opens up new social areas that are difficult to manage. These transformations are the result of human-technology interactions at many sizes and levels. We recognize the various and powerful pulls for closure and stability, yet significant social transformation does occur. Based on our conceptualization and analysis of power in electrification processes, we believe that the variety of interactions outlined has the potential to destabilize intersectional social hierarchies, including gender and class. These processes can disrupt dominant discourses and cause more fundamental disruptions in the widening space for dispersed action. This dispersed action prompts us to consider how we conceptualize power and interpret non-linear processes.

The Power of Political Image: Justin Trudeau, Instagram, and Celebrity Politics

This essay investigates the fundamentals of image sharing maintenance and its influence on transformational and transactional leadership of digital perpetual marketing and superstar politicians in Canada. New research has demonstrated that visuals may play an important impact in evaluating politicians by citizens. People seek particular characteristics in political leaders when making election judgments, such as honesty, intellect, kindness, authenticity, and reliability. Politicians may benefit from image management strategies that provide the idea that they possess these characteristics. Almost daily, heads of state are utilizing social media to gain attention via visually arresting photographs or films. For this essay, Justin Trudeau’s usage of Instagram during the first year after his election on October 19, 2015, is significant.

Using a mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology, we investigate how Trudeau and his party transmit a particular image to voters in ongoing and individualized campaigning. An examination of his Instagram feed will be conducted, with particular attention paid to the visual framing of his governing style. The use of his personal life to support the Liberal Party of Canada’s values and ideas and the mobilization of celebrity culture codes to discuss policy issues such as the environment, youth, and technological advancements. These conclusions provide insight into the consequences and ramifications of image management in Canada. It provides a much-needed examination of image-based e-politicking. It contributes to the academic literature on social media, perpetual campaigning, and fame and politics in Canada, among other topics.

Importance of Analysis

Although pictures have long been part of politics, study on the visual components of political communication has acquired steam, notably with the growth of social media-based political communication. However, there are still some substantial research gaps in this subject. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the patterns and impacts of Hungarian politicians’ (n = 51) image-based communication on Facebook (n = 2,992) and Instagram (n = 868) during the Hungarian parliamentary election campaign in 2018. By doing so, we shed light on two essential characteristics of personalization: individualization and privatization. This paper is meant to fill three gaps in the literature. We suggest that the previous study on visual political communication (1) uses pictures primarily as illustrations, (2) is restricted to single-platform studies, and (3) does not explore the engagement impacts of images. To get beyond these restrictions, this research studies pictures as objects of interest on their own; it employs a cross-platform comparison approach and evaluates the engagement impacts of visual cues by utilizing a mix of inductive and deductive qualitative content analysis. Our findings suggest that visuals are widely utilized to customize messages. While on Facebook, the individualization component of personalization is more prevalent, on Instagram, its privatization dimension reigns. Furthermore, on Facebook, people favour more politics-related candidate-centred graphics, while on Instagram, we could not uncover comparable impacts for more casual visuals.

Power theories in political ecology

When it comes to political ecology concepts, power is a crucial component. On the other hand, the epidemiological research in this discipline tends to give extensive descriptions of diverse uses of power, including corporate and conservation initiatives that process change to land and other natural resources. As a consequence, there will be strife and conflict. However, a dearth of theoretical development demonstrates how authority may be considered within environmentalism. In this article, we begin to fill in some gaps by analyzing the many conceptual viewpoints on authority that have influenced this topic. Many different inspirations are combined, with actor-oriented and modern techniques from the 1980s being the two most prominent ones. Usually, clinical studies of epigenetic modifications carried out by various players of different sizes, ranging from the local to the global, are provided.

The method involved the actors behind these initiatives and the effects on various social groups, which have been the primary focus of this research. Power views have shifted in political ecology during the recent decades, with a particular emphasis on postmodernism thought regarding “discourse authority,” as influenced by Foucault. As a result of the three methods (performer, neo-Marxist, and Foucauldian) and their permutations, a confluence of power views has emerged, providing rich and complex insights into how power manifests itself in ecological disputes and administration. We suggest that mixing power views is one of political ecology’s strengths. This capacity should be maintained by continually analyzing a wide range of sociology conceptions of power.

Studying institutionalized control sources may help other conceptual frameworks because of the method used here. According to several Marxist theories from environmentalism, power is based on differences in the ability to acquire and use commodities, such as money or the mode of production. A preliminary peek at the SES suggests that many of its attributes can be used to establish necessary measures for historical materialism understanding of power. The financial quantity of resources, the sociodemographic position of various stakeholders, and asset users’ reliance on assets and regimes of property rights. This approach might also study how information and conventions shape people’s beliefs, actions, and mindsets conveyed to them by others. SES information, such as conceptual model and social standards, may allow us to understand the distinctions between information and conversation and how it is passed down from one group to another.

Leaders’ impact on organizational change: Bridging theoretical and methodological chasms

To answer whether or not the SES is well prepared to support analysis of the role of authority in all professions, alternative theoretical, methodological & experimental work further than the scope of this chapter is necessary. Researchers are encouraged to use diverse approaches while thinking critically about how to start moving from a conceptual model to effective implementation and quantification throughout the research process with this overall policy, which identifies specific existing SES attributes and the relationships among groups concerning these attributes. As a result, the SES framework was created to encourage the multidisciplinary study and offer the groundwork for many disciplines to establish mutual understanding.

Lastly, when scholars shift their focus from measuring to analyzing, new questions emerge about the importance of certain conceptions of power. A single causal step from the signal to the result was posited in this research to analyze the link between society and political advantages. Many historians see power as a complicated network of conscience cultural forms that ultimately favour specific communities over others. Studies that focus just on one indication of power ignore that power may be used to strengthen or weaken societies. Increasingly, social scientists are debating how various traits and factors interact to shape various social phenomena. A popular pattern for multidimensional statistical measures is assuming that factors have an independent and additive influence on a predictor variable. Qualitative methodologists, on the other hand, see outcomes as a unique combination of slow and fast-moving causes that combine in intricate ways to yield frequently. Recently, a third approach has evolved that attempts to balance these two extremes and claims that outcomes are determined by the condition of combinations of traits that collectively constitute each situation. Researchers who use various theoretical and methodological methods may use the SES framework to systematically and consistently organize their discussions.

In order to serve a wide range of multidisciplinary researchers, the SES framework has been developed as a daring and ambitious instrument. As a result, academics must either develop their answers or employ more disciplinary-focused analytical techniques since the framework has not progressed much in this area. It neglects the fundamental issue of why we should care about the environment in the first place, prolonging a trend toward a positive environmental governance ideology. To address societal issues and promote “human dignity,” subjects such as environmental governance and public policy are necessary. We argue that institutional studies of SESs should pay more attention to power’s role in human affairs.

However, it is essential that “alternative futures” be understood regarding the positive and moral implications of various types of power. The concepts of leadership and organizational change have long been intertwined and frequently discussed in conjunction with one another. While we have a great deal of knowledge about leadership and change, we do not understand how the two can be integrated. Organizational change literature frequently refers to the roles that managers and change agents play as change leaders, especially in times of transition.

Contrary to popular belief, however, the influence of leaders on change has not been thoroughly researched. A thorough review of the literature on leadership and change revealed significant gaps across disciplines (e.g., strategy/organizational behaviour), methodological approaches, and levels of analysis. We propose a conceptual framework that identifies the primary processes through which leaders shape organizational change and influence its recipients to bridge these divides. Our goal is to identify essential leadership functions and the corresponding change processes that enable leaders to implement changes successfully. In addition, we suggest several potential research avenues for the future. In particular, we know very little about the role of strategic choices made by leaders in shaping employees’ responses to change and the roles of context and time in moderating the effects of leaders’ actions during times of transition and transition (Kreunen and Borsche,2018).

Successful change-agile leaders at all levels of the company adapt to changes in the business environment by grabbing opportunities, including discarding old business models and inventing new business methods, among other things. They are attempting to spread the concept of change thinking. When it comes to achieving their desired goals, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have a 50/50 probability of succeeding. Several studies have shown that the failure rate is closer to 70-90 per cent. What is causing such a high failure rate? According to studies, the human component has been identified as the most common cause for mergers and acquisitions to fail. Another difficulty is how corporations approach the human side of the closure date, which is often viewed as th